莱尼·史温丁格访谈录
Interview with Leni Schwendinger by Jared Green
2014-09-09 13:39:14    | keywords: 访谈  Leni  Schwendinger  Jared  Green 
莱尼·史温丁格访谈录
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By Jared Green

莱尼·史温丁格,灯光艺术家,照明设计师,莱尼·史温丁格照明设计事务总负责人
Leni Schwendinger is a lighting artist and designer and owner of Leni Schwendinger Light Projects.

 

↓ 最近,您都在指导全国各大城市夜间灯光景观游览路线的设计。在您的印象中,哪些城市的夜间灯景设计做得较好?哪些城市在这方面比较薄弱?能否请您具体列举一下?人们可以从这些灯景游览中获取并带走哪些关键性的东西?从城市照明设计的优劣程度所带来的影响中,民众又获取了哪些惊喜与反思?
Recently, you've been giving guided evening tours of the light scapes of major cities. What are examples of well lit and poorly lit cities? What are some of the key things people seem to take away from these tours? What surprises people about the impact of good and bad urban lighting design?


我只是设计了华盛顿特区的一条光影大道而已。现在回想起来,我觉得虽然这座城市灯光充足,但其形式却显得枯燥乏味,了无生趣。我们正在试图更好地了解这些城市照明设施的所有者以及具体负责夜间环境设计和布局相关门部的具体情况。从根本上讲,它是城市的门面工程之一,也是城市重要的公共事业。街道照明是我们所必须依赖的重要夜间照明系统,它确保着我们夜间户外活动的安全。然而,通常这些照明系统设施都只是安置于城市主干道上,人行步道的照明情况往往不容乐观,绝大部分都是依靠店面与私有灯照,例如:店面展示窗、建筑壁灯以及各式各样的建筑嵌墙照明等等,都是相当商业化的照明形态。

I just did a light walk in Washington, D.C. In retrospect, I thought the lighting of the city was adequate but it wasn’t at all interesting. What we’re trying to understand better is who owns the lighting, who is responsible for the nighttime environment. Basically, it's city agencies, sometimes utilities. The lighting system that we rely on and takes care of us at night is street lighting. It’s focused on the streets, but what about the sidewalks? What we learn from sidewalk lighting is that most is from storefront and private lighting -- display windows and sconces on buildings and all the kinds of building-mounted lights that contribute to the sidewalk. That's all very commercial.


↓ 另一个层面的照明,例如,ATM的闪光信号灯、圣诞灯饰、广告灯箱等等,这些我统称它们为“目的性光照”,这些照明会给人们带来动画视觉、色彩体检以及其他许多视觉惊喜,同时也的确起到了一定的照明作用。然而,这种照明形式却相当不可取,它们并非纯粹以人行步道或街道上的行人为主要服务对象的照明设施。因而,需要对城市夜间照明的布局进行一番审视:这些照明设施的所有者是谁?谁又是这些照明的设计者?
The next layer, however, is quite unexpected. That is the layer that I call “found lighting.” Found lighting gives us animation, color, and surprise. The blinking lights of the ATM, Christmas lights, and billboards are contributing light but they weren’t really meant to light the sidewalks and the streets where we’re standing. It’s important to take a look at the textures of the night and light at night. Where does that come from and who owns it and who designs it?


夜间,行人们游走于霓虹闪烁间,如同寻宝般欣赏着、讨论着这些照明设施,各种神妙、梦幻般的灯光视觉体检充斥在这些光影四射的道路上。人们可以在日常夜间行走的道路上不断发现全新的视觉惊喜,并为城市注入富有生气与活力的夜间景观元素,这是城市建设中相当重要的一环,对此我本人十分乐意推行。

People on the tours have begun to talk about them as a kind of treasure hunt. There’s a sense of adventure and sort of eye opening that happens on the tours. It’s important that people see a place where they’ve always been walking around at night and yet see it with new eyes. It's an inspiring and enlivening relationship with the city that I’m happy to promote.


↓ 斯诺赫塔设计团队将要对时代广场实施改造,使其成为一处永久性的步行广场,而您又是该团队的一员。您曾向《建筑师新闻报》提及,此番改造,为“重新定义照明系统在时代广场人行公共空间的作用”创造了良机。你是如何从日人流量高达35万的时代广场上,判定照明系统的重新定义,能够改变广场现有的功能性的呢?
You’re a part of the Snohetta-led design team that will transform Times Square into a permanent pedestrian plaza.  You told The Architect's Newspaper that it’s an opportunity to “redefine the role of light in the public space of Times Square for pedestrians.”  How do you see lighting as an opportunity to change the way people use Times Square, a place that gets upwards of 350,000 visitors every day?


我想我需要重申我的观点:我们的确希望重新定义照明系统在时代广场人行公共空间的作用。时代广场与不夜大道,都是著名世界巡演场所,其知名度不亚于百老汇和毗邻时代广场的所有剧院。从时代广场建成至今,它就一直是公共社交空间和广告业中心,其基础功能性得以有效延续,但也因此形成这处城市公共设施的过度人流量。因各种不同目的而汇集于此的车流量与人流量,无形中产生了严重的对立。行人们想要在这里散步,欣赏商场橱窗里的各式商品,漫度闲暇,拍照留念……在我们美国的较大型广场上拍照留念,所产生的社会影响是巨大的,人们原地站定,拍摄者按下快门,于是乎,空中充斥着各式各样的相机,成为时代广场上一道全新的亮丽风景线。

时代广场上的照明系统受到严格的管控,而我们需要最低限度的英尺烛光值,这是城市照明书面管理导则中明确规定的内容。通常,城市照明系统需要提供最大限度的英尺烛光标准。我们要让行人在夜间休憩、闲逛的过程中享受光影所带来的乐趣。我希望照明能够改变其以娱乐和销售为目的的功能性角色,进而为更多的地面行走活动服务,当然,对此,我们还没有更为准确的定位,例如:我们可以利用光影效果植入一些公众可参与的互动性游戏,或者可以通过光线照明划定适当的社交区域,为公众营造惬意的夜间社交场所,这些都有待进一步定位与落实。

I’ll restate my statement: we hope to redefine the role of light in the public space of Times Square for pedestrians. Times Square and the Great White Way, which is more Broadway and the theaters of Times Square, has a reputation for strolling. From the beginning of Times Square, there has been a legacy of social space and advertising. So, the rationale for Times Square has been continuous, but it's also gotten overly-crowded. The differing objectives of cars and pedestrians has become rather adversarial. People want to stroll, look at windows, take their time, and take photographs. The impact of taking photographs in our larger American plazas is just extraordinary. People stand still and take photographs. You see so many cameras in the air. People hold them up and take pictures. That’s a whole new activity.


Lighting has been mandated in Times Square. We have a minimum foot candle requirement. This is written as a regulatory guideline. It’s quite unusual -- cities usually have maximum foot candle levels. We want pedestrians to stay and hang out, have fun. I hope that lighting will change from its role of entertaining and selling to enabling more down the earth activities we have yet to define. What kind of games can we play with light? What kinds of conversation areas can we create simply by defining boundaries with light?

↓ 在纽约市的另一个市政项目,哈顿港务局巴士客运站的改造中,您也参与了车行道与人行道的灯光改造,极富魅力的灯光设计,为往来于客运站的乘客们打造出一处极具视觉震撼力的交通中转场所。对于如此迷人的灯效设计,过往的行人们都有什么样的反应?客运站方面是否就这样的灯光植入对客流量的影响做过相应的追踪调研?全新的照明系统是否成功并得到认可?
In another New York City project, you transformed the vehicular and pedestrian experience in Manhattan’s Port Authority Bus Terminal, a pretty dreadful place for commuters, with a powerfully engaging lighting design. How have pedestrians responded to the new design? Has the terminal tracked the changes in traffic to see if the new approach has been successful?


该项目的三层式桥梁通道建设开启了真正智能化的基础设施建设筹资模式。我总是愿意提到它,是因为我觉得这种模式实在太成功了。此外,在项目建设中还融入了地面铺装及融雪系统改进方案。港务局广泛征求周边两个社区委员会的相关意见,集思广益,让他们提出他们心目中的美观灯效。由于这一区域位巴士坡道下方,长年给人们幽暗、阴森的感觉,但它又是这两个居住社区的分界线和必由之路。因此,他们将该区域的美观改造纳入到了基础设施建设的预算中,这种构思一举两得,别具匠心。在该项目中,我们负责区域色彩布局与照明设计。对于那些特别幽暗的区域,我们采用全白色醒目背景照明灯效,而后再植入相应合理的灯光色彩布局。通过这样的照明设计,这里顿时变得亮堂了。我们将原先阴森的巴士坡道改造成一处极具灯光色彩层次感的视觉震撼体验区。

现在,我来回答你关于过往的行人们对此设计都有什么样的反应,以及全新的照明系统是否取得成功并得到认可这两个问题。当一个极具试验性、创新性,且出乎人们预想的项目竣工并投入使用时,作为设计方,一定希望相关机构或项目的客户方能够对项目进行后期审核工作,例如,进行某种形式的调查等。事实上,我们承接的这么多项目,都希望可以在竣工投入使用后,由我们自己能做相应的调查,然而往往在竣工后,所有的项目参与者们都已精疲力竭。该项目历时八年才得以竣工,而到目前为止,我们还没有适当的机会着手调查,了解反馈。

所以,我只能以闲谈的方式告诉你相关的反馈。我曾经带领一支由建筑师、工程师和市政管理人员组成的参观队伍,对客运站项目进行参观回访。他们着实被眼前的迷人灯效所深深吸引,并饶有兴致地对细部设计进行了细致的观察。有趣的是,有人注意到了全新的三层式桥梁通道,而有人则没有注意到。如此醒目的全新基础设施,居然被一部分人所忽视,这种情形不禁令人感到吃惊。很多人此前就没有注意到它的存在,即便它真实地存在于曼哈顿中心区。虽然它地处城市的边缘地带,但却是通往时代广场的必经之路。然而,那些忽视它的人们都认为这只是为步行者设计的一条通道,当然这也是事实,它的设计的确是为了便于行人从一个居住区经由全美最大规模的巴士客运站,进而通往另一个居住区。尽管,正如你所说的,对于此类基础设施设计项目的前期和后期面向公众的调查工作的确是十分有必要的,是需要受到重视的一个关键性环节,但由于客观因素,截至目前,这一点尚得不到有效的执行。

The Triple Bridge Gateway started with a really smart infrastructural funding model. I always like to mention this because I think it was so successful. There was a paving and snow melting system improvement planned. Port Authority asked the Community Board there what they’d like to do aesthetically because this area under the bus ramps was so dreadful, dark, and scary -- really a divider between these two neighborhoods. So they folded an aesthetic improvement into the infrastructure budget and it was brilliantly conceived in that manner. We were responsible for the color palette and the lighting. For those who’ve seen the images, the lighting is all white light and the color palette is paint infused with white light. It becomes a kind of surface of light. We’ve really turned the bus ramps, which were so foreboding, into a canvas of color.


Now the question about how have pedestrians responded and whether the approach been successful is really good. When a very experimental, innovative, and unexpected project approaches, you would hope that the agencies and owners would do a kind of post-completion phase, a survey of some sort. We do so many projects where we would love to have some kind of survey afterwards, but everyone involved is pretty exhausted by the end. This one took eight years to construct, and, so far, we haven’t had an opportunity to go out and do a survey and get feedback.

I can only tell you anecdotally about feedback. I led a tour around the area and I can tell you how they responded. There were architects, engineers, and administrators and they were just enthralled and excited to get a close-up look. It was interesting to see who had noticed the new Triple Bridge and who hadn’t. It’s amazing how people can cast a blind eye on a piece of infrastructure. A lot of people had never seen it before even though it’s right in Midtown Manhattan. It's on the edge of the city but it’s pretty accessible. It's on the way to Times Square. They all thought that it was really made for pedestrians, which is true. It's really designed to help the pedestrian crossing from one neighborhood to the other via the largest bus terminal in the U.S. To your point, though, it would be great to have these kind of design projects taken seriously at the level of a pre- and post-survey to see what people’s responses are but as of yet that doesn’t happen.

↓ 在多伦多滨水棕地上全新建造的HtO公园的照明设计中,您利用灯效为人们营造出一处宁谧的夜间休憩空间。夜幕降临,公园的草丘在灯光的照射下分外醒目,而水下照明系统的设计建造令整个公园犹如漂浮于水中一般。您是如何与公园的两位景观设计师克劳德·科米尔和珍妮特·罗森堡取得良好协作,进而使公园在夜间依然拥有迷人的景致可供人们欣赏、休憩的呢?您又是如何通过照明设计展现可持续性旧城改造成果,将一处不起眼的滨水棕地改造成为极具活力的城市公共空间的?
For HtO, a new park in Toronto created out of a waterfront brownfield, you used lighting design to create a place people feel they can visit late into the evening. The parks dunes are lit and underwater illumination creates the sense that the park is floating. How did you work with the park's landscape architects, Claude Cormier and Janet Rosenberg, to make the park both exciting and accessible at night? How did you use lighting to tell the story of a sustainable urban redevelopment, transforming a brownfield into a vital urban space?


HtO的确呈现出了优美的景观环境,与两位优秀景观设计师的合作也十分愉快。实际上,我认为在这个项目中,分工特别的明确,克劳德负责整个公园景观的概念性设计,而珍妮特则负责该项目的具体执行,协作和乐趣充斥在整个工作过程中。我们考虑赋予草丘以醒目而柔和的照明效果,令其在夜晚依然可以成为公园中的视觉焦点,突显公园与众不同的地形环境。就某种程度而言,这也是我们为什么要在这些丘式地形上增添景观和照明元素的原因所在。我们也做了一些非常大胆的尝试——我们运用了高杆照明,虽然它在普通居民社区中并未得到广泛应用,但这种照明设施已经越来越得到公众的认可。高杆照明系统高达120英尺(约37米),可以在高杆上安装许多户外照明灯,进而无需在景观空间安置大量灯杆,令整个景观空间呈现出一种富有条理性的简约美。

草丘区位于公园的入口处,高杆照明灯杆的应用,使得照明范围得以有效扩大,增强了公园夜间的安全性。我们在达拉斯和其它地区的照明设计项目中也都应用到了高杆照明。在斯塔顿岛上,由于我们对高杆照明的使用,避免了大量传统灯杆的安置,大大减缓了对地表结构和循环系统的破坏。灯杆使用数量的减少,固然有着诸多好处,作为照明设计者,这也是我所重视的,但对于任何超大尺度事物的应用,也都应该折衷、适度,应当将公众的接受程度纳入到考量因素中。高杆照明的普及应用的确还需要一定的时间。我们可以看到在早期的公共照明历史中出现过月光式灯杆。在奥斯汀的大型公共区域中,超高月光式灯杆的应用,既呈现出良好的照明效果,又开拓了空间视野。此外,我认为高杆照明系统的应用不但使景观空间变得简洁美观,同时,还可有效节省能源,因而值得普及与推广。

HtO has really worked out beautifully. It was fantastic working with two very good landscape architects. I think Claude took on the conceptual design role and Janet worked on executing the project. It was collaborative and fun. The idea of lighting the dunes as a kind of dramatic space was something that we came up with to enhance the topography of the park. In part, that’s why we have these colorful dunes. We also did something that was pretty daring -- we used high-mast lighting, which is something that’s gaining more and more acceptability although it’s hard to sell to communities. High-mast lighting systems are typically 120 feet tall. You have a number of lights on it. The reason it's useful is that you don’t have lots and lots lighting poles.


The high-mast lighting poles for the dunes create a threshold of light, a carpet of light, that gives us the base safety layer. We’re using them in Dallas and some other places, too. In Staten Island, we are using to reduce the number of penetrations into the ground and blockages of circulation. The less poles the better as far as I’m concerned, but then you also have a tradeoff in having something a bit over-sized and over-scaled. It takes a while to get the right scale and convince people. Early on in public lighting history, there were moonlight poles. In Austin, they use super-high moonlight poles and just use a few lights to cover a large area. I think it’s a good approach to save energy and keep technology out of the way of park users.

↓ 再来谈谈西雅图中心麦考剧院的Kreilsheimer漫步大道吧,你曾与古斯塔夫森·格思里尼科尔合作创建金属网格纱帘式景观照明灯饰,在夜间有效地突出了这处入口步道的视觉体检,并与整个剧院的建筑风格相互应衬。这处有着“五彩梦幻”美称的公共照明艺术作品,将稀松的纱帘与精心设计的灯效完美地结合于一体。您当初是如何对这一充满梦幻意境的照明灯饰进行构思的?是否有什么景观设计或者其他相关的设计元素激发了您的灵感?
For Seattle Center’s McCaw Hall Kreilsheimer Promenade, you worked with Gustafson Guthrie Nichol to create illuminated metal mesh scrims that define and echo the entry architecture. The light public artwork called "Dreaming in Color" turns the scrims into canvases for an orchestrated light performance.  How did you conceive of the piece? What design elements in the landscape or elsewhere in the site inspired you?


麦考剧院项目是一个真正可以享受其中的项目。我应西雅图某公共艺术委员会之邀,担任该项目的技术顾问。让艺术家担任技术顾问,这着实有种跨领域的混沌感。该项目的建筑设计负责方LMN建筑师事务所对于照明设计已经有了初步的想法:以若干垂直金属丝网层或穿孔式金属网层作为背景幕,以达到视频投影的灯光效果。而我们所要做的就是对他们的这一初步构想提出我们的相关建议。因而,我们对此做了相关的可行性研究与评估,然而,设计团队中的所有成员,包括客户方都一致认为视频投影并非最佳方案。他们对我说:“莱尼,我们想委托你们为这个项目设计一种极富艺术感的照明系统。”这对于我们而言无疑是一个利好消息,因为我们已经对稀松纱帘的物理结构做了大量的研究工作,并对连通西雅图某公共街道与西雅图中心的走廊通道及其周边的景观、水景、文化空间相应布局也作了深入研究。

然而,我们也清醒地认识到,我们需要面对的困难有很多,尤其是在前期预算和后期维护方面。因此我们设想在照明系统设计中植入一定色彩元素的可能性,由于预算的限制,我们不能将设计复杂化。于是,我回到工作室,在进行了头脑风暴之后,我提出:“我们在这个项目中,可以考虑只采用一种灯效,只要这种灯效所呈现的视觉体验足够完美。”我也常常以这种思维方式构思其他项目:好的灯效,一种就够了。然而,什么样的灯效才最为合适呢?显然,太阳光与月光所产生的光线效果是最为自然和完美的,然而涉及到电光源的应用,只采用一种灯效就不现实了。徘徊思索中,我们发现了一种可照射范围很广的全景式灯效照明设施,因而最终决定平均每块稀松纱帘中植入两种灯效。每块稀松纱帘约宽30英尺(约9米),长50英尺(约15米),由一种叫作Cascade Coil Drapery的织状金属网构成。

这的确是一项目真正意义上的协作工程——设计团队由建筑师、景观设计师、布景设计师(可能是麦考剧院的一名歌剧舞台布景设计师)、工程师、项目的利益相关者以及项目客户本身所组成。我们在一起同共协作,并以头脑风暴的方式进行各自观点的阐述。这是一场振奋人心的思维融合。项目客户希望可以通过灯效设计向户外所有到访西雅图中心的游客们传递歌剧艺术的魅力,他们也可能是在构思户外举行歌剧或芭蕾舞剧演出的可能性。而我的设计目标之一则是通过灯效设计更好地向公众传递建筑及相关场所的剧院艺术特性。“五彩梦幻”从某种意义上讲的确像是一个舞台背景幕,赋予一种身临其境的视觉体验。无论是剧院的观众还是路经此地的西雅图中心游客都深深沉浸在了这梦幻般的色彩中。从另一种层面上分析,它是一幅色彩丰富的三维立体画,观众们可以惬意地漫步其中。

The McCaw Hall project was really a delight. I was called by a Public Art Commission in Seattle to apply to be a technical advisor. So we started already with a hybrid -- calling an artist to be a technical advisor. The mandate was to advise LMN Architects on an idea they had, which was several vertical layers of mesh or perforated metal that would receive video projections. We did a feasibility study for this idea and everyone on the design team as well as the owner agreed that video wasn’t the best idea. They said, “Leni, we’d like to give a commission to create an artwork here.” That was great because we’d done so much research into the physical layout of these scrims and the passageway that connects a Seattle public street with the Seattle Center, this great landscape, fountain, and cultural space.


However, we knew there were a lot difficulties, especially around budget and maintenance. So we wanted to do some kind of a color project, because, budget-wise, we couldn’t do things that were very complex. I came back to the studio after some brainstorming and said “if only we could just use one light, just one perfect light for this project." I often approach my projects that way: what is the one light we could use? Obviously, one light is the sun and the other is the moon but with electrical light, you generally have to use more than one light. We found a panoramic light that would cover a lot of area and ended up using two lights per scrim. Each scrim is about 30 feet by 50 feet. They’re made of Cascade Coil Drapery, a woven metal mesh.

It really was a true collaboration - the design team included architects, landscape architects, scenic designer (an opera designer who would work at the McCaw Hall), engineers, stakeholders, and owners. We all worked together and did presentations to each other in a brainstorming style. It was an exciting kind of mind meld. The owner wanted to bring a sense of theatricality outdoors for all Seattle Center visitors, whether they were going to the opera or the ballet or not. One of my objectives is to make the meaning of the buildings and spaces understandable to the public. “Dreaming in Color” is really a stage set in a sense, but it’s immersive. The viewer and the visitor is immersed by color. In another sense, it’s a three dimensional color filled painting that the viewer walks within.

↓ 城市和社区如何能够通过交通中转站并入社区的形式促进公共交通系统设施得以充分利用,就这一问题,社会各界有着种种讨论。这一问题还涉及到创建可与各公共交通站点便捷互连的一系列步行和骑行交通网络。然而,人们往往忽略了这些交通基础设施的照明设计问题。对此您有何见解?具体有哪些高度有效的应对策略吗?
There’s been lots of discussion about how cities and communities can incentivize the use of public transit by integrating transit stations into communities. This involves creating walkable, bikeable transportation networks that can easily interconnect with public transit stations. However, lighting is often left out of the conversation. How do you light smart growth? What are the most effective strategies?


当人们在思考城市发展及其大规模的开发工程、街景建设、公交导向发展(TOD)等问题时,他们的惯性思维通常只会引导他们思考日间可能发生的种种情况,而往往将夜间的情况忽视了。因此,绝大部分项目的效果图都是呈现日间效果。而我的工作就是在提醒人们,假如这里一片漆黑,会是怎样一种情形?我们之所以能够有机会在很大程度上去创造夜间环境,是因为如果建筑物、共公空间、人行步道,这些都没有照明设施,那么在茫茫黑夜里,它们就会完全消失在我们的视线中。照明在我们的日常生活环境中就是扮演着如此重要的角色。它就是以如此真实的形式存在于黑暗之中,它是黑夜里至关重要的元素。因此,照明设计所发挥的作用和所产生的能量是巨大的。

我们将照明设计视为一种指引性设计行业。我们的设计可以指引人们从地铁站到家的方向。同时,我们也将照明视作一种沟通形式。我们宣告某个事件、传递某条新闻、显示某种信号、相互间的交流,这些都离不开照明。照明可以帮助我们感受全新的体验,能够为我们了解和识别周边环境提供全新的视觉途径。光同样也是一种识别性元素。光的世界庞大而多彩,因此,还有许多东西尚待我们去探索与开发。

将照明与城市设计相融合,也就是我所说的公共照明设计,这其实是照明设计中的一个全新领域。公共照明设计即对夜间环境照明设计的一种探索。现今美国对于照明控制系统的广泛应用,是一项很好的举措,它使我们能够更为明确、合理地使用光源。我们可以在某些特定的时段使用路灯,其他时间则不使用,并把它看作是一种经济发展的工具。我们可以决定城市主干道在不同时段的不同明暗度。各个社会团体也可以根据实际情况与需求来决定特定时段的公共照明明暗度。在城市照明方面,市政部门与社会团体的沟通与协作显得尤为重要,只有二者的沟通与协作顺畅了,我们的照明设计才具有价值和意义。

When people think about cities and large developments, streetscapes, transit-oriented development (TOD), they’re generally thinking about the daytime. When you see a rendering, it’s generally a daytime view. My job is to remind people of the nighttime and say "look at this as a canvas of darkness." We have the opportunity to define the nighttime environment to such a large extent because if the buildings and the spaces and the sidewalks were not lit, you wouldn’t see them at all. Lighting is such an atmospheric effect. It’s really the element or the atmosphere that brings texture and form to bear at night. Lighting design can be very powerful.


We think that lighting is a way-finding discipline. We can help people get from the subway to home. We think lighting is a communication form. We announce things, give the news, show a sign, communicate about places. Lighting can help us feel new feelings and generate new ways of understanding and identifying places. Light is also an identifying element. Because of the strength of light, there are just a myriad of options that haven’t been explored.

We’re on the verge of a new lighting discipline, a melding of lighting and urban design, which I call public design. Public design is an exploration of environmental lighting design at night. One of the great options we’re now getting to use in the U.S. is lighting control, which allows us to really interact with light in a more direct way. We can brighten the street lights at certain hours, dim the street lights at other hours, and look at it as an economic development tool. We can decide Main Street will be brighter or dimmer at certain hours. Community groups can define what the right time is to make that light brighter and dimmer. That interaction with the communities is very important. Lighting and the communities that we are lighting should be connected in this way.

↓ 最后一个问题,传统景观照明往往使得大量二氧化碳排放量形成一种必然。您是如何将可持续性技术和材料融入照明系统中,以有效减少照明能耗,进而减少照明的整体需求量的?
Lastly, conventional landscape lighting must be creating lots of CO2 emissions. How have you incorporated sustainable technology and materials into lighting systems to reduce the amount of energy used for lighting, as well as the amount of lighting needed overall?


这个问题存在着很大的争议。关于照明亮度标准的制定,全球性的对话正在进行。其中,当然也存在着很多关于如何解决可持续发展方面的误解。许多华而不实的可持续性照明解决方案,实际上并没有产生良好的采光效果!而照明控制系统的有效应用则确实是一个很好的解决途径,因为这些系统使我们能够实现高质量的照明设计,通过转向灯的简单开启和关闭或调暗亮度来有效实现能源的节约。其实我们还可以设想两全其美的解决方案:在闹市区或者我们认为相对存在安全隐患的区域,可将照明亮度调亮,而在我们认为一些私用照明已经足够支撑的区域内,便可以将公共照明的亮度调暗。可以通过制定相应的策略来充分利用私用照明,而减少公共照明的使用量,或者采取交替式夜间公共照明使用策略。对于公共照明的有效控制是我们实现其可持续性发展的最佳途径之一。

我们的生活中,是谁决定了需要多少光?对此,照明工程学会(IES)有着明确的标准。现在IES委员会正在讨论每个特定的城市或地区对光的需求量究竟是多少。你会发现有些人正地呼吁弱光线生活。就我个人而言,我感觉在昏暗的光线中生活是件很舒服的事情,这样更具可持续性,我们的生活中其实并不需要那么多的光。而恰恰相反的是,生活在市中心的人们,认为一个正在建设中的新公园,照明充足是必须考虑的,因为这样,他们就可以尽情夜游公园,组织各种社交活动。然而,对于照明设计师而言,这绝对不是一个简单的问题。我们必须关注到二氧化碳的排放量,还必须关注能源的合理利用,同时,在夜间,公共街道或公共场所过度的人流量对人体健康所产生的负面影响也是我们需要关注的方面。

This is the big controversy. There is a global dialogue about the standards of lighting in terms of brightness. There are also a lot of misconceptions about how to address sustainability. Many of the touted sustainable lighting solutions do not result in good lighting! Control systems are a good solution because they allow us to implement quality lighting design and save energy by simply turning lights off and on or diming them. We can have the best of both worlds: light when areas are active or when we feel that they might be dangerous or reduced light when we feel that the private lighting layer is sufficient. We can create guidelines for brighter private lighting scenarios and reduce public lighting, or the opposite, at varying points during the night. The control of lighting is one of our best tools for sustainability.


Who decides how much light is needed? There are Illumination Engineering Society (IES) guidelines. I’m telling you right now IES committees are debating how much light is needed for any particular city or any district. You're going to find some people who say let’s bring the light down. I’m comfortable in dim light, it’s more sustainable, and we don’t need so much light. You can also find people in inner cities where you’re just building a park for the first time saying give me some light so I can play, give me more light, I want to recognize that person as they come toward me. It's not an easy answer. We have to be concerned with CO2 emissions. We have to be concerned with energy use but we also have to add to our sustainable precepts the vital health of people congregating and using the city streets at night.


译:90degree
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