美国蒙特雷湾水族馆
Monterey Bay Aquarium
2014-08-07 10:14:10    | keywords: 蒙特雷  水族馆  美国 
美国蒙特雷湾水族馆
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全球知名的蒙特雷湾水族馆坐落在加利福尼亚州蒙特雷,毗邻太平洋,向人们展现了神奇的海洋世界,是海獭、鲨鱼、海马、金枪鱼、企鹅、翻车鱼、水母等成千上万种海洋动植物的家园。游客来到蒙特雷湾水族馆能观赏到一系列展览。最为出名的永久展包括三层楼高的巨澡丛林、亲水池和互动展区、戏水区“海洋之家展厅”以及充满百万加仑水的外海湾展区。海马展区是水族馆最受欢迎的特色展,游客在此能领略15种海马及其旁系的身姿,包括像苏斯博士画作那样的多叶型海龙、棘海龙、明黄色海马等。
 
蒙特雷湾水族馆是世界上首个建造大尺度外海湾展区的水族馆。展区突显了太平洋水域海洋生物史诗性洄游的过程以及外海域生物不断运动的特征。百万加仑水的外海湾展区里居住着多样化的海洋生物群,如金枪鱼、魔鬼鱼、鲭鱼、沙丁鱼、鲯鳅鱼、翻车鱼和双髻鲨,有时还会有一只大白鲨。在外海湾展区的其他地方,游客能驻足停留在世界上能找到的最大的水母展区,可以看到这群优雅的舞蹈生灵在水中一起一落,发出彩色的光芒,为暗藏的刺披上一层迷幻衣。
 
太平洋沿岸的海洋生物是滨海展区的特色,游客在此能够探索各种生境,如滨海湿地、岩岸生境、巨藻丛林、蒙特雷湾海底水域等。游客在此能走进巨章的国度,探索海滨鸟类的鸟舍和滨海湿地展区,体验海浪四射之下的冒险旅程。当然,游客也能走进价格低廉的咖啡厅学习如何点上一席满足味蕾的海鲜餐同时还能保护海洋野生动物。
 
七鳃鲨、鲑鱼、巨型黑鲈和其他种类的鱼群漫游在90英尺长(约27.43米)326 000加仑(约1 234.04千升)水的蒙特雷湾生境展区里,惟妙惟肖地展现了一幅水族馆主要生境的剖面图:沙质海底、页岩暗礁、深海暗礁、码头桩基。海獭们的嬉戏近在咫尺,游客在这个两层展区里可以同时观赏到水面和水下的场景。28英尺(约8.53米)高的巨藻丛林展区以潜水员的视角展现了灵动的巨藻丛林生态。
 
教育课程
 
水族馆每年都为校园里8万多名孩子提供免费的教育课程。2012年,参加课程的学生数量突破了200万人次。工作人员担当教师,带领学生们参观水族馆并教授课程。戏水区“海洋之家展厅”成为教室。水族馆还有许多针对青少年发起的环保和科研项目,如青少年环保先锋项目、为期一周的暑期女孩科研项目、沃森维尔市青少年生境保护项目以及蒙特雷湾海洋生物解说小小志愿者项目。
 
教师工作室和教师机构将帮助这些教师提升教学水平,同时和同事们一起分享各自的技能。教学材料都发布在官网上供人们随时下载。从1 200名志愿者中挑选出来的500多名志愿者持续地从水族馆工作人员那里获得海洋科研培训。他们在游客答疑解惑和导览中贡献了巨大的力量。
 
环保科研
 
蒙特雷湾水族馆海獭科研环保项目里,生物学家评估了加州海獭的长期健康状况,在这一濒危物种的救援中起了重要的作用。这一以科研为主导的项目对联邦海獭救援计划的发布给予了极大的支持,2003年4月,美国鱼类和野生动物署明确了导致南部海域海獭数量减少的可能因素,如野生海獭传染病的蔓延和寄生虫的滋生等。
 
水族馆致力于对搁浅的小海獭实施救援,这是在世界上尚属唯一的项目,对野生海獭数量的维护做出了很大贡献。工作人员和志愿者不断地提升技术水平,目的在于更好地照顾受伤的和落单的海獭。水族馆已经预备了一套救援加州海域海獭的项目以应对重大漏油事件。
 
工作人员和科研人员启动了大白鲨项目,为大白鲨做标记用于追踪东太平洋海域成年和幼年大白鲨的活动范围,收集DNA样本用于绘制这一海洋顶级肉食动物的洄游路线图以及遗传学的多样性图。项目组的工作人员试图将幼年白鲨带入水族馆展区,2004年至今,已经有6条白鲨在水族馆待过,在它们被做上标记并回到外海之前在水族馆中度过了多达6个月的时间。
 
金枪鱼科研环保项目是与斯坦福大学一起合作的项目,是世界上走在前沿的科研项目,致力于研究这些具有生态价值和商业价值的鱼类。自1996年起,项目的科学家就对金枪鱼做上电子数据标记用于研究其漫长的洄游路线,收集DNA样本用于研究物种多样性和物种分布,收集金枪鱼的基本生理数据用于研究恒温金枪鱼及其变温近亲物种的数量分布。
 
蒙特雷湾水族馆研究机构将蒙特雷湾作为实验室,对深海和外海生态系统进行深入研究。机构的工程师们为科学家设计了许多新型工具。游客能够看到正在工作的研究者。“深海任务”永久展区通过互动和视频的方式向人们展现了这一研究机构的工具和技术。
 
资源保护
 
水族馆在环保的商业实践方面也走在前沿,如海鲜售卖规定以及纪念品和书店等商家的环保要求,还包括减少碳足迹、保护水资源、鼓励低碳出行等项目。工作人员上下班通勤使用免费巴士或者骑自行车或者步行。水族馆在夏季还为滨水景点和酒店的穿梭巴士补贴费用。工作人员还自发地为环保行动基金捐款,用于支持蒙特雷湾区域的生境修复项目。水族馆的出版物都采用环保纸或者在线发布,办公室、纪念品店和书店等产生的废物都经过环保处理。清洁材料和其他化学用品都是无毒的。水族馆海鲜观察项目将海鲜市场改造为支持可持续渔业和水文化,为消费者和餐饮供应商提供可持续海鲜买卖的指南。

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Located at the ocean’s edge, the world renowned Monterey Bay Aquarium is a window to the magical marine world – home to sea otters, sharks, seahorses, tuna, penguins and thousands of other marine animals and plants. Visitors can discover the plants and animals of Monterey Bay in a series of  remarkable exhibits. The aquarium’s acclaimed permanent exhibits include a towering three-story kelp forest; touch pools and other hands-on exhibits; the Splash Zone: Ocean Homes family galleries; and the million-gallon Open Sea exhibit. The Secret Lives of Seahorses - The aquarium’s most popular special exhibition to date. Here visitors meet more than 15 species of seahorses and their kin – from Dr. Seuss-like leafy and weedy sea dragons to alligator pipefish and bright yellow seahorses.
 
Monterey Bay Aquarium became the first in the world to create open ocean exhibits on a grand scale. The exhibits are shining light on epic migrations of ocean animals across the Pacific and the constant motion of life in the open ocean. The million-gallon Open Sea exhibit houses a diverse community of open-ocean animals, including tunas, pelagic stingrays, mackerel, sardines, mahi-mahi, ocean sunfish, scalloped hammerhead sharks and on occasion, a great white shark. Elsewhere in The Open Sea galleries visitors can immerse themselves at one of the largest permanent jellyfish galleries to be found at any aquarium. The Jellies Experience - These graceful, dancing drifters that pulse and glow, flash colorful lights and often pack a powerful sting are alive in all their psychedelic glory in this mind-blowing special exhibition. 
 
Marine life closer to shore is the highlight of the aquarium’s “Ocean’s Edge” galleries. Here, visitors can explore habitats including coastal wetlands, the rocky shore, a living kelp forest and the undersea waters of Monterey Bay. Visitors can enter the realm of the giant octopus, explore an expanded shorebird aviary and coastal wetland exhibit, and venture beneath crashing waves. They also can step into the “Real-Cost Cafe” and learn how to order a seafood meal that pleases the palate and protects ocean wildlife. 
 
Sevengill sharks, salmon, giant sea bass and other fishes roam the 90-foot-long, 326,000-gallon Monterey Bay Habitats exhibit, which recreates a cross-section of the bay’s major habitats: sandy seafloor, shale reefs, deep reefs and wharf pilings. Sea otters frolic inches away from visitors in a two-story exhibit where they’re on view both at the surface and underwater. A towering 28-foot-high Kelp Forest exhibit offers a diver’s-eye view of a living kelp forest community. 
 
Education & Outreach
 
Each year, free school programs serve over 80,000 visiting schoolchildren. In January, 2012 the aquarium welcomed its 2 millionth student as part of its education programs. Students take part in guided and self-guided tours and classroom programs taught by staff educators. The Splash Zone family gallery becomes an extended classroom for Head Start students and families around Monterey Bay. All education programs are offered free of charge. Other conservation and science initiatives for young people include Teen Conservation Leaders (TCL); Young Women in Science, a week-long summer program for teens; Watsonville Area Teens Conserving Habitats (WATCH); and a Student Guide program in which young people learn to interpret Monterey Bay marine life for aquarium visitors. 
 
Annual teacher workshops and teacher institutes help educators become more effective at teaching science and sharing their skills with colleagues. Materials for teachers and students are available online. More than 500 volunteer guides (out of over 1,200 volunteers in all) receive ongoing marine science training from aquarium staff. They add depth to a visit by answering visitors’ questions and leading tours. 
 
Conservation Research
 
Biologists with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Sea Otter Research and Conservation program are assessing the long-term health of California’s sea otter population and play key roles in recovery efforts for this threatened population. The research-oriented approach supports the priorities of the federal sea otter recovery plan released in April 2003 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to identify the possible causes that have slowed the growth of the southern sea otter population, including increased rates of infectious disease and parasites within the wild otter population. 
The aquarium’s program is the only one of its kind in the world to care for stranded otter pups and return to the wild those animals that can contribute to the recovery of the wild population. Staff and volunteers constantly refine their techniques for the care of injured and orphaned sea otters. Protocols developed at the aquarium will be applied in the event of a major oil spill in the sea otters’ California range. 
 
Staff and research colleagues with our Project White Shark tag and track adult and juvenile great white sharks in the eastern Pacific, and collect DNA samples in an effort to map the migrations and genetic diversity of these top ocean predators. Project staff also attempts to bring young white sharks to the aquarium for exhibit; since 2004 six animals have been kept at the aquarium for periods up to six months before they were tagged and returned to the wild. 
 
The Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC), a joint project with Stanford University, is the world’s leading center to study these ecologically and commercially important fishes. TRCC scientists have been working since 1996 to answer basic questions about tunas’ marathon migrations by tagging individual fish in the wild with electronic data tags, documenting genetic diversity and distribution of tuna populations across ocean basins through DNA analysis, and studying basic tuna physiology by studying captive populations of warm-blooded tuna and their cold-blooded relatives. 
 
The independent Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute uses Monterey Bay as a living laboratory to study complex deep sea and open ocean systems. Engineers at the institute design new tools for scientists to use in their research. Aquarium visitors can see researchers at work. And a permanent exhibit, Mission to the Deep, highlights MBARI’s tools and technologies with interactive displays, high-definition footage and animation to transport visitors into the deep sea.
 
Resource Conservation
 
The aquarium is a leader in conservation business practices, from the seafood buying policies and conservation requirements for vendors who deal with our gift and bookstores; to programs that reduce their carbon footprint, conserve water, encourage alternative transportation and promote recycling. 
 
Staff use vanpools, receive free bus passes, pay reduced parking fees for carpooling, and enjoy incentives for riding a bike or walking to work. The aquarium helps subsidize a community shuttle bus serving waterfront destinations and hotels during summer months. Voluntary staff contributions to a Conservation Action Fund support habitat restoration projects in the Monterey Bay region. 
Aquarium publications are printed on recycled paper or published online, and most waste generated by aquarium offices, shops and gift and bookstores is recycled. Cleaning materials and other chemicals used here have largely been replaced with nontoxic products. The aquarium’s Seafood Watch program is a leader in transforming the seafood market to support sustainable fisheries and aquaculture. They created Seafood Watch guides for consumers and partner with restaurants and food service companies to help them shift to sustainable seafood purchasing. 
 
Via Monterey Bay Aquarium  译:90degree
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