伦敦桥夏德大厦
London Bridge Tower the Shard
2014-09-09 21:16:49    | keywords: 伦敦  2014    RIBA    Stirling    斯特林 
伦敦桥夏德大厦
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By Renzo Piano Building Workshop


夏德大厦是伦敦的地标性建筑之一,在伦敦,无论通过何种视角欣赏,夏德大厦都能醒目地呈现于眼前,如果建筑师们将其在各个不同视角的亮点都作为规划过程的一部分进行阐释,那着实需要耗费一番功夫。

在建筑密度如此之高的城市区域内建造这样一座外观近似于玻璃艺术品的摩天大楼,的确令人叹为观止。建筑师们尽最大的努力,使之和谐地融入周边环境,进而融入伦敦的整个市区环境之中。正如伦敦的小黄瓜大楼一样,人们不仅只是惊叹于此类超高层建筑的摩登外观上,更加惊叹于建筑本身结构的合理性与实用性。然而,就专业角度而言,同行的建筑师们对这一建筑有着更具深度的尊崇:作为一座拔地而起的超高层建筑,夏德大厦建筑结构的稳定性,以及其在建筑内部与高空视角审视建筑结构时的视觉合理性与美观度,都令专业建筑师们十分钦慕。

在毗邻伦敦主要交通枢纽区域一处十分狭小的地块内,建造这样一座总使用面积高达120万平方英尺(约11.15公顷)的摩天大楼,其康健中心、办公区域、餐饮区域、酒店设施、住宅公寓、公共景观走廊等六大功能区分布于各个楼层中,形成一个真正意义上的垂直空中村,夏德大厦的建筑浓缩度、典型性以及城市集约化发展的典范性,都堪称同类建筑之最。站立在办公区、景观走廊及高层功能区内,所有这一视角的地面景致一览无余,并可以直观、清晰地观赏对面的伦敦桥火车站建筑,而在大厦的另外高层视角处,则能俯瞰其余的伦敦街景。

夏德大厦的三大建筑优势全都集中于它的建筑外观设计上:首先,建筑楼层地板的厚度依功能性不同而向高层逐层递减(相较于酒店和公寓楼层,办公区楼层需要更为厚实的地板),进而形成十分雅致的锥体建筑外观。此外,这种雅致的外观形象不会因其某个或多个部位受其它周边建筑的视觉遮挡而受到丝毫影响。其次,由八面超巨形碎片状玻璃幕墙组成的八角状特色建筑外墙,在阳光的照射下从各个不同的视角折射出耀眼的光芒,整个建筑在这些“玻璃碎片”的点缀下,格外夺目。有别于其他普通建筑外立面所映衬出的千篇一律的城市景观,夏德大厦从各个不同角度映衬出的则是千变万化的天空景致,仿若一个巨型的高空万花筒,煞是壮观。再次,由于考虑到伦敦多雨的天气特征,天色时常呈现灰暗,会造成整个建筑令人不悦的视觉呈现,因此建筑师们在天窗式建筑屋顶上留出充足的空间,使光线足以渗透到建筑外立面的各个部位,以使整幢大厦在阴雨绵绵中,明朗的建筑外观依然清晰可见,其设计构思与德国哥德式教堂塔的塔尖设计有着异曲同工之妙。曾有人对该项目的可实施性表示过质疑,但只要联想到1972年美国旧金山泛美集团锥形塔楼建筑的重量级重建工程,对于夏德大厦建筑工程相关解决方案的重重疑虑也就自然随之烟消云散了。

漫步于议会广场最高法院建筑前的人行步道上,夏德大厦所有的建筑优势便能跃然眼前。通过近期的一份公开调查显示:视线透过大本钟与保利得大厦的间隔空间,在这一视觉角度中,夏德大厦正毗邻古城堡式威斯敏斯特宫,并在这些伦敦最具代表性的历史建筑群中,必然性地成为最为炫目的摩登建筑。


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The Shard is omnipresent in London. If the architects had illustrated every view in which it stars, as part of the planning process, the resulting material would have filled several fat volumes.

To make a tower on such a tight site a thing of great beauty is a rare achievement. The architects have added immeasurably to its immediate environs and to London as a whole. Like the Gherkin, this is a tower that people who don’t generally care for modern architecture seem to like. It makes people talk about architecture, which can only be a good thing. But there is much for architects to admire too: the way it meets the split ground level expressing its structure all the way; the way you keep seeing the structure from the inside of the building and the way the structure shines when it frames the views from the uppermost public platforms.

There cannot be a more compressed, nor exemplary, model for city intensification than this tower: 1.2 million square feet of accommodation built on a tiny parcel of land directly next to one of London's major transport hubs. It has six uses each occupying multiple floors: health clinic, offices, restaurants, hotel, residential apartments and public viewing gallery: a genuine vertical village. All this touches the ground effortlessly with offices and viewing gallery, the high-volume uses, approached directly from a podium facing London Bridge Station, and the rest from street level on the opposite side.

Its three great virtues are all related to its external appearance. Firstly the floor-plate depths are graded in relation to the uses they contain (offices need deeper floor plates than hotels and apartments) so that the building tapers elegantly. Moreover this elegance is always present no matter how much of the overall form is hidden by other buildings. Secondly with the perimeter modelled as eight distinct ‘shards’, the scale of the building is fragmented and light reflected in interesting ways – not least by dint of the way in which the angled glass reflects the ever-changing sky and not the static cityscape, lending a sense of lightness few other towers can claim. Thirdly, understanding that there are many days when the London skyline reads only as a depressing grey silhouette, the architects have left a substantial part at the top open, adding further to the lightness even in these conditions, not unlike the Gothic spire of a German cathedral. Any doubts about this lack of resolution are dissipated when one considers the alternative: a re-working of Pereira’s Prick – the heavy 1972 Transamerica pyramidal tower in San Francisco.

The assertions of its virtues can be tested by walking along the pavement in front of the Supreme Court in Parliament Square. If one looks through the gap between Big Ben and Portcullis House, a view subject to challenge in a recent Public Inquiry, the Shard appears next to the spires of the Palace of Westminster with the inevitability of an established and historic part of London's skyline.

项目信息Credits

项目客户:London Bridge Quarter
荣获奖项:英国皇家建筑师协会斯特林奖,英国皇家建筑师协会国家奖,英国皇家建筑师协会伦敦奖
承包商:Mace
结构工程:Wsp Cantor Seinuk
服务工程:Arup
项目费用:保密
摄影师:山姆·罗伯茨
摄影师:迈克尔·德南斯

Client: London Bridge Quarter
Awards Won: Riba Stirling Shortlist, Riba National Award and Riba London Award
Contractor: Mace
Structural Engineer: Wsp Cantor Seinuk
Services Engineer: Arup
Cost: Confidential
Photographer: Sam Roberts
Photographer: Michael Denance


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