约瑟·阿尔米尼亚纳访谈录
Interview with Jose Alminana by Jared Green
2014-09-01 18:34:36    | keywords: Interview  访谈  Andropogon    Jared  Green 
约瑟·阿尔米尼亚纳访谈录
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\ Image Credit: Andropogon

By Jared Green


约瑟·阿尔米尼亚纳,美国景观设计师协会会员,能源与环境设计先锋奖(LEED)认证专家,Andropogon设计公司董事。阿尔米尼亚纳也是宾夕法尼亚大学和费城大学的客座讲师。
Jose Alminana, ASLA, LEED AP, is principal at Andropogon. Alminana is also a visiting lecturer at the University of Pennsylvania, and Philadelphia University.



↓ 您的工作往往赋予景观一种和谐、一种纯粹。那么,对于一处项目场地设计或构建的职业渴求和对其现有生态进行有效保护,这二者之间,您是如何平衡与取舍的呢?
Your work takes a non-invasive, minimal approach to the landscape. How do you balance the desire to design or structure a site with preserving a site’s existing ecology?  

 

 

对于Andropogon设计公司而言,设计必须建立在项目场地原有基本元素之上,然而这些基本元素并非一成不变的程式化元素,它们的存在展示了项目场地持续性的自然与文化演变,并形成最具本真的结构特征,而我们也并非要把场地的设计过程局限化。相反,对自然与文化及二者的形态与演变过程的细致洞察,恰恰能够给予景观设计师无限的设计灵感。从根本上分析,我们的工作是以项目场地为基础的设计,力求通过设计将每一个项目场地的“内在”生态美充分展现出来。

For Andropogon, the design comes from the basic elements of the site, but these elements are not static, stylistic features, they are the structuring features of the site that reveal on-going natural (and cultural) processes. We do not see designing with site processes as a restriction. Instead, close observation of nature (and culture) and of natural and cultural patterns and processes gives the landscape architect an almost infinite vocabulary. Our work is fundamentally a place-based design that strives to reveal the “inherent” ecological aesthetic of each place.


您设计的日光雾降温泉酒店项目,其所在地是日本一处景致优美的旅游胜地。您是如何通过对项目场地的合理设计反应出日本对于景观的传统固有观念的呢?
Your project for the Nikko Kirifuri Spa and Hotel is in a beautiful part of Japan. How does the site reflect traditional Japanese views of landscape?  

 

对于日光市的这个项目,场地设计以日本中部多山地区的实际自然景观为出发点,其高腐蚀性火山土壤及原生森林植被,与我们大西洋中东部的落叶林区有着许多相似之处。
该温泉酒店的特色设计理念基于为这处原生林地营造一座具有当地特色的度假村,其设计风格还原日本艺术的本真。虽然我们采用了包括藤索桥在内的一系列日本文化标志性元素,但我们并非要模仿日本古代私家园林的设计风格,而是要还原“直视自然界”的日本艺术本真。
我们与日本本土生态学家取得合作,以文化构架作为项目设计的第二维度,即体现设计师对于自然界的演变与当地植物群落及其生境的现代科学认知。这是一处森林景观,我们对于林地中的各种植物都十分熟悉,并能够清晰地辨认出所有的植物群落及其生境。由于对施工区域内的所有树植和灌木都采取了有效救护和保存措施,项目的建筑与道路施工完成时,它们便可得以原地回植。此外,其它植物物种的种植都源自于当地的植物苗圃。

For Nikko, the site design was generated from the actual, physical landscape of this mountainous region of central Japan, with its highly erodable volcanic soils and native forest vegetation that has many parallels to our own mid-Atlantic, Eastern Deciduous Forest. 
The concept for the character of the hotel and spa is based on the idea of a local village in the forest. Our approach in Japan was to go back to the basics of Japanese art. Although we used a number of cultural features including a vine rope bridge, we did not imitate an individual Japanese historical garden style. Instead we went back to the basis of Japanese art—direct observation of nature.
Teaming with Japanese ecologists we added to the cultural framework a second dimension—modern scientific understanding of natural processes and local plant communities and habitats. This is a forested landscape and the plants were generally very familiar to us, with many identical plant genera. We identified all the plant communities and habitats on the site. By rescuing and storing all trees and shrubs within the construction zone we were able to replant with these plants when the construction of buildings and roads was complete. Additional appropriate species were found in local plant nurseries.

 

您为华盛顿赛威尔友谊学校设计的教育性湿地庭园,曾荣获能源与环境设计先锋(LEED)铂金奖,也是名列美国建筑师协会十佳场地之一的项目,您能对此阐述一下相关的设计思路吗?在学校营建湿地,这意味着需要兼具生态性与教育性。您在设计过程中,对于湿地庭园的教育意义又是如何考虑量的呢?
Describe your approach to designing the educational wetland courtyard for the Sidwell Friends School in D.C., a LEED Platinum building, which was also listed AIA COTE top ten site. The wetlands at the school are meant to serve ecological and educational purposes. How did you design the site with educational purposes in mind?  

 

根据该中学原有的建筑设施布局,全新的湿地庭园以插入式建造的方式建于两个网球场与校园停车场沿边的人行步道之上,坐北朝南。校方与项目团队经过多番讨论后决定,湿地庭园应当灵动呈现植物、土壤生物群与净化水体之间的协同式互动。
Andropogon设计公司的布局设计包括以下几点综合性策略:
- 整个湿地庭园的景观水源都来自于建筑中排出的废水以及校园内的雨水,这些废水经过相应处理后可用于洁厕,也可作为冷却塔的补给用水,以此有效减缓城市用水压力,并有效降低校园内部的碳排放量。
- 雨水经由积和式水塘系统流入雨水花园,有效缓解了大暴雨来临时校区的积水压力。
- 层阶式人工湿地与周边的稻田景观相互应衬,并与毗邻山坡的坡度相互吻合,进而也有助于废水和雨水向低洼处流排。水雨花园内设有一条阶梯式人行步道,方便师生们园中行走,同时它也成为学校一间理想的小型露天阶梯教室。
- 湿地庭园中的80余种植物均依据不同的土壤水分环境进行栽植,进而呈现出各式各样的植物群落。
整个设计其实是一个统筹与整合的过程。湿地庭园为每天往来穿梭于教学楼的师生们营造出一处绿意盎然的景观环境,它成师生们教、学生活中的一个重要组成部分。

The new addition to the existing Middle School building was built over the footprint of two tennis courts and a parking area. The configuration of the new building created a new south facing courtyard. Through discussions with the school and the project team, it was decided that the courtyard should embody the synergistic interactions between plants, soil biota, and water, which, working together, clean water. 

Andropogon’s design included several integrated strategies: 
- The landscape of this courtyard manages all the waste water generated by the building, as well as all the rain water that falls on the site. The treated wastewater is used for toilet flushing and makeup water for the cooling tower, reducing municipal water use and the school’s carbon footprint.
- Rain water is managed by a system of permanent ponds that overflow into a rain garden during large rain storms mimicking the functions of a floodplain.
- The constructed wetland terraces echo rice paddies and follow the slope of the hillside. Wastewater and rainwater flows take advantage of gravity. A stepped walkway provides a path through this garden and becomes a small amphitheater for outdoor classes.
- Over 80 plant species native to the site’s ecoregion are used in the display of different plant communities that are associated with diverse soil moisture conditions.
The result is a design where process and place are one. The courtyard is part of the everyday journey to and from the building. The performance of the site landscape is a part of the curriculum and “a new member of the faculty.”

 

您是如何看待“生态系统服务”一词的?您是否认同所有的环境改造过程都应量化与值化?这些环境效益是否需要得到足够的理解与重视?
What do you think of the term ‘ecosystem services’? Do you think we will get to a point where all environmental processes will be quantified, and monetized? Does this need to happen to ensure these environmental benefits are properly understood and valued?  

 

生态系统服务是自然界赋予的福音与资源,并非以成本可以衡量。这些服务维持着地球上所有生物的生命形态。目前的全球经济体系中并不认可这些生态系统服务的价值,因此,这些成本并不能以电子表格的形式进行简单计算而去促成大量的金融交易。世界正逐步从石油经济向低碳经济转型,在未来世界里,低碳将成为全新的商品,任何低碳或零碳化的环境演变过程都将受到重视,并以数据化的形式呈现于电子表格中。植物授粉、防洪减灾、净化水源、养分循环等等,这些都是生态系统服务,其价值都需要被量化。为了帮助公众更好地理解这些价值,一项衡量这些服务价值,使之量化的庞大工程正在启动,其中包括佛蒙特大学冈德研究所对于生态经济的研究。
但是,我们不要忘记,对于人类而言,十分重要的生态演变价值是建立有效的生物保护机制,以增强人类的环境意识。生态系统服务是向人类揭示大自然真正价值的其中一种方式,但“服务”的量化并不能取代景观上的美学价值。

Ecosystem services are those benefits and resources provided by nature—at no apparent cost. These services sustain all forms of life on this planet. The current global economy does not recognize the value of these ecosystem services and therefore these costs are not included in the narrow spreadsheet that guides most financial transactions. As the world moves from an oil economy to a carbon economy and carbon becomes a new commodity, any environmental processes that reduce or sequester carbon will be valued and will have a place in the spreadsheet. Pollination, flood mitigation, clean water and nutrient recycling, just to name a few, are ecosystem services whose value needs to be quantified. To help understand these values, there is an immense body of work that has begun to measure these services. This work includes research at the Gund Institute for Ecological Economics at the University of Vermont.
However, let’s not forget that a significant value of environmental processes to human beings is to enrich the human experience by fostering biophillic connections. Ecosystem services are another way of revealing the true value of nature to human beings. Quantification of “services” does NOT replace the value of the aesthetics of a landscape.

 

几年前,您参与了约旦河河谷规划项目,其中包括对亚喀巴港口的升级改造,以及对该港口通往死海的通海运河的设计,在此过程中,您亲历了中东地区的水政治,对此,您有何见解?
You were involved in a planning project for the Jordan River Valley a few years ago related to upgrading the Port of Aqaba, and designing a canal from the Port to the Dead Sea. What did you learn from the experience about water politics in the Middle East? 

 

是的,Andropogon设计公司参与了1999年由约旦河谷合资企业助资的亚喀巴港口规划项目。该项目是红海、死海水道连通系列工程项目之一,其目的是为了将红海水源引入正趋于迅速干涸的死海中。
最近,Andropogon设计公司还向宾夕法尼亚大学景观设计系提交了红海、死海水道连通项目的相关设计理念,以为该系的一个约旦河谷开发工作室设计项目提供相应的架构参考。
中东地区的冲突主要由水源缺乏引起。引入死海的水源源自于黎巴嫩的Qaraaoun湖。湖中的水源经由加利利海流向约旦河,进而流入死海。在过去的50年间,由于约旦河上游的以色列、叙利亚、黎巴嫩和约旦等国家和地区开发大量的水利工程,约旦河也已日渐干涸。死海中原先充足的水源都被大量应用于上游的工业、农业以及城市扩建发展中。每个国家都在争夺已经非常有限的水资源,并试图将水源源头占为己有。
约旦是世界上可饮用水资源最为匮乏的国家。由于巴勒斯坦和伊拉克难民的大量涌入,约旦的人口正在急剧增长。而本应属于巴勒斯坦领土的水源,以色列却占用了大约83%,也造成了巴勒斯坦的水源紧缺。
无论是从地中海还是红海中获取水源,都是为约旦及死海提供水源的可行性途径。由于一系列的生态灾难,日趋干涸的死海很有可能逐渐变成第二个完全干涸的咸海,因引而导致的盐风暴将可能摧毁整个地区。由于以色列对水源的控制,约旦无法从地中海水道中有效获取水资源,并可能导致一个庞大的地下淡水含水层遭受污染。
拟建的红海、死海通海运河可有效将红海水源引入死海:通海运河构建于毗连水源的一处凸现地形之上,使得红海海水可从源头处直接流入死海。流入死海的水量可高达海拔1500英尺(约457米),而这些水量能够产生大量的协同价值,所产生的水力发电量可满足周边地区的家用及工业用电需求,也可对淡化海水起到良好的作用。全新的淡水供应对于有效开发约旦河谷下游原先的不宜居住区域具有重大意义。世界银行目前正在针对这一开发构想的可行性进行相关研究。

Yes, Andropogon was involved in a plan for the Port of Aqaba (The Jordan Valley Joint Venture in 1999). This project was one of the original proposals to create a Red Sea/Dead Sea link that would bring water from the Red Sea to fill the rapidly diminishing Dead Sea.
More recently Andropogon presented the idea of a Red/Dead sea canal as a framework for a studio design project at the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Landscape Architecture to develop the Jordan Valley.
Strife in the Middle East has been driven by the lack of potable water. Water that fills the Dead Sea originates in Lake Qaraaoun in Lebanon. From there it flows into the Sea of Galilee, and from there into the Jordan River. The Dead Sea derives most of its water from the Jordan River. Over the past 50 years, the Jordan River has virtually disappeared as a result of massive upstream water projects in Israel, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan. Almost all of the water that once replenished the Dead Sea has been taken by upstream industries, agriculture and expanding cities. Each of these countries is vying for very limited water resources and trying to take it at the sources.
Jordan has the least amount of potable water of any country in the world. Its population is rapidly increasing due to a massive influx of refugees from Palestine and Iraq. In the Palestinian territories, Israel uses around 83 percent of the water originating in this region, with only a very small portion going to the Palestinians.
Bringing water from the either the Mediterranean or from the Red Sea is the only feasible way to provide water to Jordan and replenish the Dead Sea. In terms of ecological disasters, a waterless Dead Sea has the potential to turn into the equivalent of the now dried up Aral Sea. It could create massive salt storms that would devastate the entire region. A water pipeline from the Mediterranean Sea is not feasible for Jordan as it would be controlled by Israel and could potentially pollute a huge underground fresh water aquifer. 
The proposed Red/Dead canal would carry water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea. Salt water from the Red Sea could be transported initially in a pipeline over the adjacent topographic rise. At this point sea water could be carried in an open canal to the Dead Sea. Reaching the Dead Sea water would drop 1,500 ft drop in elevation. This drop could provide many synergistic values, generating hydro-electricity for use in powering homes and industries, or to desalinate sea water. New supplies of fresh water would open up new land in a previously uninhabitable area—the lower Jordan Valley. The World Bank is currently doing a feasibility study on this idea.

 

“可持续性景观选址行动”曾提及,如果将美国所有的草坪都加在一起,其面积相当于整个密西西比州。然而,对于这些草坪的养护,则需要耗费大量的水源和化肥。对于发达国达现行的人造景观相关维护和管理措施,是否需要适当转变思路?民众的行为会否受到相关政策、法规的积极影响?
Sustainable Sites mentioned that if all lawns in the U.S. were added together, they would equal the territory of Mississippi. Maintaining these involves huge amounts of water and chemical fertilizer. What needs to change about how the developed world thinks of man-made landscapes? Will people’s behavior change without policy / regulatory change?

 

这就需要一种根本上的思维模式的转变,要让民众意识到人类是完全依附于自然系统而生存的。相对于人类对自然景观的过度“消耗”,人造景观的“多产”成为一种必然。美国数十年来对于净水法案的实施与执行,已被美国民众视为一种政策或监管策略,其本身不存在实质上的可选择性。我们最大的希望就是以这种环境理念进行自我警醒,并将其代代相传下去,同时希望思想观念上的转变(将我们自己视为自然界中的一部分)能够缓解对社会发展迫切需求。

There needs to be a fundamental paradigm shift that recognizes the total dependence of human beings on natural systems. Man-made landscapes must become “productive” as opposed to “consumptive.” It has taken decades for this country to comply with the Clean Water Act and we have seen that a policy/regulatory strategy alone is not an effective option. Our best hope is to educate ourselves and younger generations. Hopefully, a change in attitude (seeing ourselves as a part of nature) will result in much needed behavioral change. 

 

普林斯顿大学教授、著名的气候变化怀疑论者弗里曼·戴森,近期在《纽约时报》杂志发表的一篇文章曾提到:他并不担心气候变化。戴森说,只要依靠“人类智慧”、新技术,以及在全球范围内种植约一万亿棵的新树,气候变化给人类带来的困扰与恐慌便可迎刃而解。对于这一观点您如何看待?您认为清洁能源新技术能够给予环境最大程度的保护吗?是否需要全球化联合行动,实现大规模的重新造林,以应对气候变化?
Freeman Dyson, a professor at Princeton and a well-known climate change skeptic, recently said in an article in the New York Times Magazine that he wasn’t worried about climate change. Dyson says it can be solved through ‘human ingenuity,’ new technologies, and planting about one trillion new trees worldwide. What do you say to this? Do you think new clean energy technologies hold the greatest promise?  Should international efforts be focused on re-forestation on a massive scale to combat climate change?

 

几乎可以肯定地说,大气中存在过量的二氧化碳是近几百年来人类工业化进程中产生大量碳排放的恶果,人类需要通过相当一段的时间的努力才能恢复到工业化之前的生态水平。尽管凭借人类的智慧,这些问题可能将最终得以解决,大量种植树木的想法也十分可取,然而基于人类智慧的应对措施远远不足以缓解不断急剧的生态危机。
一些科学家认为,我们的生态环境恶化程度已经达到了“临界点”。我们既无法阻止未来50年内海平面将上升3英尺(约0.9米)的事实发生,也无法阻止极地冰川的日渐消融,而这些自然界现象所产生的其他协同效应,也是人力所无法改变的。这些自然环境的变化很有可能会引发大规模的社会与政治混乱。因此,我们一定要竭力阻止对现有林地的滥砍滥伐,并尽可能地多种植树木。然而,缓解气候变化所带来的不良影响,更需要的是人类发自内心的深度思考,正如我的搭档卡罗尔·富兰克林所说,我们需要以生态逻辑与非自我逻辑为指导,对现存的生态环境进行思考。此外,希望这些对于环境态度的转变可以使得人类更为合理科学地利用地球资源,并最终为子孙后代营造出一系列的环境可再生系统,将纯净与绿色归还地球。

Excess CO2 in the atmosphere is almost certainly the result of several hundred years of release of carbon by industrial processes. It will take time to return to pre-industrial levels. While human ingenuity may ultimately solve these problems, and it is always a good idea to plant trees, solutions based on human ingenuity are far too slow to stop the on-rushing crisis. 
Several scientists are suggesting we have already reached a “tipping point.” We cannot stop three feet of sea level rise in this next 50 years nor stop the loss of the polar ice caps and other synergistic effects now in play. These changes will likely cause massive socio-political disruption. We should certainly prevent deforestation and plant as many trees as we can, but mitigating the effects of climate change will require a conscientious effort to think, as my partner Carol Franklin says, eco-logically and NOT ego-logically. Again, hopefully, these changes in attitudes will result in a smarter use of the planet’s resources and ultimately provide regenerative systems as the equity for future generations.


译:90degree
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