伦敦水上运动中心
London Aquatics Centre
2014-09-02 14:26:18    | keywords: 伦敦  2014    RIBA    Stirling    斯特林 
伦敦水上运动中心
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By Zaha Hadid Architects
 
流畅型的建筑大多了无生趣,折衷的办法会导致没有一个功能可以做得到位。扎哈哈迪德事务所为奥林匹克公园设计了世界一流的建筑,曲线的外形与众不同。可移除的“翅膀”能够容纳奥林匹克赛事期间更多的观众席位。翅膀的设计令建筑有种自由飞翔的感觉。
 
设计理念的灵感源自水体流动的几何图案,空间和周边环境的营造呼应了奥林匹克公园的河景观。起伏的屋顶像海浪一样从地面推过,折叠地覆盖在建筑上方,界定了独立的排练空间和表演跳水大厅。主厅的天花板采用隔音木质铺装,由此,即使有兴奋的游泳者发出尖锐的声音也能够正常沟通。
 
建筑面临同时满足作为奥运会会场和公共游泳池的需求,最后建成的中心展现了建筑师对这一难题的完美解决手法。场地有着很多局限性,东边毗邻一条铁路主干线,西边毗邻排水河流,整个场地地下埋有电线。步道主入口必须通过一条新型人行路径——斯特拉福德市大桥。在中轴线上的基座包围泳池主厅,与大桥保持垂直,毗邻入口的地方,训练泳池被嵌入基座和大桥下方。
 
建筑分为三个主部分:现浇混凝土基座;木质百叶下方的宽阔的钢制屋顶,上面是覆铝的立接缝;前两者之间的填充物是玻璃外立面,采用彩色铜质铝框。
 
建筑的可持续证书值得传承与效仿。该项目凭借远超过业主ODA预期的混凝土混合物的创新使用获得了英国BREEAM(英国建筑研究院环境评估方法)创新奖。策略细部十分完善且复杂。设计团队能耗最大化发挥,整合了高标准的隔热、密封性强的外围结构、高效热回收的低速通风系统和变速泵水体供暖系统。对待临时和永久的使用一视同仁。前者易于拆卸,所选取的材料也可以被回收,部分翅膀已经在另一处青少年培训中心搭建起来了。
 
主泳池采用自然照明。机械系统的可调节控制促进节能的最大化,同时建筑与区域供暖系统相连接。用回收的材料替换骨料和水泥。通过重新利用厕所和便池的反冲水将饮用水需求下降超过40%;慢速淋浴和盥洗池则节约了35%。收集雨水用于灌溉大楼南端的绿墙。
 
总之,这是一个很美的建筑,空间开阔,样式具有感染力,高品质且实用。纯净而有力的样式在概念方面完美无缺,可谓是这个时代的伟大作品,也将成为伦敦代代相传且广受欢迎的场所。

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Flexible buildings are generally dull; compromise means that none of the functions are properly served. At the Olympic Park ZHA designed for legacy a world-class building with a distinctive curvaceous form. Then they designed the removable ‘wings’ that accommodated the additional seating required by spectators during the Olympics. It is subsequent clipping of the wings that has allowed the building, architecturally speaking, to fly free.
 
The concept was inspired by the fluid geometry of water in motion, creating spaces and a surrounding environment in sympathy with the river landscape of the Olympic Park. An undulating roof sweeps up from the ground like a wave folding over the building, defining the separate practice and performance-cum-diving pool halls. The main hall, with its acoustically treated timber ceiling, allows for normal conversation across the screeches of delighted swimmers.
 
Despite the unusually stringent demand for the building to work as both an Olympic venue and, in its purer form, a public swimming pool, the resulting Centre has proved successful in both scenarios. There were exceptionally complex site constraints: it was tightly bounded by a main railway line to the east, the Waterworks River to the west and underground power lines running the length of the site. The main pedestrian access route had to be via Stratford City Bridge, a new pedestrian route. The solution was to have a podium encasing the main pool hall, on axis, perpendicular to the bridge, off which is the entrance, with the training pools slotted under the bridge within the podium.
 
The building has three main components: a cast in-situ concrete podium; a wide spanning steel roof, encased in timber louvres on its underbelly  and  aluminium cladding, with standing seams on top. Glazed facades infill between the two, with bronze coloured aluminium frames.
 
This building's sustainability credentials are inherent and exemplary; it achieved a BREEAM Innovation Credit for its unusual use of concrete mixes which far exceeded ODA targets. The detail of the strategy is thorough and complex. As examples, the design team maximised energy efficiencies including incorporating very high levels of insulation, a well-sealed envelope, low-velocity ventilation systems with highly efficient heat recovery and water-based heating systems with variable speed pumps. Both the temporary and the permanent condition were considered equally and the former was easily demountable and the materials chosen so they could be recycled - parts of the wings have already been rebuilt elsewhere as a training centre for teenagers.
 
The main pool is naturally lit. Mechanical systems have adaptable controls for maximum efficiencies in use and the building is connected to the district heating system. Aggregates and cement replacement material were recycled materials. Potable water demands were reduced by over 40% by reusing backwash in WCs and urinals; low-flow showers and basins deliver 35% savings. Rainwater harvesting provides irrigation for the green wall at the southern end of the building.
 
Overall this is a very beautiful building; it is sensual in its form with a generosity of space. It works very practically and is well built with very high quality finishes. This is a great building of our times, its pure and powerful form is conceptually flawless; and undoubtedly it will be a favourite venue for Londoners for generations to come.
 
项目信息Credits
Client: Locog/Oda
Awards Won: RIBA Stirling Shortlist, RIBA National Award and RIBA London Award
Contractor: Balfour Beatty
Structural Engineers: Ove Arup & Partners
Services Engineer: Ove Arup & Partners
Cost: Confidential
Photographer: Hufton + Crow
 
 
Via RIBA  译:90degree
 
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