设计是让新思维不断萌发的创造过程-专访理查德·迈耶
Interview with Richard Meier, Principal of Richard Meier & Partners Architects
2015-02-04 10:31:30    | keywords: Richard  Meier  访谈  建筑 
设计是让新思维不断萌发的创造过程-专访理查德·迈耶
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By 90degree︱Image Credit Richard Phibbs 
 
 
问:近期,贵公司在建筑设计领域都有哪些正在进行的项目?
Q: What are you doing recently in architecture field?
 
答:目前,我们正在英国、中国、以色列、土耳其、墨西哥、巴西和韩国等11个国家进行一系列当地“首”项目的开拓性建筑设计,例如:位于中国台湾台中市的一幢高达39层的住宅楼;此外,我们在韩国的首个建筑设计项目将于今年的晚些时候在韩国江陵举办竣工庆典,这是江陵市一处全新的度假村综合酒店建筑,拥有150间客房、世界级高档餐厅、健康水疗中心和其它各类酒店设施等。
 
在拉丁美洲的墨西哥、哥伦比亚和巴西,我们也有三个新近项目:墨西哥的项目是墨西哥城中目前正在进行建设的瑞弗玛双子大厦,预期于2016年竣工,建成后将成为集写字楼、酒店、零售商区、餐饮和健身中心于一体的动态化多功能型建筑设施;哥伦比亚的项目是位于首都波哥大的两幢公寓住宅建筑,共计36套公寓,项目将于近期动工;而在巴西里约热内卢的项目是我们在莱布隆住区的首个办公楼项目,全新的莱布隆办公大楼内将设有一系列的开放式办公空间与私人室内景观空间,是巴西最具现代艺术感的可持续性建筑设施。
 
今年内,我们还将完成意大利加尔多里维拉的一处私人住宅、美国新泽西州纽瓦克市的教师住宅村、以色列特拉维夫高达39层的罗斯柴尔德大楼,以及意大利亚历山德里亚的奇塔代拉桥等项目的建筑设计工作。
 
A: We are developing our first projects in 11 countries, including England, China, Israel, Turkey, Mexico, Brazil and South Korea; for example, in Asia we are designing a 39-story residential tower in Taichung, Taiwan, and in Gangneung, South Korea, later this year we will celebrate the opening of our first building in Korea. The new resort complex at Gangneung, will be a one-of-a-kind hotel composed of 150 guestrooms, a world class restaurant, a wellness spa and various amenities.
 
In Latin America we have three new projects in Mexico, Colombia and Brazil. In Mexico City construction is currently underway on the Reforma Towers and once the project is completed in 2016 it will become a dynamic mixed-use development composed of two towers with offices, a hotel, retail space, restaurants and a fitness center. In Bogota, Colombia construction is about to start on two towers with a total of 36 apartments, and in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil we are completing our first office building in the Leblon neighborhood. The new Leblon Offices will be a sustainable and state-of-the-art building with open office spaces and a private interior courtyard.
 
This year we're also completing a private residence in Gardone Rivera, Italy, the Teachers Village development in Newark, New Jersey, the 39-story Rothschild Tower in Tel Aviv, Israel and the Cittadella Bridge in Alessandria, Italy.
 
问:可否与我们分享一下贵公司的发展历程?例如,公司在过往的发展中有哪些令您印象深刻的事件或故事?
Q: Can you talk about the history of Richard Meier & Partners in details? Can you share some stories that happened in the company and impress you most in past years?
 
答:自1963年创办属于自己的建筑设计公司以来,我已从事建筑设计工作50余年,令我感到十分庆幸的是,从入行之初,我就能够真正独立地承接一些重量级的建筑项目,而这对于当今业界的年轻设计师而言,是相当困难的。
 
回忆起1963年我在纽约火烧岛上设计建造一座小型沙滩别墅时的情景,仿佛就发生在昨天一样。那时,我们就睡在沙滩上,一睡就是9天,而别墅的建造预算仅为9 000美元。每当回想起50年前的光景,再与现在的优越条件两相对比,真是感慨这样的天壤之别。而我一向认为成为一名建筑设计师的途径其实是多种多样的,全美各地的开发商中,就不乏经过实践训练后半路出家的建筑设计师,但他们也并非将建筑设计作为终身职业,而是通过更多的历练后,转而进入到与建筑相关的其他领域中。
 
也许在我的建筑设计职业生涯中,在某些特定的时间节点内,的确存在着一些意义重大的建筑项目。然而,现在回首看来,可能对我而言,最具代表性的当属历经20余年才得以竣工的洛杉矶盖蒂艺术中心项目。项目之初,我们在项目场地的山顶上种植的绿化景观植被,如今都已长势繁茂,形成室内外空间的完美过渡。
 
A: I have been working in architecture for over 50 years since opening my own practice in 1963, and so I’ve been very fortunate in really doing some amazing projects which for a younger designer working in architecture now might be a lot more difficult.
 
It seems like only yesterday that I began doing a small beach house on Fire Island right on the ocean in 1963. We slept on the beach for 9 days and the house was built for $9,000. When I think what it was like 50 years ago, as compared as it is like today is sort of like night and day, and I don’t think there is only one way to be an architect. Developers around this country, many of them are trained as architects and then go into another aspect of building.
 
There have been so many things that have been important to my work as an architect. Ultimately probably one of the most important moments in my career has been the commission of the Getty Center in Los Angeles which was completed over 20 years ago. The landscape that we planted on the hilltop is now all mature and there is a beautiful relationship between the interior and exterior spaces.
 
问:什么样的建筑设计才能称得上好的设计?其中应当包含哪些必备元素?
Q: What is a good architecture design? What elements should it include?
 
答:我们不妨将建筑设计看作是一系列可变性元素悉心组合的过程。建筑设计并不等同于实现理想化设计,而是一个让新的设计思维不断萌发的创造过程。
 
多年的建筑设计工作经历,令我逐渐清晰地认识到,作为一名建筑设计师,应当具备统筹思考各方面事物的能力。对于每一个项目,我们不仅要着眼于项目本身,更应考量其所处的周遭环境,勇于挣脱那些固有的功能性因素对于设计思维的束缚,大胆思考,将项目的实际情况与设计愿景合理而具创新性地融于一体。此外,我们还应考虑建筑本身的公共性,并思考如何提升其公共性,如何在我们所设计的建筑空间中注入更多的活力,以丰富空间的整体体验。正如在11个不同国家中进行的一系列当地“首”项目的开拓性建筑设计工作中,我们面临的最大挑战之一便是:每到一个全新的国度,就需要去深入了解它们各自不同当地文化和环境。
 
早在1984年荣获普利兹克建筑奖的获奖演说中,我就曾说过......我的设计中光线和空间是两大主要考量因素;并非将空间抽象化,也并非令空间小型化,而是依据光线条件、人体尺度、建筑文化等当地元素,来合理地规划与定义出适当的空间环境。建筑设计决定着空间的形式,它要求灵活与持久并存,因为它与我们的日常工作、生活息息相关。就个人而言,在我的建筑设计过程中,会将建筑的规模、外观、光照中的多种呈现形式、尺度与视角变化、动态与静态效果等因素进行综合考量。通过这样的设计创作方式,从某种意义上,可以说我的设计风格既基于文化又超脱文化,同时也与个人多年的工作经验有着密不可分的联系。我常用这样的设计思维去引导年轻设计师,我认为即便再过三十年,这样的设计理念依然可行。
 
A: Architecture could be defined as the careful articulation of a process that allows change to happen. Architecture is not a validation of ideals, but rather a creative process allowing for new ideas to happen.
 
Over the years there have been so many things that have been important to my work as an architect. We look at each project and consider the context—what it is and what it can be—beyond the strictly functional concerns. We think about its public nature and how that can be enhanced, how the spaces we create can enliven the experience of being there. As we develop our first projects in 11 countries one of the biggest challenges we’ve faced working in so many different places is understanding variations, both in terms of culture and context.
 
During the 1984 Pritzker Prize Acceptance Speech I said that …mine is a preoccupation with light and space; not abstract space, not scale-less space, but space whose order and definition are related to light, to human scale and to the culture of architecture. Architecture is vital and enduring because it contains us; it describes space, space we move through, exit in and use. I work with volume and surface, manipulating forms in light, changes of scale and view, movement and stasis. In this way, one might say that my style is something that is born out of culture, and yet is profoundly connected with personal experience. But to gain any sense of my involvement, it is necessary to consult the work. Almost thirty years later, this design philosophy continues to inform the work.
 
问:您最为欣赏的自己的建筑设计项目是哪个?
Q: What is/are your favorite project(s) in architecture design?
 
答:我总喜欢说:我最欣赏的是我的下一个项目。希望可以有机会在中国设计建造一个全新的博物馆或私人画廊项目。
 
A: I always like to say my next commission. Hopefully a new museum or private gallery in China.
 
问:在业界,您最为欣赏的建筑设计师有哪些?或者说对您影响最大的建筑设计师有哪些?
Q: Who do you admire most in this field? Or who influences you most in this field?
 
答:勒·柯布西耶、阿尔瓦·阿尔托、路易斯·卡恩、密斯·凡德罗、弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特、路易斯·巴拉干、俄罗斯建构主义者、意大利理性主义者、塞尚、毕加索,以及库尔特·史威斯。
 
A: Le Corbusier, Alvar Aalto, Louis Khan, Mies van der Rohe, Frank Lloyd Wright, Luis Barragan, Russian Constructivists, Italian Rationalists, Cezanne, Picasso and Kurt Schwitters.
 
问:去年,中国政府对中国各地的“怪异建筑”进行叫停管制,特别是在首都北京。对此您有何看法?
Q: Last year, the Chinese government called for an end to the “weird buildings” being built in China, and particularly in the nation’s capital, Beijing. What’s your opinion on it?
 
答:建筑设计正处于良好的发展期。各式各样的创新思维与创造力在这个行业中得以充分施展,同时,建筑设计也是对过往设计中的不足有了清晰认识之后的一种改良过程。不仅在美国,世界各地的建筑设计现状均是如此。现代社会中的信息沟通比以往任何时期都更为快速、便利,这便为世界各地的设计师们获取信息,对信息进行辨析和思考提供了良好的条件,有效建立起对于可用建筑设计信息的搜寻,进而以最为直接、最为单纯的形式表达出自己的设计理念。
 
对于虚拟建筑或像“怪异”建筑一类短暂流行的建筑设计形式而言,其设计理念必须具备一定深刻的内含。否则,没有内含的设计自然容易受到忽视?此外,我和我的团队都十分重视设计的原创性,我也尽可能地将这种理念灌输给设计专业的年轻学生们。如今,所有的设计都可以通过计算机快速而准确地完成,但现在业界的很多人,尤其是那些刚刚走出校门的学生,过分依赖于计算机的模块化设计,而严重缺乏对于空间尺度的有效理解。而且,我不仅仅只是指他们使用计算机进行空间尺度的设计和把控,更为关键的是对于线条尺度的把控,这影响着建筑空间的整体开放尺度,例如,应当设计多大的空间入口等等。这就要求设计者从最初整体设计概念的形成到最终的细节设计,每一步都需要将尺度因素纳入考量范畴。时常有人会说:“我会衡量的。”可是,你不应当仅仅只是去衡量它,而是应当十分明确你正在设计的东西将呈现出怎样的效果,进而将尺度因素恰如其分地植入其中。
 
A: Architecture's in a great place at the moment. There's an extraordinary amount of innovation and creativity, as well as a return to a search for clarity. We see this not only in America; we see it all over the world. Communication is faster than ever—it's really creating an awareness and thoughtfulness on the part of architects everywhere. There's a search for what's meaningful and appropriate to the place, and for the most straightforward, simplest way to express architectural ideas. 
 
With virtual architecture and anything ephemeral such as “weird” buildings, the idea behind it has to be relevant and meaningful. Otherwise it's without ideas and who cares? I also have a real peeve, which everyone in this office knows very much firsthand, and I've expressed it to students whenever I can. Everything is drawn on the computer so we can do certain things faster, and hopefully more accurately. But many people, especially those coming out of school today, show a lack of understanding of scale. And I don't only mean the scale of the spaces they are drawing on the computer, but the scale of a line, which determines the scale of that opening. How big is that door? This has to do with scale at every level, from the overall concept to the last detail. Often someone will say, “I’ll measure it.” But, you shouldn't have to measure it—you should know what you're drawing.
 
 
个人简介:
理查德·迈耶,1934年出生于美国新泽西州的纽瓦克市。1957年,理查德毕业于康奈尔大学,并获建筑学学士学位。之后,他便陆续游走于以色列、希腊、德国、法国、丹麦、芬兰和意大利等地,与当地建筑设计师进行沟通和交流,以获取丰富的建筑设计信息。理查德·迈耶是建筑设计师,也是抽象派艺术家,他的几何线形设计尤为著名,加以白色着饰,更具艺术感染力。1984年,理查德·迈耶荣获普利兹克建筑奖,其代表性建筑设计作品包括:巴塞罗那当代艺术博物馆、洛杉矶盖蒂艺术中心等。
 
Profile:
Richard Meier was born in Newark, New Jersey in 1934. He earned a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Cornell University in 1957. After graduation, he traveled to Israel, Greece, Germany, France, Denmark, Finland and Italy, among other places, to network with architects.Richard Meier is an American abstract artist and architect, whose geometric designs make prominent use of the color white. A winner of the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1984, some of his more iconic buildings include the Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art and the Getty Center in Los Angeles. 


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