加拿大温哥华水族馆
Vancouver Aquarium
2014-08-07 11:01:37    | keywords: 温哥华  水族馆  加拿大 
加拿大温哥华水族馆
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诞生于1956年的温哥华水族馆坐落在太平洋沿岸史丹利公园茂密的森林中,近60年来一直致力于教育、科研和环保领域,向人们展现了代表全球海洋生态系统的生物群。从太平洋西北部的冷水域到热带的温水域,多样化的物种生活在一起,共同演绎蓝色星球上的生存与适应的故事。
 
温哥华水族馆给予人们充满冒险的体验。游客在此能花费好几个小时的光景来探索不同的展区,或观看表演,或参与互动。热情的讲解员和博学的生物学家总是耐心地向人们讲述自然历史、动物保健、水族馆运营等内容。水族馆的官网和社交媒体渠道也为那些没法亲自参观的人们展现水族馆的信息,包括动物、科研和环保项目等。
 
海洋生态系统
 
温哥华水族馆不仅展现太平洋沿岸的生态系统,还营造了世界上其他海洋生态系统,从印度洋-太平洋海域色彩斑斓的珊瑚礁到南美亚马逊的热带雨林,游客在短短几个小时的时间里能习得这些特色场所的环境知识。
 
“外海岸”向人们展现了水族馆对海洋哺乳动物的关怀与救助。太平洋白腰斑纹海豚身上留下的伤疤诉说着它们曾经被困渔网而受伤的故事。两条鼠海豚和三条海獭在很小的时候被救助后就一直生活在水族馆这个家园里。两条港海豹是温哥华水族馆海洋哺乳动物救护中心的大使。这个露天展区向人们全面展现了不列颠哥伦比亚省海岸的海洋哺乳动物。
 
“加拿大北极”展现了北方兰开斯特海峡白鲸栖息地丰富的生活景象,采用落地玻璃呈现400万升水的海底世界。通过互动的方式向人们展现了北极鳕鱼、格陵兰鲨、白鲸之间的交流情景,游客得以知道加拿大所拥有的是超乎想象的。
 
“加拿大太平洋馆”位于所有展区的正中央。两层的展区呈现了乔治亚海峡的生物多样性。工作人员担当潜水员,每天跳入寒冷的水里,与游客分享那些生活在这一区域里不为人知的动物。
 
从“加拿大太平洋馆”的一条小径出来,游客将步入“不列颠哥伦比亚海岸宝藏”。各种寒带盐海水中生活着大大小小的动物。游客将被这些生活在不列颠哥伦比亚沿岸色彩斑斓的动物所震撼。太平洋巨章从藏身之地窜出来,狼鳗潜伏在海葵里,这些都给游客带来惊喜。
 
“热带区”展现了印度洋-太平洋海域的珊瑚礁,昏暗的灯光将这一空间打造成亦真亦假的氛围,突显了动物的色彩和肌理。色彩鲜明的展区里,热带鱼突然出现在游客眼前,旋即又消失在珊瑚间,还有游客最喜欢的绿海龟,她在不列颠哥伦比亚北部的冷水域里出现并被救助,离她的热带家园很遥远。
 
离开“热带区”,游客将进入“亚马逊雨林区”,鸟儿在丛林间自由飞翔,时而停留在树冠里。在这片人造的热带雨林里,温度和湿度会让游客感觉仿佛置身赤道。深入探索后,游客将看到古老的巨骨舌鱼,那儿的展区向人们演绎了动物们是如何抵抗亚马逊流域每年的洪水。
 
“蛙永远?”展区关注那些濒危的两栖动物。这些两栖动物在恐龙灭绝时代后存活了下来,如今却因为栖息地的消失和疾病的侵袭而濒临灭绝。水族馆坚守保护蛙类的承诺,饲养了俄勒冈多斑蛙(加拿大最濒危的两栖动物)和分布于落基山脉的豹蛙。蝌蚪被放生到野外来增加物种的数量。这些都是“两栖类方舟(AArk)”这一行动计划的一部分,AArk致力于在全球范围内阻止上百种物种的消失。
 
“小丑鱼海湾”是8岁以下儿童的必去之处。根据孩子的视线高度,这一空间被打造成适应这些小小游客的模拟动物救护的中心,孩子们可以照顾那些被喂饱的假装生病的动物。志愿者守护在亲水池边,游客得以近距离观察并触碰柔和的水。
 
“加拿大投资银行探索区”里,“我们的世界”这一展区展出了世界各地的动物和生境,如亚马逊蛙类和印度洋-太平洋海域的珊瑚礁等,游客会情不自禁地拿出相机记录下这些。这儿的4D影院也为游客提供感官等娱乐体验。
 
救护与环保
 
1960年以来,温哥华水族馆不断地救助了那些来自不列颠哥伦比亚海岸的动物,有些是生病的,有些是受伤的,有些是被遗弃的。康复期过后,这些动物大部分都被放生。水族馆的兽医团队从照顾这些动物的经验中获得了许多知识。“海洋哺乳动物救护中心”的伤员常常是小海豹、绿海龟、虎鲸,还有三条鼠海豚,其中一条已经回到外海里。
 
“不列颠哥伦比亚鲸类观察网”是温哥华水族馆和加拿大渔业海洋局共同发起的项目,旨在号召民间科学家上报对海洋哺乳动物(如虎鲸和海豚)和海龟的观察记录。这些信息将将收录进综合观察数据库,供科学家在科研和管理领域的运用。
 
加拿大水族馆发起的另一个民间科研项目是与世界自然基金会共同合作的“加拿大各大岸线清洁”项目,旨在号召不列颠哥伦比亚省的市民都参与进来。每年,来自加拿大各地成千上万的志愿者聚集在海岸、湖岸、河岸边,捡拾那些可能会流到动物家园或者被动物误食的垃圾。
 
“海洋智者”是温哥华水族馆的环保项目,旨在为消费者普及可持续海鲜的知识。从带有“海洋智者”标识的餐馆菜单和集市中,消费者将学会辨别和挑选有利于海洋环保的海鲜品类。温哥华水族馆的日常项目和表演向人们传递了“海洋智慧”的信息,令游客感受与海洋的亲密联系。
 
领先的科研
 
加拿大水族馆最近正致力于研究北美西岸的海星。自去年秋季以来,出现了污染疾病的迹象,海星常常死在海岸上。以水族馆为基地的“豪尔森德研究保护组织”部署了潜水员到海岸线的水下进行拍照并记录这一现象。他们正在整理这些数据并在地图上制作图表,用以监控疾病发展进程。
 
另一个受影响的是太平洋水域的北海狮。自20世纪80年代初以来,野生北海狮的数量就锐减了80%。英属哥伦比亚大学的研究人员与温哥华水族馆的海洋哺乳动物驯兽师密切合作,对海狮食物以及成长、生活和生小海狮所需的能量等方面进行深入研究。
 
随着人们越来越喜欢吃石头鱼,这一温哥华水域中成龄期晚、寿命长的鱼类数量正急速下降。为了缓解这一趋势,水族馆鱼类科研实验室的研究人员正在饲养狼鳗,希望狼鳗能够替代石头鱼以促进渔业的可持续发展。
 
为了防止海豚被困渔网的事件发生,水族馆的科研人员通过对被救助的两条太平洋白腰斑纹海豚的研究,获得了回声定位的导航知识。海洋哺乳动物驯兽师帮助海豚戴上凝胶眼罩并使其感到舒适,由此,科研人员得以观察海豚的水下活动情景,从而了解海豚是如何在水下导航的,最后才会知道要怎样做才能防止海豚被困渔网的事件发生。
 
加拿大水族馆和英属哥伦比亚大学共同合作,致力于研究北极变暖对北极鳕鱼的影响。北极鳕鱼是许多北极动物的食物。研究场所包括剑桥湾、努纳武特地区和水族馆现场。


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Nestled within the forest of Stanley Park at the edge of the Pacific Ocean, the Vancouver Aquarium has been committed to its mandate of education, research and conservation for close to 60 years. Since opening in 1956, the Vancouver Aquarium has established itself as a leader in the areas of research and interpretation, while enchanting visitors with animals representing marine ecosystems around the world. From the cold waters of the Pacific Northwest to the warm seas of the tropics, a variety of species are displayed to share their stories of life, adaptation and survival on this blue planet. 
 
Every day Vancouver Aquarium brings a new adventure and experience. Visitors can spend hours exploring the different galleries, watching presentations and participating in behind-the-scenes tours. Enthusiastic interpreters and knowledgeable biologists are always ready to answer questions about natural history, animal healthcare and Aquarium operations. Its website and social media channels provide additional information about the animals, research and conservation programs at the Aquarium for people who can’t physically be with it.
 
The World’s Marine Ecosystems in One Place
 
While the Vancouver Aquarium highlights life on the Pacific coast, many of the world’s other marine ecosystems are recreated within its walls. From the colourful coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific to the flooded forests of South America’s Amazon, visitors can travel the world in a few short hours all the while learning about the environmental issues that affect these unique places.
The Wild Coast shows the Aquarium’s commitment to improving the lives of rehabilitated marine mammals. The Pacific white-sided dolphins still bear the scars they sustained when they were injured after being entangled in fishing nets; two harbour porpoises now call the Aquarium home after being rescued and rehabilitated as calves; two rescued harbour seals serve as ambassadors of the Vancouver Aquarium Marine Mammal Rescue Centre; and three sea otters also call the Aquarium home after being rescued and rehabilitated as pups. This outdoor gallery is a great introduction to the marine mammals that inhabit British Columbia’s coast.
 
The Canada’s Arctic gallery features a four-million litre beluga habitat with floor-to-ceiling underwater viewing windows, showcasing the rich life of Lancaster Sound in the North. Research on Arctic cod, Greenland sharks and beluga communication is conveyed through interactive displays, showing visitors that there is more to Canada than they could have ever imagined.
The Pacific Canada Pavilion is located centrally with galleries radiating outwards. It features an impressive two story exhibit that highlights the biodiversity of the Strait of Georgia. A staff diver makes the chilly plunge into these waters every day, sharing with visitors the lesser-known animals that also call this region home.
 
Follow one of the paths out of the Pacific Canada Pavilion and you’ll enter Treasures of the BC Coast. Animals big and small inhabit the various cold saltwater exhibits in this gallery. Visitors are constantly amazed by the diversity of colour in the animals that live off the coast of British Columbia. A giant Pacific octopus delights visitors when it comes out of its hiding spot and wolf-eels lurk among the sea anemones in this popular gallery.
 
The coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific are highlighted in the Tropic Zone. The lighting is dimmed in this space to really make the colours and textures of the animals “pop.” A visitor favourite is “Schoona” a green sea turtle that was rehabilitated after being found in the cold waters of northern British Columbia, a long way from her tropical home. The vivid colours of tropical fishes flash before the visitor’s eye before disappearing among the corals in this striking gallery.
 
After a walk through the Tropic Zone, visitors will encounter the Graham Amazon Gallery, which features a free-flight jungle where birds fly and sloths lounge in the tree canopy. In this simulated tropical rainforest, the temperature and humidity really make you feel like you are at the equator. Walk further still and you’ll see the ancient-looking arapaima in an exhibit that explains how animals have adapted to withstand the yearly flooding in the Amazon River Basin.
 
The Frogs Forever? exhibit was created to highlight amphibians in peril. They managed to survive the disaster that wiped out the dinosaurs but many species are now facing extinction because of habitat loss and disease. As part of the Aquarium’s commitment to conserving frogs, they are breeding and rearing Oregon spotted frogs (the most endangered amphibian in Canada) and the Rocky Mountain population of the Northern leopard frog. The tadpoles are then released into the wild to supplement populations there. This is all part of an initiative called Amphibian Ark (AArk) – a global effort to stop hundreds of species from vanishing forever.
 
Clownfish Cove is a big hit with children eight years and under. This kid-friendly space has eye-level exhibits for our smallest visitors to enjoy and an imitation animal rescue centre where they can take care of their own “sick” stuffed animal. Volunteer-assisted touch pools allow for intimate observation and even gentle touching.
 
The Canaccord Financial Exploration Gallery houses the Our World exhibit – this is the exhibit that welcomes visitors to the Aquarium. Our World showcases animals and habitats from around the world, including Amazonian frogs and a magnificent Indo-Pacific coral reef that entices visitors to pull their cameras out. The popular 4-D Theatre is also housed in this gallery, entertaining visitors with an immersive sensory experience.
 
Rehabilitation & Conservation
 
Since 1960, the Vancouver Aquarium has rescued ill, injured or abandoned marine animals from British Columbia’s coast. After a period of rehabilitation a vast majority of them are returned to their ocean home. The Aquarium’s veterinary team has learned so much from having these animals in their care. While the Marine Mammal Rescue Centre’s patients are usually harbour seal pups, the Rescue Centre has also successfully rehabilitated a green sea turtle, killer whale and three harbour porpoises – one of which was recently released back to the wild.
 
The B.C. Cetacean Sightings Network is a Vancouver Aquarium-run initiative in partnership with Fisheries and Oceans Canada that calls on citizen scientists for their sightings of marine mammals (like killer whales and dolphins) and sea turtles. This information is plugged into a comprehensive database of sightings that can then be used by scientists in the areas of research and management.
 
Another Vancouver Aquarium-led citizen science program, which calls on ordinary British Columbians to pitch in, is the Vancouver Aquarium and WWF’s Great Canadian Shoreline Cleanup. Every year, tens of thousands of volunteers across Canada gather along the shorelines of beaches, lakes and rivers to pick up garbage that would otherwise end up in the homes and mouths of unsuspecting animals.
 
Ocean Wise™ is a Vancouver Aquarium conservation program that educates and empowers consumers about the issues surrounding sustainable seafood. The Ocean Wise symbol on restaurant menus and in marketplaces allows consumers to identify and choose ocean-friendly seafood items. At the Vancouver Aquarium, this Ocean Wise message is weaved into daily programs and shows in a way that shows visitors just how closely connected they are to the oceans.
 
On the Cutting Edge of Research
 
Vancouver Aquarium researchers have recently been exploring what is happening to the sea stars on North America’s west coast. Since the early fall, there have been signs of a wasting disease, one that is infecting sea stars and reducing them to a pile of goo. The Howe Sound Research and Conservation Group, based at the Vancouver Aquarium, has research divers in the water and on the front lines, taking photos and documenting this phenomenon. They’re currently taking the data collected and charting it on a map so they can follow the course of this disease.
 
Another animal being affected in Pacific waters is the Steller sea lion whose population has declined in the wild by 80% since the early 1980s. University of British Columbia researchers work closely with Vancouver Aquarium marine mammal trainers to research the relationship between the food the sea lions eat and the energy they need to grow, live and have pups. 
 
People’s appetite for rockfishes has significantly decreased the population of these late-maturing, long-lived fish in the waters surrounding Vancouver. In order to relieve pressure on this fish stock, Aquarium researchers in the Fish Research Lab are breeding and rearing wolf-eels to see if a sustainable fishery can be developed around this species as a substitute for rockfishes.
 
Can anything be done to help dolphins from becoming entangled in fishing nets? To answer this question, researchers first have to understand how echolocation works. With the help of the Aquarium’s two rescued Pacific white-sided dolphins, researchers are learning how these animals navigate just by using sound. Marine mammal trainers have worked closely with the dolphins to the point where they are comfortable wearing gel eyecups so researchers can watch their movements underwater. By understanding how dolphins navigate underwater, researchers can learn what may be needed to repel them from fishing nets.
 
The Vancouver Aquarium and the University of British Columbia are working together to find out how warming in the Arctic is affecting Arctic cod, a keystone species that is food for many Arctic animals. A combination of research is being done both in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut and onsite at the Vancouver Aquarium.


Via Karen Horak, writer-editor at the Vancouver Aquarium  译:90degree
 
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