斯派克尼瑟Stoep剧院/UNStudio
Theater De Stoep in Spijkenisse by UNStudio
2015-04-28 10:16:12    | keywords: 剧院  文化机构  公共建筑 
斯派克尼瑟Stoep剧院/UNStudio
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Courtesy of UNStudio. 感谢UNStudio的投稿,90degree版权所有,不得转载。


荷兰斯派克尼瑟镇的Stoep剧院于近日竣工,明天斯派克尼瑟市政府将举办庆祝活动,宣布这一新建文化机构正式对外开放。UN Studio设计的Stoep剧院旨在响应时下兴起的文化热潮,将剧院的原始功能——打造如幻似梦的世界——与区域剧院的具体要求及迎合当地社区各种需求的必要功能结合起来。因此,剧院的设计侧重两个方面,即舞台世界的虚幻特性及剧场体验的社会因素。

UN Studio创立者本·范·伯克尔先生曾说:“与如今的中间文化不同,Stoep剧院为人们提供了现场活动的参与体验,也就是所谓的现场感:现场剧院的魅力所在,亦可理解为观众与表演者之间捉摸不定的奇妙能量、共同形成的整体以及现场活动所需的短暂合作。”Stoep剧院的设计便是为了巩固和增强这种现场感,并在同一时间为表演、社交聚会及体验截然不同的现实(其他的、虚构的、表达的以及呈现的不同世界,同时也是旁观这些世界的超真实感知体验)提供一个综合场所。
 
Stoep剧院占地面积达5800平方米,容纳了一个较大和较小的剧院空间(主厅观众席可容纳650名观众,次厅可容纳200名观众)、多个相互交织的门廊,一间咖啡馆、一间餐厅、一间艺术咖啡馆、一间贵宾室以及数不胜数的更衣室、多功能室和办公室。各种内部组合布局构成了花朵状的大楼,而一个大型无柱式中央门廊则成为该剧院的核心。
 
垂直门廊
伯克尔先生曾提到:“垂直门廊变成了剧院社会功能的关键点、游客的驿站以及围绕着多层次视野的动态焦点。”此外,门廊与该建筑的各个部位相连,具有指路功能。从主门廊开始,散发着雕塑气息的楼梯便构成了各入口与正厅之间的纽带,而楼梯上的栏杆又天衣无缝地化作功能型表面及家具元素。
 
正厅与音响设备
Stoep剧院将用于举办各式各样的演出活动,包括戏剧、歌剧、卡巴莱歌舞表演、音乐剧、音乐会、青年戏剧及舞蹈表演等。因此,剧院空间音响设备的多功能性至关重要。目前,音响控制软件技术发展迅速,使剧院正厅的音质得以合理设计和优化。故而,天花板的构件均可适当降低,并改变角度,从而在需要的时候调整音量水平,而吸音墙则可反射并提高观众席的音质。
 
照明与颜色
在剧院体验中,照明与颜色发挥着不可或缺的作用,这不仅包括剧院正厅及节目制作,还包括场景设置及公共门廊氛围的营造。在白天,剧院正面的下方玻璃使阳光得以直接穿透剧院正面及顶部并投射在通往正厅的门廊及楼梯上。而在夜间,颜色及人造光的采用使剧院氛围更加温馨迷人。此外,剧院正面的上方部分由两层铝材组成,通过外部白板上的圆孔可瞥见紫色背面层,而两层铝材之间还安装了LED灯,方便剧院的夜间照明。
 
一体化及可行性
Stoep剧院的独特之处还在于其与水的联系及附近的Nooitgedacht风车美景。剧院外形圆润,从而避免影响风向,干扰附近风车的运转。虽然区域剧院的需求数不胜数且各有不同,但是仍需在负担能力范围内设法平衡各种设计目标。有一种可大幅降低施工成本的方法,那就是采用设计信息建模(DIM)方法:这是一种在设计阶段采用的知识集成及表演导向型设计方法,其特点在于可通过综合方法迅速测试并建造空间模型。
 
在项目前期阶段,UNStudio与奥雅纳工程顾问公司(Arup)合作进行冲突检测,以确保所有三维细节的重复及可建性均得到确认和研究。总承包商VORM Bouw中标后,便着手进行设计信息建模(DIM)及建筑信息建模(BIM)。在承包商的鼎力合作下,UNStudio得以通过输入输出模块(IOB)打造出最终的建筑信息模型,保证了调整成本的大幅降低及详细成本的微控制。客户斯派克尼瑟市在DIM/BIM设计过程中发挥了至关重要的作用,而整个BIM模型也将用于剧院未来的维护和管理。
 
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Image by: Jan Paul Mioulet

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Image by: Jan Paul Mioulet

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Following the recent completion of the Theatre de Stoep in the Dutch town of Spijkenisse, the Municipality of Spijkenisse will tomorrow celebrate the official opening of its new cultural venue for the city. UNStudio’s design for Theatre responds to the current cultural invigoration of the city by merging the archetypal function of a theatre - that of creating a world of illusion and enchantment - with the specific requirements of a regional theatre and its requisite to cater to the varied needs of the local community. The theatre is therefore designed with a dual emphasis on the chimeric nature of the world of the stage and the social aspects of the theatre experience. 
 
Ben van Berkel: “In contrast to today’s mediatised culture, theatre offers the participatory experience of the live event, often appropriately referred to as ‘liveliness’: the ‘magic of live theatre’, understood as the strange, elusive energy between audience and performer, the community forged together and the momentary collaboration necessitated by the live event.”Theatre de Stoep is designed to fortify and inspire this liveliness, providing at one and the same time a place of performance, of social gathering and of experiencing contrasting realities: the world of the other, of fabrication, of expression and display, but simultaneously the very real sentient experience of ourselves as spectators within these worlds.
 
In the design of the 5,800 m2 building a larger and a smaller theatrical space (with the main auditorium seating up to 650 guests and the smaller hall accommodating 200), several interlinked foyers, a grand café and a restaurant, an artist’s café, a VIP lounge, numerous dressing rooms, multifunctional rooms and offices are all brought together within one volume. The placement of the various internal volumes results in a building in the form of a flower, with a large, column-free central foyer forming the heart of the structure.
 
Vertical Foyer
Ben van Berkel: “The vertical foyer becomes a pivotal point in the social functioning of the theatre, a ‘stage’ for the visitors and a dynamic focal point surrounded by viewpoints on different levels.”
Furthermore, the foyer serves to organise wayfinding and the linking of the different programmes within the building. From the main foyer, a sculptural stairway forms the binding element towards the entrances to the auditoria, while the handrail of the stairway seamlessly molds itself into functional surfaces and furniture elements.
 
Auditoria and Acoustics
Theatre de Stoep hosts a wide variety of performance types, including plays, opera, cabaret, musicals, concerts, youth theatre and dance performances. As such, versatility in the acoustic properties of the theatre spaces is paramount. The recent rapid development of the software used to control acoustics made it possible to engineer and optimise the sound quality within the auditoria. Thus the ceiling elements can be lowered and angled to adjust volume levels when required, while the acoustic wall panels reflect and increase the quality of the sound for every seat in the auditorium.

Light and Colour
Light and colour play an essential role in the experience of the theatre, not only in the auditoria and for productions, but also for setting the scene, the atmosphere and the mood in the public foyers. During the day the lower glass portion of the facade enables daylight penetration directly from both the front of the theatre and from above, throwing daylight deep into the foyer and above the stairs leading to the auditoria. In the evening a warm and inviting atmosphere is created through the use of both color and artificial lighting. 
Above the glazed lower levels of the facade, the upper portion comprises two layers of aluminium, Glimpses of the purple colored back layer can be seen through circular perforations in the outer white panels, with LED lights fitted between the two facade layers to light the building in the evenings.
 
Integration and Attainability
Unique to the location is its connection with the water and the view to the nearby windmill, “Nooitgedacht”. The building volume is rounded so as to ensure as little wind flow disturbance to this nearby mill. Although the demands of the regional theatre are many and varied, ways must be found to balance design ambitions with affordability. One means by which it was possible to save significant costs on construction was through the use of Design Information Modelling (DIM): a knowledge integrated performance driven design methodology employed during the design phases which affords the unique opportunity to test and to model spaces swiftly and in an integrated fashion. 
 
In the early stages of the project UNStudio worked with Arup on Clash detections to ensure that all three dimensional details where recognised and researched on repetition and buildability. The step from Design information modelling (DIM) to Building information modelling (BIM) was made after tendering the main contractor VORM Bouw. The final BIM model was developed from the DIM model by IOB in close collaboration with the contractor to ensure an important reduction of the adjustment costs and micro control of the detailed costs. The client, the City of Spijkenisse, played a crucial and important role in requesting the full DIM/BIM design process and the full BIM model will be used for the maintenance and management of the theatre in the future.
 
 
项目信息:
项目客户:斯派克尼瑟镇
建筑立面:总立面7000平方米/净立面5700平方米
建筑体积:42000立方米
施工场地:3600平方米
大观众厅容量:656人(467+楼座189)小观众厅:200人
 
Project Credits:
Client: Municipality of Spijkenisse
Building Surface: 7000m2 gross/ 5700m2 net
Building Volume: 42000m3
Building Site: 3600m2
Capacity Main Auditorium: 656 (467 + 189 on balcony) Small Auditorium: 200
 
 

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