专访张健蘅建筑事务所创始人张健蘅
Interview with Jane Jianheng Zhang, Founder of Jane Z Studio
2015-01-15 15:33:39    | keywords: 张健蘅建筑事务所  张健蘅  访谈 
专访张健蘅建筑事务所创始人张健蘅
  • 最新工作 Latest Jobs
     

By 90degree
 
问:长期从事建筑设计行业,您的大部分设计灵感源自哪里?
Q: Where does your inspiration come from during your long-time architectural designing experience?
 
答:建筑设计是技术和艺术结合的广度范畴的一个工作。灵感是比较偏向艺术类型,我主要来源于生活和观察,在我的生活里感知的方方面面是非常丰富的,无论在日常的工作还是工作之余,我都尽量接触建筑以外的人和各种事物,它能给我很多建筑的养分。
 
A: The architectural design is actually a job with the combination of technology and art, and as for inspiration, to some extent, it is related to art. My inspiration mainly comes from daily life and observation. Usually, I would like to try my best to keep in touch with many different people and things other than architecture, and to feel and experience the rich life, which relatively inspire me a lot in architectural design.
 
问:在您完成的这些项目中,令您印象最为深刻的是哪个项目?
Q: Which project impresses you most among the completed ones of yours?
 
答:我印象最深刻的是佛山文化综合体,它是我在Arup当总监的时候带领团队完成的一个国际竞标,现在一些场馆已经初步的建成。这个项目令我印象深刻原因第一它在我的家乡佛山,有30多万方,任务书要求庞大。建造又一批这种殿堂级、大体量、标新立异的文化性公共建筑,这对于本土文化的滋生和发展有没有促进意义呢?反过来思考,如果要促进文化滋生,需要土壤,需要有氛围,而不是去包装一种殿堂级的文化与艺术。
 
我带领我们设计团队一组人去参观了佛山几个古老的村落,其中有一个叫叠窖,村落的肌理还保存得非常好,有很多以前用来灌溉的人工水渠,是广东水乡特有的风情。这里不论从温度、风环境、湿度的舒适度来说都是非常宜人的,很可惜受到重度的工业污染,水道都成了黑色的,但是村民还是很舍不得离开那里,而且他们还在黑色的水道里玩赛龙舟。我亲眼看到有一个龙舟翻了船,人们掉水里出来的时候比赛的运动衫都变成黑色,我们都非常地为此感动。
 
传统生存环境里有些优点在我们城市化的过程还没有来得及好好地去体会和吸收,就直接变成另外一个世界。我们还没有来得及去感知,建筑师也没有来得及去解读,传统环境里有些什么优势,能够在新型的城市建设里面发芽?这次考察对我们的触动非常大。当时我就想在这个30多万方的建筑综合体里把它做成一个“城”的概念,一座促成情感滋生的“综合城”。我带领着设计团队把原来的任务书都颠覆了,把殿堂级大体量的建筑像打碎盘子一样,全部还原成碎片的组合,尽量把一些佛山人对空间的欣赏度引入到新的城市建设里面。经过两轮的国际竞赛都得到了非常多指导专家的支持和鼓励。
 
这个项目对我的一个启发是建筑师本身对生活的观察,对生活风尚的设想在建造的责任里面是非常重要的。因为建筑师首先是要发现问题,解决问题,其次我们所建的建筑是引领人们未来的一种生活方式。今天我画的图几年后才能建起来,我必须要对几年后人们的生活负责,所以我必须要有前瞻性。我们是生活在今天的人,我们不是要刻意地复古,而是去找我们生存的延续性,然后把它在未来的建筑上得到体现,这样演变出来的反而是非常新颖的设计手法。佛山文化综合体就不是用老房子去拼贴视觉上的元素,而是它的间距感,以及人对空间感受的认同。
 
我的另外一个设计理念就是室内外交融,建筑和场地之间模糊的边界,是从这个项目开始着手研究的。我希望在我们的设计里面植入更多可能没有效率的但是更有意义的空间。文化和生活是在人与人之间或者是人与场所之间的互相吸引、互相影响、互相交流之中慢慢滋长出来的,所以它是无法用效率衡量的。但是这些无效率的空间带来了非常有意义的对文化发展的推动作用。
 
A: I was most impressed by the project of Foshan Cultural Complex, which is a large-scale project occupied an area of over 300,000 sqm in my hometown Foshan, and of which some pavilions are primarily completed now. It was a project won an international competition that I took part in as a design team leader with my colleagues when I served as the architecture and planning director of Arup in Southern China. Sometimes, I was thinking whether it is helpful for cultural development to build such a large-scale and maverick architectural complex. Conversely, rather than to prompt cultural development by such complex in form, I think cultural nutrient and atmosphere are much more needed. 
 
At the beginning, we design team visited some ancient villages in Foshan, among which the one named DieJiao perfectly preserved old buildings and artificial irrigation canals used in the past, showing the unique style of regions along rivers and lakes in Guangdong. Unfortunately, DieJiao was polluted by heavy industry and the waterways were event black. But the villagers still enjoyed pleasant weather, mild wind and comfortable humidity there, holding dragon-boat race on the black waterways. They were all very reluctant leave their home where is a part of our project site. And we were all moved very much by their optimism.
 
I found, and at the same time, was greatly touched by some valuable quintessence in traditional living environment through the visiting tour of ancient villages, which is necessary to be directly absorbed into urbanization and well integrated into modern urban design, also deserves better understanding and experiencing from us designers. After the tour, I worked with my colleagues to overturn the original design of the Cultural Complex only focusing on large-scale and magnificent appearances of buildings. Instead, we tried our best to integrate space elements reflecting local traditional features into our design, to create a “comprehensive city” with rich native humanistic feelings in Foshan. Finally, we won the international competition and many appreciations and support from related experts.
 
The vitally important I learnt from this project is the observation of details in our daily life that may greatly influence on architectural design. In other words, architects should firstly discover the problems from daily life, and then solve them by reasonable design. The buildings we create should be able to reflect the future trend of life, which requires architects’ foresight. As architects in modern times, we do not deliberately impose traditionally cultural elements on our works, which we just integrate evolutionarily and reasonably into future architecture to produce innovative design techniques. Thus, the project Foshan Cultural Complex is not to simply combine traditional elements, but to create a dialogue between people and local traditions in series modern architectural spaces.
 
Another breakthrough I learnt from this project is the well-integration between indoor and outdoor to make buildings and the site as a whole. Actually, we designed more significant but less effective architectural spaces in this project with some traditionally local cultural elements to gradually enhance interactions between people and the site, and to further promote local culture development.
 
问:您最欣赏的建筑设计是什么样的?对自己影响最大的建筑师是谁?
Q: What is your favorite architectural design? And who is the most influential architect for you?
 
答:我欣赏的建筑类型是比较广泛的,从传统的民居到实用性的建筑,我都有一定的偏爱。欣赏不代表模仿,但是它会带给你一些触动和灵感。先说说我们广东的民居,像我小时候住的叫竹筒屋,面宽很窄,但是非常长,一个接一个建过去连成一条小街。在传统的竹筒屋里面公共空间是连贯的不像我们现在的公寓里是独立的,公共空间之间用走道串联完全没有门,公共空间之间所界定的就是起居室,在这个房子里有非常多的童趣,一家人也能够有更多的见面和交流的空间。这种民居是可以有精致的生活在里面的、对生活有追求有讲究的,而不是在一种极致的环境里面为的只是解决仅有的生存问题的民居,这是我感兴趣的建筑类型。
 
对我影响的建筑师很多,比较现代的可以举例说一下,像Steven Holl,深圳万科总部是他近期的建筑作品,我个人认为这是深圳最棒的建筑之一。对我影响最大的则是马清运,他对我的建筑启蒙有不可磨灭的意义,我认为马清运是能够做好房子的建筑师。1995年我大学三年级的时候,当时我们只知道路易斯·康和迈耶等经典人物,而马清运带名师名作课的时候给我们带来的却是哈迪德和库哈斯,哈迪德当时还没有出名,而库哈斯才刚刚崭露头角,他给我们带来的建筑视野是非常非常爆炸性的。我大学毕业后早期曾经在深大设计院工作,然后是欧洲的求学与实践。其间短暂的在起步期的马达思班工作。后来我去了英国,马老师去了美国,之后我们没有持续并肩作战的阶段,但是我们在学术界、社交场合上有很多的交叉,每次马老师跟我说的事,他的眼神都能带给我非常大的启发。但是他没有因为自己建筑师的身份而无时无刻地只做房子,这多少让对他有期望的人失落,但是我是赞同的。做个好房子不是要每时每刻都在建筑的实践当中就一定可以的,而是走出建筑,感知建筑以外,或许十年磨一剑,可能这个过程看似不是在画图,不是在做建筑。中国有句古话叫“在山不见山”,在做建筑的时候,我一直站在这座“山”,这座“山”是建筑,我看到的不是建筑,但是我跳到外面去回望这座“山”,我才知道建筑是什么。我觉得马老师对我的最大影响不是因为他的一两个作品,而是他的建筑态度。
 
A: Extensively, I appreciate various architectural design styles, from traditional dwellings to practical buildings. In my opinion, appreciation is not equal to imitation, but to some extent, it will bring inspiration for design. And I would like to talk about traditional dwellings in Guangdong which I am relatively familiar with, such as the so-called “bamboo house” I was living in during my childhood, occupying narrow areas, one by one built like long rows of bamboos. In a bamboo house, several apartments share the public space formed by a corridor on each floor, achieving warm and interesting interactions between family members and neighbors, which is filled with fun and joy of life, and quite different from today’s single apartments.
 
Well, many great architects in the history influence me a lot, and I also learn much from some contemporary great ones, such as Steven Holl, whose recent work - Shenzhen Vanke Headquarters - I think is one of the most excellent buildings in Shenzhen. And another contemporary great architect brings me much influence is Mr. Ma Qingyun. In 1995, when I was a junior student I only knew a few renowned architects like Louis Kahn and Richard Meier, and through Mr. Ma’s course on renowned architects and their works, I began to know the designs and styles of Zaha Hadid and Rem Koolhaas which enlightened me most and explosively broaden my vision on contemporary architectural trend in the world. After my graduation, I worked at Mada s.p.a.m. founded by Mr. Ma, and learnt much from him when doing projects. Later, I went to make further study on architecture in UK, while Mr. Ma developed his career of architecture in the United States, so I haven’t had opportunities to work with him since then. But I often talked and exchanged ideas with him at academic activities on architecture and some social occasions, and always I learnt a lot. Mr. Ma insistently holds a view that an architect should not just keep doing architectural design all his times, for whom it is more important to get much experience beyond the world of architecture so as to obtain related inspirations or ideas unconsciously from ordinary life. Rather than inspired by one or two of his works, I think I am directly influenced by Mr. Ma’s attitude toward architecture and architectural design.
 
问:连续参加两年的北京保利春季拍卖建筑师专场,有没有发生一些有趣的小故事,跟我们分享一下。
Q: For two consecutive years you participated into the special session for Architects of Poly Spring Auction in Beijing, could you please share with us some interesting stories about the Auction?
 
答:这个拍卖挺有意思的,说大了可能是建筑和艺术、资本的对接。建筑师最成功的作品是建筑,把它微缩作为一个草图或者模型,作为工艺品是没有意义的,但是草图或者模型它有意义的地方是它是一种比建成作品更完美的状态,能够体现本初概念和一些建构性的思考,以及后面资本和设计之间互相利用和对抗关系没有产生之前非常纯粹的一些表达。用过程阶段的草图和模型来拍卖对建筑师来说是非常激动的,这毕竟是一个心血的结晶。那一年,我的一个模型最初的定价为8 000元,可能制作的成本都不一定够,结果还意外的有不同的买家竞投敲了2-3锤把它拍出去。这些收藏家们怎么看待我们建筑师,我们的一些过程和作品对于他们有什么样的意义,价值在哪里,我不是非常理解。但这应该是对我们建筑师工作过程通过另外一个角度的认可,是非常重要的社会事件,是建筑师整个群体对大众媒介的一次发声。
 
A: It is really a very interesting event to establish relations between architecture, art and capitals. At the special session for architects, architectural drafts and models are the right objects to be put up to auction, for they originally show more perfect forms of architecture works which are filled with architects’ wisdom and painstaking efforts. In addition, the drafts and models reflect primary cocept and some constructive thoughts of the works and reveal a more perfect status than that of the built architecture. Thus, architects themselves are indeed very excited in the process of auction that shows public approval for their works and a way of interaction from architecture industry with mass media. Personally, one of my architectural models was auctioned with the original price of only 8,000 RMB which was even not enough for fabricating cost, and finally it won a surprised auction price beyond my expectation.
 
问:从事建筑设计行业十几年,能否简要分享一下您的从业之路?您认为建筑设计为您带来了什么?
Q: Could you please talk about your experience of over 10 years engaging in architecture industry? What does architectural design bring you as you think?
 
答:我的从业之路算比较正统,国内建筑学本科毕业,在学校里面的设计院工作一年,然后申请了英国牛津布鲁克斯大学的工学硕士,专业是建筑资源研究。毕业之后去了荷兰HUBERT-JAN HENKET事务所工作,它是非常强调本土性,具有西欧特质的事务所。Henket先生做人比较低调,但做事比较坚持,它只做荷兰本地的项目,离开荷兰的基本不接。他们的逻辑第一是人对建筑的需要,他的精力只够了解他身边的共同社会文化背景的人,做他熟悉的人群的建筑;第二是建筑建基于工业基础,荷兰的工业基础非常强大,它有自己的建材标准,就是要把工业技术用到极致。这家事务所对我影响蛮大的,非常人性化,做的东西非常有工业感。回到香港,进入了几个大型的事务所,像利安、王董,从事了大量的建造性项目的建筑设计,以及现场的跟进和管理。这个过程我把它定义为对建筑性能效率这个问题的消化,香港在建筑实用性上包括结构和机电系统,建筑材料和细部构造的效率是最高的,项目是做一个建一个。然后也做了一些高标准的国内项目像酒店、商业综合体。
 
大概工作十年左右的时候我进入了Arup,为我们熟知的它是工程设计的全球顶级机构,但很少人知道Arup有建筑的团队,它在英国是一个大型的有一百多人的建筑事务所。虽然我走了建筑师不太会走的一步,但对我来说进入Arup却是打开了另外一扇门。我不是在Arup里去了解工程,而是去了解一个高品质的建筑需要有多少个不同的专业,不同的工艺和艺术元素来共同抬升建筑整体的质量。Arup也把我送到了英国剑桥大学进行深造,读“可持续发展领导力”课程。可持续作为一个业务怎么实现自我的可持续,是个非常有意思的课题。之前我都是一个传统建筑师的发展步骤,但到这一步开始是一个爆炸点。这个视野会比传统的建筑师跨的广很多,包括纵向的建筑设计全过程,横向的跨国跨专业整体团队的认知。我希望通过我个人事务所的实践和研究把已有的资源整合回到建筑设计的角度,这样做对我的独立实践带来一些不一样的承托。我在Arup当了7年的建筑设计总监,2012年设立我的事务所,开始把我之前看到的方方面面进行综合地运用和实践。 
 
建筑设计为我带来了太多的磨练,它是一个非常辛苦的行业。放眼中国,在我这个年纪仍然做设计的女建筑师很少,即使有在这个行业的也是在做设计管理、设计协调、或者是在开发商、策划机构工作。在中国当建筑师,是需要体力与智力、美貌与智慧并存的一个行业。建筑设计为我带来了很多的磨难,但同时它也带来了很多的生活灵感,通过建筑实践不停的对我的生命带来刺激和动力,尤其是获益于通过建筑设计给我带来了身边的一圈人,一种生存的环境,这就是一个小宇宙吧,我很喜欢。
 
A: My career of architecture follows a regular way began with undergraduate study majoring in architecture at home. After graduation, I worked in the design institute affiliated to my university, and went on my postgraduate study in Oxford Brookes University in UK one year later, majoring in Built Resource Studies. Then, I went to Netherlands and started my work in HUBERT-JAN HENKET, a typical Western European architectural design firm with significant native characteristics. Mr. Henket is low key and persistent in working. HUBERT-JAN HENKET only concentrate on native projects for they just would like to do their best to serve native people whom they are familiar with and share the same social and cultural background by their limited energy as they think themselves. They take the need of native people to architecture as the most important factor in their designs. Since architectural construction is based on the industrial development that is very strong in Netherlands, they would like to support native industrial development by only concentrating on native projects. And they have their own standard regarding building mateirals – a perfect utilization of the industrial technology. I was quite influenced by humanized management and designing style with strong sense of industry in HUBERT-JAN HENKET. Later, I went back to Hong Kong and worked in several large-scale design firms such as Leigh and Orange and Wong Tung & Partners, during which I got much better understanding in high efficient working style in HK, especially in functionality of building including structural and electromechanical systems, building materials and detailing construction. Meanwhile, I also did some high quality projects like hotels and commercial complexes in the Mainland.
 
It was about a decade of my career in architecture when I entered the Britain-based Arup Group and worked as a design director. Arup is well-known for its engineering design, but not for its architectural design which also possesses a large-scale excellent team with more than 100 staff. That why I unconventionally chose to develop myself in such a engineering-design-oriented firm is not want to learn things about engineering, but to find a more comprehensive way to know better about what other elements make a nice architectural design turn into a high-qualified building, such as different majors, different crafts and art elements. During the seven years in Arup, I was once assigned to make further study on leadership of sustainable development in Cambridge University, which is really an interesting course. And I think the working experience in Arup is a breakthrough stage of my career when I absolutely improved my cognition on architecture in every aspect with an extremely broad vision. After great and comprehensive accumulation of experience and adequate preparation, I founded my own design firm in 2012 to practice all I learnt and experienced. 
 
The industry of architecture really requires much painstaking and intelligence of us, especially in China, architects are required more energies and wisdoms to deal with all kinds of relative complicated relationships. Most of my female peers in this industry are now responsible for some managements or co-ordinations of design in China, and few of them insist doing specific designing work as I do. Despite of many challenges, I get a lot of joys from architectural design, and it also brings me excitement and motivation in my life. I always enjoy the social circles and living environments related to architecture. This is a small universe which I’m really fond of.
 
问:作为游走在英国、荷兰、香港和中国大陆的建筑家和城市研究者,这些地方的建筑有没有共同的特质?区别是什么?
Q: As an architect and urban researcher with full visiting and living experience in UK, Netherlands, Hong Kong and Mainland China, could you please talk about similarities and differences among them?
 
答:共同点:英国、荷兰和香港都属于国际化的大都市,我喜欢这些地方的层次感,在这些大城市里面,体现了高度的包容。人们在这些城市里面是有很多不同层面的,然而又各自有自己的空间在自我发展。不同的状态和层次带来了我们生活的厚度,就是文化滋生一个土壤。
 
区别:这些地方的文化背景不一样,大英帝国的背景让英国人给人感觉难以接近,一旦接近又是长久的朋友,从他们的建筑来说呢,它每个时期的建筑风格都非常明确,它是从工业时期发展过来的有一段很长很迅猛的发展时期。荷兰是个小国家,人们热衷交新朋友,认知新的事物,因为包容而产生了激进的思想,所以荷兰产生了一些先锋派的建筑。我有点为香港担忧,相对于英国和荷兰,香港在更短的时间里创造了一代的辉煌,我觉得今天的香港它其实还没有找到自己的方向。反映到建筑形态上,从1980年代的高潮期,到1990年代中香港回归后就陷入了没有方向和信心的状态,建筑设计业趋向保守。建筑设计这个行业非常高度的专业化,专业化的背后带来了非常多的限制。从业员敬业,严谨,但是他们素质单一,使得建筑设计发展很受局限。
 
A: Well, as for similarities, the characteristics of international metropolis are reflected here and there in UK, Netherlands and Hong Kong, showing rich and layering life, also enough development space for everyone living there, guiding people to keep thinking and refreshing themselves every day. Personally, I prefer such a rich and layering life sytle.
 
And about differences, basically, cultural backgrounds in these regions are quite different. British people are very gentle and friendly. While in regard to architecture, each of their significant architectural style represents a revolutionary period in its history, especially with a long-term rapid development since the Industrial Revolution.
 
Netherlands is actually a small country where people are keen to make new friends and to get to know novelties. It is really a nation filled with inclusiveness and enthusiasm. Thus some avant-garde architecture once relatively came out in Netherlands. Comparatively speaking, the glory of architectural industry in Hong Kong was just like a flash in the pan in the 1980s, and its development has been keeping a conservative pace since 1990s, although it shows highly professionalization in the architectural design. To some extent, I think professionalization may result in series restrictions which would not be helpful for architects to freely develop their design thoughts.
 
问:作为一名女性建筑设计师,您认为工作中最大的挑战是什么?您认为女性所特有的敏感及审美观对您的设计工作带来了哪些帮助?
Q: As a female architect, what do you think is the greatest challenge at work? While what advantages do you take from the specific sensitivity and aesthetic view of female at work?
 
答:我认为最大的挑战是客户管理,因为建筑设计的大环境不论是中国还是全世界都是由男性主导,女性想要在这个行业发展就必须遵从男性的游戏规则,要么你就模仿,建立一种男人的思维、行事的模式,我有一段时间也陷入了这样的怪圈。但最终我选择挣脱它,回到女性自己的角度谈建筑设计。
 
从我个人自己的角度,女性非常讲求直觉,从直觉看建筑可能会形成一些不同的形态特征,尤其整体的规划,室外空间的敏锐度,塑造过程会有更多的亲和力,更关注人和空间交流,而不只是关注建筑对受众的表达,可能男性的建筑更多是表达型的,表现力很强,我的建筑是反过来的,是人在其中怎么去感受整体的规划和室外空间。
 
另外女性的沟通和协调能力是蛮强的优势,女人有一定的聆听耐性,对人有更多的关注,有助于解读庞杂的设计需求。在工作中对前期与客户共同形成项目的开发思路,统筹不同的需求、利益平衡,再把它集合到建筑上来形成设计思路有很大帮助。
 
A: I think the greatest challenge is client relationship management. Both in China and in any other country, the architectural industry is always dominated by males, in which females should comply with the rules mainly for males to imitate and form manlike thoughts and behaviors. Once I had been being caught into such imitation for a while, but finally, I awaked myself to stop imitating and to keep normal thinking as a female.
 
As for the advantages, in my opinion, the particular intuition of female may be helpful for me to produce special design, especially in the aspects of overall planning and space creating. Rather than the design with more rational and expressive elements by males, as a female architect, subconsciously I pay much attention to the interactions between people and space to design space more human-oriented. 
 
In addition, pretty strong abilities of communication and coordination skills and the ability to understand comprehensive design need are really advantages of female architects. We are relatively patient to listen to clients and to take much concern on them with our sensitivity, so as to guide them reach an agreement on our design concept, also to coordinate the different needs and balance benefits for each party. This is helpful to form design concept via integrating all of them into the architecture.
 
 
个人简介
张健蘅, 国家一级注册建筑师,张健蘅建筑事务所创办人,JS A2空间创办人。1975年出生于广东佛山;1997年毕业于马清运任教的深圳大学建筑系,获建筑学学士、优秀毕业生;2000年取得英国牛津布鲁克斯大学建筑资源管理硕士。曾于深圳大学设计院,荷兰Hubert-Jan Henket、香港利安Leigh and Orange、香港王董Wong Tung & Partners担任建筑设计师;2005-2012年出任全球顶尖设计机构-英国奥雅纳工程顾问Arup的华南区建筑和规划总监,期间为这个国际领航企业组建了中国的华南区建筑团队,并逐步拓展到了城市规划和可持续策略的领域;2012年开设张健蘅建筑事务所。
 
Profile
Jane Jianheng Zhang, a National First-Class Registered Architect, the founder of Jane Z Studio, the founder of JS A2 Space, was born in 1975 in Foshan, Guangdong. In 1997, Jane was graduated as a Bachelor of Architecture and an outstanding graduate from the Department of Architecture in Shenzhen University where Ma Qingyun has once taught in, and obtained Master's degree in Architecture Resource Management from Oxford Brookes University in 2000. Once she worked as an architect in the Institute of Architecture Design & Research of Shenzhen University (SUIADR), Netherlands-based Hubert-Jan Henket, Hong Kong-based Lee Leigh and Orange, and Hong Kong-based Wong Tung & Partners. During the years from 2005 to 2012, Jane served as the architectural designing and planning director in Southern China Branch of Arup Group to develop its services of urban planning and sustainable development in China. In 2012, she founded Jane Z Studio cooperating with Mada s.p.a.m..
 
 
Copyright 90degree. 90degree版权所有,不得转载。
 

上一篇:专访大料建筑创始人刘阳
下一篇:专访帕金斯威尔董事Jeff Ziebarth