莱克伍德公墓陵园
Lakewood Garden Mausoleum @ Lakewood Cemetery
2014-08-05 16:51:59    | keywords: 陵园  公墓  纪念  景观 
莱克伍德公墓陵园
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耳目一新。这是人类语言所无法描绘的功能景观。设计给予空间不同的时间感。
——2013专业奖评语

 
Refreshing. It functions in a way that isn’t necessarily part of our vocabulary. There are different moments in the design.
—2013 Professional Awards Jury
 
By Halvorson Design Partnership, Inc.


项目概述
如何在21世纪营造富有纪念特征和时代特征的场所,同时与周围的肃穆氛围和地标环境相融合——这是有着142年历史的莱克伍德公墓所面临的挑战。公墓陵园项目以巧妙的、可持续的、优雅的方式应对了这一挑战。向南的山坡上,景观围合了三分之二的建筑。静谧的倒影池、本土树林和沉思壁龛形成建筑与景观之间的过渡。鲜明的当代风格设计与其所处的历史环境相呼应,整体景观呈现宽阔、安详的特质。 
 
项目描述
莱克伍德公墓始建于1871年,是典型的美国式“草地布局”公墓:由树林和安详的大镜湖勾勒出的一些精美的石碑散落在大片的草地上。莱克伍德公墓传承了这一源起于19世纪50年代俄亥俄州辛辛那提市泉水树林公墓的经典设计风格。
2002年,莱克伍德公墓的受托人意识到公墓景观的价值和重要性,委托了由景观设计师引领的团队来完成历史景观报告和综合性的景观总体规划方案。目标在于界定公墓最为重要的特征并为未来的管理和发展提供指南。这一对全美具有历史意义的公墓所面临的难题:如何在不破坏国民所钟爱的景观价值的同时,为公墓带来持续的收益。公墓陵园是迄今为止实施项目中最大的工程,渐渐与设计方形成永续的关系。
景观设计师与业主密切合作,对建筑师的挑选过程给予了建议,同时作为设计团队成员参与了前期设计至施工完成的整个过程。项目最后呈现出建筑与景观设计的紧密融合:这一恶化的下沉空间被改造成充满诗意的现代场所,意义深刻的环境升腾了给予人们慰藉与审美体验的氛围。
 
场地和背景
新陵墓的选址成为公墓景观中不协调元素之一。场地上,公墓入口附近矗立了伟岸的成年树,四层楼高的陵墓和灵灰龛建筑物始于1967年,前方是一大片下沉空间,后者俨然是前者的前院。大型陵墓的另一端是莱克伍德的珍宝——建于1909年的拜占庭风格小教堂。大型绿色空间两侧是草坡,由成排的高大常绿树所分割,一直延伸至场地中轴线。从这一空间往上到小教堂的通道铺装了石碑台阶,两侧是整面高耸的石墙,由“花园墓穴”构成。整体而言,这片区域的步行园路十分稀少,没有座椅设施。长方形的水景“倒影池”给予墓地访客肃穆感,却面临了维护问题,而明尼苏达州漫长的冬季也使其长期处于无水状态,削弱了这一景观元素的魅力。
 
方案
总体规划方案提出新陵墓和接待设施(满足日益增长的火葬和地上葬礼服务的需求)必须将其对这一更大历史公墓景观的影响减至最小。为了营造新型的中央景观场所,同时统一改造前和改造后的陵墓风格以及标志性的小教堂风格,景观设计师着力于解决新方案与场所的无缝整合问题。长凳、枫树和山楂树形成的庄严森林、二次设计的无边倒影池,勾勒出新型花园景观,不仅在美国阵亡将士纪念日为团队访客提供户外集会和活动空间,还形成一处有助于人们安静沉思、充满慰藉和治愈的空间。可持续设计的原则贯穿了整个项目,从绿色屋顶到创新的暴雨雨水策略,再到建筑废料的转移和大面积的本土树木的栽种。设计师致力于在功能和视觉上对环境影响最小化的项目。
 
设计宗旨
设计力图寻求以一种诗意的和吸引人的方式重新利用原有的公墓空间,将方案完美地整合进这一具有重要历史意义的景观里,使其呈现出当代的美学特征。通过细致地界定建筑开发达到对公墓景观影响的最小化,充分利用场地上的缓坡部分来实现这一方案。具有强烈几何特征的下沉空间渐渐过渡到另一侧的山坡,形成地面“草地布局”景观的田园牧歌风格。设计统一了室内和室外的空间,增强了彼此的体验。空间层次分明,凸显了大型的中央集会空间,同时辟出供人沉思的二级空间。无边倒影池的不对称坐落呼应了景观里建筑元素之间的轴向关系,同时在场地上形成动态的视觉中心。成荫的小树林强化了围合效果,部分阻隔了建于1967年的陵墓外立面的视线。低矮的观赏性开花树木保留了标志性小教堂的视线,这一漂亮的软景改善了东边花园墓穴石墙所产生的影响。
 
可持续性
莱克伍德公墓陵园致力于保存其历史景观的特征,同时为1万多人提供庄严的葬地和纪念空间。建筑物大多折入山坡,腾出大面积的开放空间,缓冲了对周边自然美景的视觉影响。通过风铲、树根修剪和打支撑的板桩来实现成年树木的保留。新建一个可达的绿色屋顶,延伸了公墓周边的开放草地,获得了许多传统的效益:碳减排、减少冷负荷、生成氧气、减缓热岛效应、最大化雨水径流的过滤。东西朝向的建筑使日照最大化。创新的暴雨雨水策略的实施最大化实地过滤的效果,加之没有建设不透水停车场,暴雨径流的流量得以减少。原有公墓周边的公路用于访客停车。场地水井得到保留,减少了饮用水用于灌溉的频率。通过栽种各种大型树木、灌木和地被植物形成树荫,减少了由蒸发和蒸散所引起的水体流失,提升了水资源利用率。
高反照率的本土花岗岩被用于大部分的硬景,包括下沉花园所有的园路铺装。场所的照明设计以对环境影响的最小化为主,减少光污染。
 
重要意义
莱克伍德公墓陵园景观的重要意义:在历史环境中注入了当代设计元素,其场所有助于人们安静而肃穆的沉思,满足了尊严和优雅这一基本的人类需求。
项目凭借建筑和景观的融合获得了美国景观设计师协会波士顿奖章,同时还获得了许多建筑奖项。

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↑ ​总平面图  Site Plan 
Image: Halvorson Design Partnership, Inc.

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↑ 新建陵墓和接待中心坐落在原有的缓坡上。从远处望去,建筑大面积地掩映在原有树种橡树之间,仅露出5 500平方英尺(约511平方米)的花岗岩亭子。
A new mausoleum and reception center is nestled into the existing slopes of the space. From the street, the building mass largely fades from view with only a 5,500-square-foot granite pavilion visible among the preserved specimen Oak trees.
Image: Lakewood Cemetery

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↑ 分析图解  Analysis Diagram
Image: Halvorson Design Partnership, Inc.

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↑ 场地上,大型中央草地可以容纳多达350人规模的美国阵亡将士纪念日活动。周边还设计了舒适的、便于沉思的私人集会空间。遥望远处莱克伍德公墓的小教堂,风景十分壮观
A large central lawn anchors the space and accommodates Memorial Day events for upwards of 350 people. Comfortable, contemplative spaces have been designed around the perimeter for more intimate gatherings. Spectacular views to Lakewood Cemetery's chapel beyond have been preserved.
Image: Paul Crosby

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↑ 无边倒影池水深1英寸(2.54厘米),冬季无水的时候,这里就成为灵动的广场空间
The new reflecting fountain is a zero-edge pool with a 1” deep “scrim” of water over a layer of pavers on pedestal mounts. When drained in the winter, it becomes an active plaza space.
Image: Paul Crosby

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↑ 通过风铲、树根修剪和打支撑的板桩来实现成年树木的保留,建造了一面陵墓的后墙。梯级墙面成为建筑和景观之间的过渡带,为未来的纪念活动提供可能性
Mature trees were preserved through air spading, root pruning and shoring with sheet piling in order to build the back wall of the mausoleum. Terraced walls ease the transition between building and landscape and offer opportunities for future memorialization.
Image: Paul Crosby

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↑ 绿色屋顶将公墓“草地布局”的美感完美地延伸至新建的景观里。建筑和景观的融合浓缩于铜质架构的泥土造型,同时整合了墓穴地下室的天窗
The green roof allows the cemetery’s “Lawn Plan” aesthetic to seamlessly extend to a newly created overlook. The union between architecture and landscape is epitomized by the bronze framed earth forms containing skylights to the crypt rooms below.
Image: Paul Crosby

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↑ 暮光中的新建公墓陵园。低矮的地平面凸显了窗户周边极具冲击力的马赛克图案。室外的灵灰龛位于可投影的墓穴之间,提供了可供举行葬礼的花园环境
The new garden mausoleum at twilight. The low ground plane focuses attention on the powerful mosaic motif around the windows. Exterior columbarium niches are designed between the projecting crypt rooms permitting interment in a garden setting.
Image: Paul Crosby
 
 

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↑ 小教堂窗户外新建花园墓穴的景致。抬升的草坪给予人们在公墓里对家庭集会的追忆
A view of the new garden crypts outside the commitment chapel windows. The elevated lawn panel is reminiscent of family plots within the Cemetery grounds.
Image: Paul Crosby
 
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↑ 花楸树的名字来源于其柔雅的开花景致,对美国早期的殖民者而言,它们标志了土壤已经解冻可以开挖墓穴并举行葬礼。石头小渠将收集的径流导入下一层级的过滤系统
The Serviceberry tree derives its name from its delicate blossoms, which signified to early American colonists that the ground had thawed enough to dig graves and have burial services. River stones collect runoff to a below grade infiltration system.
Image: Paul Crosby

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← 建筑物没有设置通风系统,取而代之的是抬升的铜质或花岗岩路牙围合的一系列圣地
Circulation was shifted away from the building to allow for the creation of a series of sacred zones defined by raised bronze or granite curbing.
Image: Paul Crosby
 
→ 从倒影池一侧望向追忆逝者的“花园壁龛”
View from beyond the reflecting pool into one of the exterior “Garden Niche” rooms for memorialization of ashes.
Image: Paul Crosby

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← 设计的重心放在室内和远方景观之间的过渡:静默的氛围和简单的植物配置营造一种围合感,将建筑的几何特征延伸进景观里
Close attention was given to coordinating views from interior spaces to the landscape beyond. Subtle articulations on the ground plane and a simple plant palette create a sense of enclosure while extending the building’s geometries into the landscape.
Image: Paul Crosby
 
→ 倒影池成为小教堂和原有陵墓之间的组织轴线。这一规整的关系通过林荫道得到强化,形成了一处僻静的沉思场所。此外,山楂树改善了原有的户外墓穴石墙的景致
A reflecting pool acts as the organizing axis between the Chapel and the existing mausoleum. The formal relationship is reinforced by an allée of trees offering a secluded place for reflection. Additionally, Hawthorne trees ameliorate the existing outdoor crypt walls.
Image: Paul Crosby

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← 秋日里的静思 
Quiet reflection on an autumn day.
Image: Paul Crosby
 
→ 冬季,梯级草地台阶在景观里显得十分安详,吸引人们前往远方的公墓
An invitation to the Cemetery beyond, the terraced lawn steps rest undisturbed in the winter landscape.
Image: Paul Crosby

 
Project Statement
The 142-year-old Lakewood Cemetery faced a challenge how to create a commemorative 21st century space within a revered, landmark setting. The Garden Mausoleum project meets this challenge adroitly, sustainably and gracefully. With the landscape enveloping two thirds of the building within a south-facing slope, architecture opens out onto an expansive, peaceful landscape with a quiet reflecting pool, groves of native trees and contemplative alcoves—a distinctly contemporary design in harmony with its historic environment.
 
Project Narrative
Lakewood Cemetery, established in 1871, is a quintessential American “Lawn Plan” cemetery, wherein broad sweeps of lawn are punctuated by a few fine stone monuments framed by trees and large serene lakes. This style was pioneered by Cincinnati’s Spring Grove Cemetery in the 1850s and Lakewood is the purest surviving example of this classic cemetery type.
Recognizing the value and importance of their landscape, in 2002, the Trustees of Lakewood commissioned a team led by landscape architects to produce a Historic Landscape Report and comprehensive Landscape Master Plan. Their goal was to define the most important features of the cemetery and to guide future management and development. The problem confronting historic cemeteries nation-wide how to generate continued revenue without impairing the values of their beloved landscapes.
This planning effort grew into a on-going relationship with the Garden Mausoleum, the largest of several implementation projects undertaken to date.
Working closely with the client, the landscape architect advised on the selection process for the architect and participated as a design team member from pre-design through completion. The result of this process is a profoundly integrated building and landscape design solution that transformed a deteriorated, “sunken” space, creating a poetic modern landscape offering solace and beauty in a setting rich with meaning.
 
Site + Context
The site chosen for the new mausoleum was one of the few incongruous features in the Cemetery’s landscape. Near the cemetery’s entrance, surrounded by groves of majestic mature trees, the site consisted of a large sunken area, which served as the forecourt for a four-story-high mausoleumcolumbarium building from 1967. A massive green space flanked by grassy inclines it was divided down the middle by rows of tall evergreen trees on the axis between the large mausoleum and Lakewood’s jewel like Byzantine-style Chapel (1909) at the opposite end. High, monolithic walls made up of “garden crypts” stood on either side of a monumental stairway leading up from the space to the chapel. The area as a whole had limited walking paths and no seating. It did include a “Pool of Reflections,” a long rectangular water feature revered by cemetery visitors, but plagued with maintenance issues and when drained for the long Minnesota winters, a less than attractive landscape element.
 
Program
The master plan called for the siting of a new mausoleum and reception facility (to meet growing demand for cremation and above ground burial services) with minimal impact on the larger historic cemetery landscape. By creating a new central landscape space that is the unifying feature for the new & existing mausoleums as well as the iconic chapel, the landscape architect solved the problem of incorporating new program space in a seamless manner. Providing an outdoor gatheringevent space for large groups on Memorial Day, the new garden landscape—bordered by benches, solemn bosques of maples and hawthorns, and a redesigned, zero edge reflecting pool—also offers a space conducive to quiet contemplation, solace and healing. The principals of sustainable design were employed throughout the project from green roofs, to innovative storm water strategies, to diverted construction waste and extensive native tree plantings. The designers strove to create a project that minimizes its impact on the environment both visually and functionally.
 
Design Intent
The design seeks to reuse existing cemetery space in a lyrical and compelling manner integrating program with a contemporary aesthetic harmoniously into an important historic landscape. It accomplishes this by carefully defining building development to minimize impact on the larger Cemetery landscape and taking full advantage of a gently sloping portion of the site. The strong geometry of the lower ground plane transitions gradually up the side slopes to the pastoral character of the “Lawn Plan” landscape above. The design establishes a unified relationship between interior and exterior space, heightening the experience of each. A clear hierarchy of spaces was provided, highlighting a large central gathering space while offering secondary spaces for contemplation. Asymmetrically placed, the zero edge reflection pool responds to import axial relationships among the built elements of this landscape while creating a dynamic visual center to the space. Strengthening the edges, groves of shade trees partially screen views of the 1967 Mausoleum fa?ade. Low ornamental flowering trees preserve views to the iconic Chapel, while at the same time create a beautiful, soft edge that ameliorates the impact of the eastern garden crypt walls.
 
Sustainability
Lakewood Garden Mausoleum seeks to preserve the character of the historic landscape while creating dignified burial and commemoration space for as many as 10,000 people. With so much of the building program tucked into the hillside, considerable open space is conserved and visual impacts on the natural beauty of the surroundings were mitigated. Mature tree cover was preserved through air spading, root pruning and shoring with sheet piling. A new accessible green roof extends the open lawn of the surrounding cemetery with traditional benefits of carbon reduction, reduced cooling loads, generation of oxygen, heat-island reduction, and maximizing runoff infiltration. The building is oriented east-west to maximize solar exposure.
Innovative storm water strategies were implemented maximizing on-site infiltration. No impermeable parking areas were created as a result of this development reducing storm runoff volume and rates. All parking is accommodated on existing surrounding cemetery roads. An on-site well was preserved reducing potable water use for irrigation. Numerous large trees and shrubgroundcover areas were planted to increase shade thereby reducing loss of water due to transpiration and evapotranspiration, improving water use efficiency.
Locally-sourced granite with high albedo properties was used for the majority of landscape uses and on all paths in the lower garden. Site lighting was minimized to reduce light pollution.
 
Significance
The Lakewood Garden Mausoleum landscape is significant as a contemporary design expression in a historic setting conducive to quiet, respectful reflection providing for fundamental human need with dignity and grace.
The combined building and landscape has already been recognized by the Boston chapter of the ASLA and has received numerous architectural awards.

 
Via ASLA  译:90degree
 
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