伦敦政治经济学院苏瑞福学生中心
London School of Economics Saw Swee Hock Student Centre
2014-09-09 22:47:10    | keywords: 伦敦  2014  RIBA  Stirling  斯特林 
伦敦政治经济学院苏瑞福学生中心
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By O’donnell + Tuomey Architects


伦敦政治经济学院苏瑞福学生中心置身于一个复杂的中世纪伦敦街道格局中,建筑师们通过自己魔力般的建筑设计智慧,将二者和谐地融于一体。这一学生中心无疑是极具代表性的卓越建筑项目,其非凡的典范价值可见一斑:它十分具象地展示了建筑师如何将一处项目场地客观存在的诸多局限性元素灵活、合理地应用于一幢当地地标性原始建筑的庞大改建工程之中。

项目伊始,建筑师们将直角几何方形作为基础性立体结构元素来开凿相应的建筑立面镂空,以便光线射入,使建筑内部拥有较为充足的自然光,并在毗邻的外墙上形成极具艺术感的光影效果。这种建筑外立面的设计风格与周边的街道景观和谐相融,并延用至建筑中央螺旋状主楼梯的设计中,在视觉上营造出一种延续性的室内街景氛围。建筑外墙设置了相应的倾度与曲度,因而形成建筑内部各楼层复杂的非规则形状,然而每一个楼层在合理的布局与调节中,其自然性、功能性与娱乐性却丝毫不受影响。如此理想的设计效果呈现确是意料之外,以这样独特的方式来拓展建筑的使用面积,在建筑专业领域亦实属罕见。

看似粗糙而原始的红砖塔式建筑结构并不是由随意的砖块砌筑而成的,在全部175 000块砖材中,有46块是有着统一标准形状与规格的砖块,还有127块特种砖,而不是只有单一的普通切边砖。这样特殊而复杂的建筑外立面布局,形成了外墙别样的倾度,进而营造出趣味十足的孔状建筑光影,并且在各个方向形成多种不同的视觉角度,光与影在追逐中,赋予整个建筑无穷的活力,极具观赏性。方形的格状墙体镂空为建筑内部提供充足的阳光和新鲜的空气。建筑窗体采用巴西自然抛光式硬木孪叶苏木,由于特殊的建筑外立面结构,窗体结构也存在着相应的复杂性,垂直或带一定倾度的巨型窗格玻璃在孪叶苏木窗体的框固中,形成了开阔的建筑室内视野。

螺旋状的楼梯结构为学生与教职员工间的互动营造出自然和谐的连续性社交空间:在整个建筑系统的顶部和底部各设有一个传统式的螺旋梯,分别通往地下室和建筑最高点的塔尖处。在地下室内,设有一个大型双层俱乐部及酒吧娱乐空间,其光线补给依靠毗邻的街面光照。充足的日照、合理的自然通风系统以及其他诸多可圈可点的设计细节,为该项目在建筑研究所环境评估法(BREEAM)的评估中赢得了优等评级。

尽管在该项目的施工过程中,承包商们遇到了各种困难,但最终,还是得以完美竣工,并呈现出一幢造型独特的综合性建筑体。建成如此复杂结构的建筑体,建筑师及相关人员必须具备超群的建筑设计智慧与施工技艺,同时还应具备高度谨慎的责任感以及非凡的意志力。这幢建筑本身拥有着令人惊叹的复古式建筑外观结构,同时,它能够和谐地融于周边环境中。此外,与众不同的综合性建筑设计形式轻松赋予整个建筑体以多功能性。

O’Donnell + Tuomey建筑事务所的作品往往广受认可,但他们依然保持着一如既往的建筑设计探索与发展,并从卡恩、斯特林以及俄罗斯的建构主义风格中吸收了大量优秀的建筑设计理念,进而建造出独具特色的各式建筑,因此备受项目客户的高度赞赏与建筑使用者们的一致好评。

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In the midst of a complex mediaeval London street pattern O’Donnell and Tuomey have woven a little of their magic. This remarkable project is an object lesson in mobilising the limitations of a site into a startlingly original building which makes a massive contribution to its townscape.

The architects started by taking the geometry of tight angles as the definition of a solid into which they gouged cuts and cracks that give light and form. Every angled facet responds to rights of lights of its neighbours. The momentum is generated in the surrounding streets and drawn into the spiral that rises through the whole height of the structure as a continuous internal street, taking the form of a generous stair that clambers its way around the core. Outer walls slope and twist, floors take up complex non-orthogonal shapes, yet all the accommodation generated seems to be natural, functional and hugely enjoyable to use. The result is truly unexpected. It is fascinating to see a practice enlarging its areas of expertise in this way.

The bold red brick tower is made of not just any brick - there are 46 standard shape bricks, 127 special bricks out of a total of 175,000, and not a single cut brick. This is achieved with walls that slope and become perforate to give shading and have angles that vary in every direction all suggesting a very considerable imaginative control. The latticing lets in more light, lending it a Kahnian air. The windows use jatoba, a self-finished hardwood from Brazil and have a complexity of their own whereby many verticals are gathered together next to larger panes, the verticals indicating opening lights.

The spiral plan functions as a continuous social space with a natural tendency to encourage interaction for students and staff. At the top and bottom of the system are two more conventional spiral staircases, one to the basements and the other to the highest part of the diminishing plan. In the basement, there is a large double-height club and bar space lit by borrowed daylight from street level. The use of daylight, natural ventilation and many other details has given the design a BREEAM Outstanding rating.

The building is beautifully constructed in spite of the difficulties of being novated to the contractors. To build a building like this required a high degree of craftsmanship and care, and one feels that this was achieved through the sheer willpower of the architects. This is a building that has a striking and original appearance while at the same time fitting happily into its context. Similarly, it has a complex and unusual plan form that accommodates functions with effortless ease.

O’Donnell + Tuomey’s work is always recognizable but ever developing: and full of architectural references: Kahn, Stirling and the Russian constructivists. They absorb all this and make buildings that are all their own and are much admired by their clients and all who use them.

项目信息Credits

项目客户:伦敦政治经济学院——物业部
荣获奖项:英国皇家建筑师协会斯特林奖,英国皇家建筑师协会国家奖,英国皇家建筑师协会伦敦奖
承包商:杰弗里·奥斯本
结构工程:Horganlynch咨询工程公司
服务工程:BDSP(公司现已合并为Chapman Bdsp)
项目费用:24 115 600英镑(约合人民币238 551 640元)
摄影师:丹尼斯·吉尔伯特


Client: London School of Economics and Political Science - Estates Division
Awards Won: RIBA Stirling Shortlist, RIBA National and RIBA London Award
Contractor: Geoffrey Osborne
Structural Engineer: Horganlynch Consulting Engineers
Services Engineer: BDSP (company has since merged as Chapman Bdsp)
Cost: £24,115,600
Photographer: Dennis Gilbert

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