牵动中法两座城的幸福-专访中法建筑交流学会中国区执行秘书长李李国
Secretary-General in China, Sino-French Architectural Communication Society, Li Liguo
2015-06-11 14:44:05    | keywords: 李李国  中法建筑交流学会  专访 
牵动中法两座城的幸福-专访中法建筑交流学会中国区执行秘书长李李国
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By 90degree

上海是一座踏着强节奏的城市,这里不仅拥有燃烧梦想的动力源,同样也依附着浓烈的陌生气息,这便是李李国心中的海派地。对于常年旅居和工作在法国的他来说,两种截然不同生活方式和工作节奏,时常冲击着他的感知习性,而机场往往是他节奏频道打开的信号塔。
As Li Liguo sees, Shanghai has always been a golden market as in its old time, a place to achieve dreams, while everyone living there is alien to each other. Once you step out from the airport, you feel some Paris in the pace of city life.   
 
“一到达上海,都不用出机场,走上廊桥就能明显感觉到,不相关的人都是妨碍我效率的‘拦路虎’;而走出戴高乐机场,节奏马上放慢了,买东西只是一个人与人相识的‘红线’,他们享受与人交谈的过程,并愿意分享自己的所见所闻。”
“Once I arrived in Shanghai, on the gallery bridge, not even before I went out of the airport, I felt that everyone was in a hurry on my way. But when you go out of Charles de Gaulle airport, life gets slow down immediately. To buy a thing is just a way to talk with people, and people enjoy so much talking with others, sharing their life experience.
 
中法建筑交流学会(简称:SFACS)致力于推动中法两种之间建筑领域的文化交流事业发展。李李国先生担任中国区执行秘书长,对两地的文化、建筑、生活习惯有着自己独到的见解。
As the Secretary-General in China of SFACS (Sino-French Architectural Communication Society), who regularly flies between China and France, having been studying and working in both cities for a long time, Li Liguo has a profound understanding of their culture, architecture and tradition.
 
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一个“package”解决居民幸福指数 
A "Package" to Increase Residents' Happiness Index
 
“对于我来说,理想的城市就是能提供更幸福的生活。”当然,所谓的幸福城市并不仅仅浮在表面的概念,“自上而下地规定如何让所有人幸福,最终将导致一场灾难!” SFACS的目标是将法国建筑设计和城市规划的数百年经验与教训,通过与中国本土文化的结合,融合于中国的城市化进程,促进中国城市建设的良性发展,提升城市的综合竞争力和幸福指数。
"For me, the ideal city is able to provide a happier life." Of course, the so-called city of happiness is not just an idealist’s dream, “trying to guarantee the happiness of everyone would be a disaster!" SFACS aims to learn from France’s experience of hundreds years in architecture and city development, and by integrating which in the process of urbanization in China, to promote a healthy development in city construction, so as to enhance overall competitiveness and happiness index.
 
城镇体系的“中央集权”,让很多城市核心职能都集中在市中心,造成中心城市压力过大,郊区职能不足。“小孩上学,我不能去远郊;老人就医,我必须得找到就近的医院;我有文化娱乐需求,还得看艺术展等等。”配套功能的不足,很难把中心的高端人才引流到郊区。“其实郊区的环境状态明明比中心要好,但是核心的资源不能引流到郊区,这个问题就不能本质解决。”即便是张江这样的公司密集的科技城,夜晚来临之时也犹如空城一般。
The "centralization" of urban system, gathering together most functional blocks, results in an over-pressured area at the city centre, leaving suburbs under-developed. “If my children need to go to school, I cannot go to Fengxian District, if elders need to go to the hospital, I can not find any nearby. We also have some cultural requirements, such as to see the art exhibition and so on.” Without sufficient living facilities, it is difficult to draw people from the centers. In fact, the environment in suburb is significantly better, however if the core resources didn’t flow, the problem could not be resolved." Even the Zhangjiang Science and High-Tec Park which is home of thousands of companies seeing busy streets in the daytime, is nothing but a ghost town at night.
 
为更大程度地提升各大城市的综合竞争力和幸福指数。自2013 年以来,SFACS 推出年度“中法城市与建筑可持续发展论坛”,每年秋季邀请约十家法国知名建筑设计机构前来中国与政府、开发商、设计师和研究人员进行论坛演讲和圆桌讨论。
To increase the overall competitiveness and happiness index in major cities, since 2013, SFACS started launching the annual "Sino-French Forum on Urban and Architectural Sustainable Development". They invite 10 well-known architecture design organizations to China every year to address lectures and talks with government, developers, designers and researchers.
 
提升一个区域的功能混合,才能提升居民的幸福指数。“购物、吃饭、看电影、亲子教育等都在一个小范围的街区里解决,而不是严格的功能分区所导致的钟摆交通。”这样既不会造成太多的交通浪费,也能解决碳排放的污染等问题。
Only by upgrading function features of the area can we enhance happiness index of the residents. You can do “shopping, dining, watching movies, parenting all in a shopping mall,’ saving traffic and lessening pollutions.
 
 
租界有一场保护兼顾发展的“大手术”
A "Major Surgery" for Protection and Development in Foreign Concessions
 
李李国曾参与巴黎新左岸、巴黎德方斯中央商务区和里昂老城区的改造,对于法国老城区的改造更新深有体悟。“巴黎里昂等城市二战以后进入婴儿潮,这些婴儿成年以后都需要独立生活,这就产生了大量的住房市场需求,这些需求带动了粗旷式的大规模城市开发,而快速的规划建设也存在明显的配套不足问题,所以近几十年法国一直在进行城市更新的工作。但由于其立法比较齐全,而且街区规模较小,沿街立面容易控制,所以法国城市的改造都是‘小手术’。”
Li Liguo took part in the transformation projects of the historic districts in France such as new Left Bank of Paris, Le Defense Central Business District and the old city of Lyon with a deep realization. "Paris and Lyon went into the baby boom after World War II. After they grew up to stimulate the market, a massive but hasty and rough expanding of buildings was seen without sufficient living facilities. Since all buildings by that time are similar and listed orderly near street for easy management, it’s just been a minor surgery to reshape them.
 
这一场资本与公共权力的博弈,国内的情况就相对不太乐观,现在很多商人追求的是投资回报率,而不是更深远的历史意义,对于他们来说,投入了资金后需要等待的就是怎样快速生财。
It’s leverage between capital and public power, which is not the best issue you want to confront in China. Fast money is the main incentive rather than some historical significance for businessmen in this time, for them, an investment without coming profits is unacceptable.
 
对于这种“歪风邪气”,好在上海是一个竞争力强大的国际化都市。上海租界的发展,事实上是一场保护兼顾开发的办法。由于修缮的成本比建设成本高很多,很多城市的老租界都是采取拆毁重建的模式,但从考古学上讲,历史是不可再生,不可复制的。而上海的优秀历史保护单位,作为地方级的保护体系,或多或少很好地保护了上海的历史文化建筑。
Fortunately, Shanghai is a highly competitive international city that is strong enough to against this "unhealthy tendencies".Shanghai Concession have a development, in fact, it is a war which balance between the protections of the development. Due to the cost of repair is much higher than construction costs, old concession many cities are taking demolition reconstruction mode. But in terms of archeology, history is non-renewable, it can not be copied. The outstanding historic preservation unit of Shanghai, as a protection system at local level, more or less well protected Shanghai's historical and cultural buildings.
 
李李国就此举了一个最知名的例子:当年瑞安集团对新天地的改造,相对较好地保护了周围两大街区,使得周边的历史建筑得到了良好的资金支持,创立了上海近几年来海派生活的经典。但如果说到上海的市民有得到什么受益,这又是一个相对的概念,即使有所补贴,但有些老人已经习惯了原先的生活圈,举家搬迁到郊区,等于打破了他们几十年的生活习惯。
For example one of the most well-known: Rui'an Group had a successful transformation to Xintiandi, protected around two blocks, so that the surrounding historic buildings has been a good financial support, they created the classic Shanghai in recent years. But when it comes to what Shanghai people have benefited, this is a relative concept, even some subsidies, some elderly people have been accustomed to such living area, all moved out to the suburbs, equal broke their decades of habits.
 
 
一张地图锁住城市空间感
Travel Must Have a Map
 
在成长为一个成功的建筑规划师之前,李李国也有过艰辛的求学路,“我到法国建筑学院上的第一堂课上被要求,就同一个空间,从不同的视角,画20张透视图!”这使得李李国特别重视对建筑空间的朴实感受,在他眼里,一个好的建筑师,要有一双能捕捉空间单体感受地慧眼,“就像最近很火的孤独图书馆,设计师材料大面积运用木和水泥,但是就是这么简单的对光与影的捕捉,让整个图书馆的空间感表现得非常朴实。”
Before be a successful building planners, Li Liguo also has a hard study way, "When I first went to France, I was asked to draw 20 perspective on the same space in the first lesson, but from different perspective." This makes him special emphasis on the perspective real sense of space. He believes that a good architect, must be a pair of eye to capture the sense of space," Recently a very popular building - alone library, designers try to use wood and cement material, but it is so simple to capture light and shadow, let the sense of space throughout the library's performance is very simple. "
 
正是由于对优秀建筑和城市空间的追求,每到一个陌生的城市,李李国一定会为自己准备当地的地图,在出行之前规划好要走的路线和要考察的建筑,通过一张比例纸质地图成功锁住城市空间中所遇见的建筑记忆。当然这样的归普习惯,身边也难免会遇到那么几句调侃。“他们总说,旅途的意义在于发现惊喜,而一个地图让旅途变得在有规律地寻找”,不过作为一个有原则的建筑规划师,李李国依然特立独行,我行我素。
It is because of outstanding architectural and urban space quest, every trip to a strange city, Li Liguo, will prepare a local map for yourself. He planned to go to the line and to examine the building before the beginning of each trip; He planned to go to the line and to examine the building. Through a paper map, he can successfully lock the building memory which one he met the urban space .Because of the plan as a whole, people love to joke, "They always said, the meaning of the journey is to find a surprise, and a map to make the journey to become a regular in the search."However, as a principle of building planners, Li Liguo still go its own.
 
当然,一张地图不能真的阻碍李李国在旅途中邂逅惊喜,西班牙的圣家教堂“让我觉得全世界都安静了!”一张100多年前的图纸,一座至今还未建筑完成的宏伟建筑,“但是那一瞬间我只想跪下膜拜。”
Of course, a map can not really hinder Li Liguo has a surprise on the road. When he came to Spain Sagrada Familia "I think the whole world is quiet!"A 100-year-old drawing, the building has not finished," but the moment I just want to kneel to worship".

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