梅道诊疗所临时宿舍
Temporary Dormitories for Mae Tao Clinic
2015-03-19 10:43:26    | keywords: 临时住所  公益建筑  再生材料 
梅道诊疗所临时宿舍
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Courtesy of World Architecture Community. 感谢WA的投稿,90degree版权所有,不得转载。
 
 
缅甸克伦邦持续数十载的武装冲突导致每天都有许多难民和移民涌入临近的泰国。泰国湄索镇与缅甸边境仅相距数公里,这里有许多学校和孤儿院为难民和移民提供住所和教育。儿童发展中心学校便是其中之一,该学校由梅道诊疗所管理,接收了500多名学生。由于缺乏足够的空间,且考虑到在某些情况下需立即为新生提供住处,该校不得不着手打造新型低成本临时宿舍,以方便组装,并尽可能多地利用再生材料。 
 
梅道诊疗所委托泰国建筑公司a.gor.a architects为其设计临时宿舍及培训教室,以作为梅道诊疗所的新培训中心校区。驻曼谷的卢森堡大使馆为四栋宿舍的建设提供了资金。第一栋宿舍于2012年4月建成,耗时四周,可容纳25名学生。该建筑融入当地环境,符合当地人的生活习性。建筑内部的布局保证了空间的开放和通风且具有半私密性。此外,建筑内还设有储藏空间,可供学生使用。该建筑所用材料取自当地,为使用者所熟知,便于保养,从而降低了保养成本。
 
一栋临时宿舍的主要成本集中在由再生木材建成的结构,占建筑总施工成本的70%,且可在未来以原价的80%转售。宿舍的墙体、地板及屋顶还使用了竹子及茅草。如未经过预处理,这些材料无法维持两年以上。但是,这些材料一年四季都容易获得,且价格对当地人而言也较为实惠和稳定。宿舍所用再生木材来自镇上的废旧建筑,由拆迁人员小心剥离留作它用。木材经过打磨、去钉并锯切至适当尺寸,方便每个木架的拆卸和迁址重装。泰缅边境可利用的木材多为柚木,其质量堪称世界之最。但是近年来,由于边境的乱砍乱伐及非法贩卖,使得该木材的价格上涨了3倍之多。因此,为了降低新建筑的成本,当地人越来越多地对木材进行回收利用。当地人对木材了如指掌,故将木材作为主要建材有助于保护当地人的传统建筑工艺。
 
作为建筑产品的再生木材至关重要,有助于提高行业及当地社区对乱砍乱伐的认识并推动建设更多的环保项目。如今,已有五栋宿舍于2012年4月至7月期间建成,可容纳130名学生。每栋宿舍的大小均为775平方英尺(72平方米),所耗成本为2 178美元(1700欧元)。宿舍建成之后,建筑师们还着手设计新诊所,并于2013年9月开工。其他建筑的建设也在陆续进行中。
 
a.gor.a architects成立于2012年,创始人为Albert Company Olmo、Jan Glasmeier及Line Ramstad。该建筑事务所位于泰国的湄索镇,目前正与泰缅边境的边缘人群、社区组织及非政府组织合作。除了开展多个学校项目外,a.gor.a architects还与当地的施工组织Gyaw Gyaw合作,为当地的梅道诊疗所(为缅甸难民和移民提供免费医疗服务的医疗中心)提供顾问服务,设计并建造新的梅道诊疗所。
 
Jan Glasmeier在湄索的梅道诊疗所、妇女社会行动组织及Gyaw Gyaw等多家社区组织做志愿者。他曾在新加坡体育城施工期间担任新加坡奥雅纳工程顾问公司的首席建筑师,曾就职于伦敦Foster + Partners建筑事务所并参与了阿布达比酋长国马斯达尔市的总体规划工作。Jan意识到,生态与经济效应对我们当前及未来的生活方式均具有极大的影响,我们每个人都有责任找到一种能迅速应对这些变化的创新方法。在泰国,他以推动代用材料及可持续材料的使用为目标,并参与了梅道诊疗所的新医疗培训中心、CDC临时宿舍等项目的建设。他还通过扩大国际建筑公司的捐赠网络,为多个慈善项目筹集资金。Jan于2006年毕业于德国达姆施塔特技术大学并获得建筑学文凭。
 
联合创始人Albert Company Olmo目前正以建筑师身份同梅道诊疗所合作,并参与了新医疗培训设施的建设。他的施工经验及设计才能使该诊疗所在不断壮大的过程中,得以确保建筑安全性并整合可持续再生能源功能。他所设计及协调的建设项目包括:新住院部、生殖健康咨询部以及新医疗培训中心、CDC临时宿舍、儿童康乐中心等其他设施。他的主要目标是通过引进多种代用材料、提高项目测绘重要性、创建建筑组织网络并为当地雇员举办研讨会等,促进建筑施工的可持续性。Albert于2007年毕业于西班牙加泰罗尼亚理工大学并获得技术架构学位。
 
联合创始人Line Ramstad曾就职于挪威的多家建筑公司,并因此于2008年作为TYIN的联合创始人前往泰国,打造了世界知名的Soer Ker Tye Houses(又名蝴蝶园)。2009年,她创办了非政府组织Gyaw Gyaw。她与克伦邦同事们一起,协调并设计了多所学校、水利设施及泰缅边境房屋的建设。她还以建造师的身份参与了梅道诊疗所新医疗培训中心的建设。她的主要目标是通过采用生态、经济及文化可持续方法,壮大地处边境的克伦邦弱势群体社区的力量。她还重视新工艺的功能性与贯彻性,因为新的施工技术常会降低能够更好地满足用户需求的材料和建筑的使用率。Line于2003年从挪威生命科学大学毕业并获得景观建筑学位,现已获得该校的地理与人类学专业文学硕士学位。

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The armed conflict that has persisted for decades in the Karen State of Myanmar results in a daily flow of refugees and immigrants to neighbouring Thailand. In the Thai town of Mae Sot, a few kilometres from the Burmese border, numerous schools and orphanages offer accommodation and education for the refugees and immigrants. One of these centers, the CDC School (Children Development Center) under the tutelage of Mae Tao Clinic organisation, hosts more than 500 students. The lack of space and, in many cases, the need for immediate accommodation for new students has forced the School to present a new model of temporary low-cost dormitories that is easy to assemble and can be built by using as many recycled materials as possible. 
 
Mae Tao Clinic commissioned Thailand-based architecture firm a.gor.a architects to design its temporary dormitories and training classroom buildings as part of Mae Tao Clinic's new Training Center Campus. The Embassy of Luxembourg in Bangkok funded the construction of four dormitories. The first of four dormitories was built in April 2012 within four weeks. With a space capacity of 25 students, the building meets the modus vivendi by fitting into the local environment in which it is located. The interior layout ensures an open and airy space that offers semi-privacy and includes storage space for the students. The building materials used are locally available and well known to their users, thus allowing for easy maintenance and resulting in low maintenance costs. 
 
The main cost of a temporary dormitory is the structure made from recycled timber, which represents 70% of the total construction cost of the building, and can be re-sold in the future for 80% of its original price. Bamboo and thatch are also used for walls, floors, and roofs. Although these materials are not intended to last over two years without any pre-treatment, they are easily available every season and the cost is affordable and stable for the local people. The recycled timber used for the dormitories comes from old buildings in town that are carefully stripped and put aside by the demolition crew. The timber is polished, de-nailed, and sawn down to size. Every timber frame is easy to disassemble and assemble again in a new location. The quality of available timber, mainly teak, at the Thai-Burma border is told to be one of the best in the world. However, the price of the timber has risen by over 300 percent in the last few years due to the deforestation and the illegal trafficking along the border. Thus recycling timber has become popular among the local people in order to reduce the cost of the new buildings. Using timber as a main building material allows us to help preserve the traditional construction skills of the local people who are already very familiar with this material. 
 
Recycled timber as a construction product is important in both raising industry and local community awareness towards deforestation and promoting more environmentally friendly practices. To date, five temporary dormitories for 130 children have been built during the period of April to June in 2012. The size of each temporary dormitory is 775 square feet (72 square meters) and each of them costs $2,178 (1700 €). The architects are currently working on the new clinic, which will start construction in September 2013. Additional buildings are also in the works. 
 
a.gor.a architects was founded in 2012 by Albert Company Olmo, Jan Glasmeier, and Line Ramstad. This architecture office is based in Mae Sot, Thailand, and is working with marginalized groups, community based organizations, and NGO's along the Thai-Burma Border. Besides working on several school projects, a.gor.a architects have teamed up with the local construction group Gyaw Gyaw and are consulting for the local Mae Tao Clinic, a health centre that provides free healthcare for Burmese refugees and migrants, and to design and build the new Mae Tao Clinic. 
 
Jan Glasmeier is volunteering in Mae Sot for several community-based organizations such as Mae Tao Clinic, Social Action Woman, Gyaw Gyaw, etc. He was a lead architect for Arup Singapore during the construction of the Singapore Sports Hub, and was working for Foster + Partners in London on the Masdar City master plan in Abu Dhabi, UAE. Jan is aware that ecological and economical impacts will influence the way we live drastically today and in the near future, and that we are all committed to finding new and creative ways to react rapidly to these changes. In Thailand, he aims to promote the use of alternative and sustainable materials and participates in the construction of the New Medical Training Center of MTC, temporary CDC dormitories, etc. He also has raised funds for several charity projects by expanding the network of donors among the international architectural firms. Jan graduated in 2006 with a Diploma in Architecture from the Technical University of Darmstadt in Germany. 
 
Co-founder Albert Company Olmo is working at Mae Tao Clinic as an architect and participating in the construction of the new medical and training facilities. With his experience in construction and design skills, the clinic is able to keep growing by ensuring the safety of the buildings and incorporating sustainable and renewable energy functions. He designed and coordinated the construction of: New In-patient, Reproductive Health and Counseling Department and other facilities such as the new Medical Training Center, temporary CDC dormitories, Child Recreation Center, etc. His main goal is to promote sustainability in construction by introducing alternative materials, promoting the importance of mapping the projects, creating networks among architectural organizations and conducting workshops for local staff. Albert graduated with a Technical Architecture degree from the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya in Spain in 2007. 
 
Co-founder Line Ramstad's previous experience with several architectural firms in Norway brought her to Thailand in 2008 as a co-founder of TYIN to build the well-known Soer Ker Tye Houses (also known as the Butterfly Houses). In 2009, she founded the NGO Gyaw Gyaw. Alongside her group of Karen colleagues, she coordinated and designed the construction of the several schools, water facilities, and houses along the Thai-Burma Border. She participated as a constructor in building the New Medical Training Center of MTC. Her main goal is to empower the vulnerable Karen community at the border by implementing sustainable methods in terms of ecology, economy, and culture. This also includes focus on functionality and implementation of new techniques that often result in less use of materials and buildings that better answers the needs of the users. Line graduated with a Landscape Architecture degree from UMB – Norwegian University of Life Sciences in 2003 and also holds a Bachelor of Arts in Geography and Anthropology from NTNU–Norwegian University of Science and Technology. 

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