丹麦水族馆—蓝色星球
Denmark's Aquarium - The Blue Planet
2014-08-10 11:49:00    | keywords: 丹麦  水族馆  星球  建筑 
丹麦水族馆—蓝色星球
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By 3XN, Copenhagen, Denmark

漩涡
丹麦这个新建国家水族馆的灵感来自流动的水体。“蓝色星球”形似巨大的漩涡,建筑本身诠释了内里即将展现的故事。漩涡的概念源自水的描述,同时表现为抽象和隐喻的形象。与众不同的漩涡叶片搅起人们对其的关注,建筑形态随着视角、距离和日光条件的变化而变化。从半空望去,整个建筑几乎雪白,轮廓令人联想起海星。从前方望去,建筑的有机线条像银灰色的海浪,又像瀚海里的生物,近前一看,外立面的图案宛若鱼儿的鳞片。这是一座令人遐想万千的建筑物。
 
灵活性
“蓝色星球”坐落在卡斯特鲁普北部面向海洋的一处抬升的岬角。乘飞机抵达附近哥本哈根机场的游客能够十分清晰地欣赏到这一建筑物与众不同的外形。外立面覆盖了33 000多片钻石形状的铝制小瓦片,这些瓦片与建筑物的有机外形十分贴合。
漩涡概念不仅表现在视觉方面,还解决了设计的一个现实问题:确保了一个或者多个漩涡的延伸部分,相对减缓了建筑的不连续性,保证了水族馆经营的持续性,这一延伸能够满足水族馆展区的扩建面积超过30%。

入口区和室内空间
经过第一个也是最长的漩涡部分,游客便到达了入口,早就置身景观之中了。景观设计远远超过建筑本身,形成了户外与室内无缝的相连,户外水池突显了等候进入水族馆的游客获得的独特体验:漩涡将游客扯进另一番天地——海面之下的世界。
圆形门厅成为水族馆的中央,来到这里的游客可以自由选择探索河流、湖泊、海洋。通过这种多元线路的设计缓解了单体水族馆前方排长队的风险。室内包括大空间和私密场所,建筑和展览共同演绎了丰富多彩的环境和变化万千的情绪。弧形天花板令人联想起巨鲸的鲸须。
展览专注呈现给游客一种摄人心扉的海底生活的感官体验。为了服务所有年龄段的人群,设计仔细考究各种元素,如光、声、先进的视频技术、投影、摄影、人机交互设备、图形、图解、标识等,令每位游客无论其背景或者兴趣点,都能获得最佳体验。作为丹麦唯一的水族馆,“蓝色星球”关注所有与水生生物有关的元素,如冷水区和热水区、淡水和咸水。总而言之,“蓝色星球”容纳了大约7百万立方米的水体,覆盖了53个分水族馆和展厅。
餐厅的装修以表现北欧自然风格的冷色调为主。餐厅东南朝向,为游客展现了海洋的全景。户外配套设施包括带有座椅的露台、鲤鱼池以及住有海狮的大缸。从水族馆的室内也能观看到海狮。

施工和场址
建筑物很大程度上延伸了原始海岸线,这样一个容易下沉的地形对设施结构提出了特殊的要求。结构建在桩架上,污水结构悬挂在混凝土结构中。建筑外立面以钢结构的设计为基础。支撑结构由54个独特的钢制框架构成,通过辐射状的摆放和几何图案塑造了弧形外立面的基础。
1.7公里的后勤线延伸至厄勒海峡,保证了水族馆合适的水源。整个水族馆的通风系统和公共区域的气候系统同样采用海水。“蓝色星球”坐落在厄勒海峡沿岸,处于绝佳的地理位置,离哥本哈根市政厅广场仅8公里。高速公路、哥本哈根机场、厄勒海峡大桥、地铁和国际列车仅在几百米范围内。

 
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The Whirlpool
Inspired by the shape of water in endless motion, Denmark’s new National Aquarium, The Blue Planet is shaped as a great whirlpool, and the building itself tells the story of what awaits inside.
The whirlpool concept originates in a narrative about water, and as an image, is at once both abstract and figurative. It stirs attention with its distinctive vortex blades, but at the same time, as a building, changes dramatically depending on viewing angle, distance and daylight conditions. From the air, almost entirely white, its contours are reminiscent of a starfish. From the front, the building’s organic lines are evocative of silvery-grey waves or a vast sea creature, and on closer inspection, the facade patterning is reminiscent of fish scales. This is a building that invites interpretation.
 
Flexibility
The Blue Planet is located on an elevated headland towards the sea, north of Kastrup Harbor. The building's distinctive shape is clearly visible for travelers arriving by plane to the nearby Copenhagen Airport. The facade is covered with more than 33,000 small diamond-shaped aluminum shingles, which adapts to the building's organic form.
The whirlpool concept was chosen as ideal not only for its visual associations, but also because it resolved a a practical challenge in the design brief: it ensures that one or more of the whirlpool arms, with relative ease and without disrupting the building’s integrity nor the operation of the aquarium, can be extended with more than 30 % in order to create more exhibition space.
 
The Arrival and Interior
Visitors reach the entrance by following the first and longest of the whirlpool’s arms, already starting in the landscape. With a smooth transition the landscape surpasses for the building, while the outdoor ponds mark the unique experience that awaits the aquarium visitors as they enter: the whirlpool has pulled them into another world - a world beneath the surface of the sea.
A circular foyer is the center of motion around the aquarium, and it is here visitors choose which river, lake or ocean to explore. By enabling multiple routes the risk of queues in front of individual aquariums is reduced. The interiors range from grand to intimate settings, allowing the architecture and the exhibits to jointly convey an array of diverse environments and moods. The curved ceilings of the aquarium are reminiscent of the baleens of a large whale.
The exhibition is a total concept offering all visitors a sensuous and captivating experience of life in and under the water. A mixture of light, sound, advanced AV-technology, projections, film, interactivity, graphics, illustrations and signs aimed at all age levels ensures that every visitor, regardless of background or interests, has the best experience possible. As the only aquarium in Denmark, The Blue Planet focuses on all aquatic life – from cold and warm waters, fresh and salt. In total, The Blue Planet contains app. 7 million liters of water and 53 aquariums and displays.
The restaurant's decor is based on the colors and expressions that characterize Nordic nature. The restaurant faces south-east, and thus offers a panoramic view of the sea. The outdoors facilities include a terrace with seating, a pond with carps and a tank with sea lions. The sea lions can also be looked at from the inside of the aquarium.

Construction and Location
The building extends beyond the original coastline, placing special requirements on the facility's structures in a terrain with tendency to subsidence. The structure is founded on piles and all of the sewage structures are suspended in the concrete structure. The building's architectural facade design forms the basis for the design of the steel structures. The load-bearing system consists of 54 unique steel frames, which via their radial positioning and geometry forms the base of the curved facades.
A service line was built 1.7 km out into the Øresund to obtain suitable water for the aquariums. Moreover, the cooling system for aquariums and climate system for public areas also use seawater.
The Blue Planet has an outstanding location on the shores of Øresund, only eight kilometres from the Copenhagen City Hall Square. Motorways, Copenhagen Airport, the Øresund Bridge, Metro and international trains are within few hundred meters.


All images: 3XN, Copenhagen, Denmark
Via WAF  译:90degree
 
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