澳大利亚花园
The Australian Garden
2014-08-08 22:01:15    | keywords: 澳大利亚  花园 
澳大利亚花园
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“Australian’s are surrounded by ocean and ambushed from behind by desert – a war of mystery on two fronts”——Lands Edge Tim Winton
“澳大利亚被海洋环绕,蛰伏在沙漠的后方,俨然两个前方阵线的神秘之战。”——蒂姆·温顿《地之涯》
 
By Taylor Cullity Lethlean + Paul Thompson, Carlton, Australia 
 
项目概况
在采砂场旧址上,一座新植物园竣工了,游客可以感受一场形而上的水景体验,从澳大利亚景观到沙漠再到滨海区。
通过景观设计的技艺,一体化的景观将园艺、建筑、生态和艺术相融合,形成了一座最大的植物园,其间生长着澳大利亚植物种群。植物园的设计以主题体验为主,旨在激发游客对澳大利亚植物的全新认知。
澳大利亚花园的竣工时间刚好是植物园对现有研究和娱乐模式进行探索的阶段,同时也是将重心转移至景观环保和激发游客参与并使其富有意义的阶段。
澳大利亚花园让游客能从中感受到澳大利亚人与其景观之间爱与恨的关系——澳大利亚人对壮阔海景之美的热爱以及对其所引发的生存困境的厌恶。曼妙的海洋旋律、流动的形态以及澳大利亚景观中植物种群持久的生命力,这些都能激发艺术家和作家的灵感使其进行设计或写作。景观的秩序和人为介入的特征等构成澳大利亚花园的丰富元素。
这些张力都是澳大利亚花园的创作源泉,表达了人们对自然景观的敬畏之情以及人类改造世界的本能,特别是营造一个充满美学特征并涵盖人类元素的场所。
花园东边是展园、景观展区、研究地块和森林,展现了人们对景观秩序性的倾向。西边的庭院展现了不规则植物区系的自然景观。水在这两者之间起到缓冲作用,将游客从岩石潭的悬崖峭壁导向蜿蜒的河流弯道和海边的千层浪花。
 
花园体验
在澳大利亚,传统的花园风格源自欧洲的祖先,近年来更倾向于尝试表现澳洲本土景观的魅力。澳大利亚花园的设计则反其道而行,灵感源自澳洲景观,设计却体现了景观的雕塑性和艺术性,强有力的秩序感突显了多样性、大尺度和鲜明的对比。这些创造性的景观元素促使游客获得对澳大利亚植物多样性的认知并教育他们如何使用。
 
升华体验
游客通过置身植物中获得了对其本质认知的体验。景观设计中,陈旧的标识被摒除,换之以通过体验的方式进行交流。通过抽象、升华、雕塑等体验来突显澳洲景观的特色。设计手法并没有进行模仿和仿真,而是将体验进行升华。
这些体验包括穿行在桉树林地间、走过一段海风吹拂的滨海石楠荒野之路,唤醒了人们对于滨海区城市化肌理里林业种植园和花园的记忆。植物种群在突显这一体验方面起到了基本的支撑作用。
这一表达方式体现在各个组成部分中,同时,游客的体验又将其强化。项目实现了抽象、隐喻和诗意之间的平衡。并非所有游客都能感受同样的信息,各自有着各自的体验。这是关于情绪和心智的多层级的发现之旅。
 
编舞魅力
行走在澳洲景观中,能获得一场关于浪打浪、交叠与跳跃的旅程。没有人会一成不变地旅行。植物会吸引人逗留!这场运动的编舞魅力体现在澳大利亚花园中,游客被引导加入一场标新立异的旅程,通过依据景观元素和花园体验而不断变化的步道系统来感知景观。冈瓦那花园的壳路幻化为水上圆形石板路,后者连接了石头堆砌的场地,其间的园路显得不起眼。
澳洲景观是富于变幻的,这还体现在导览游客感受不同体验的园路上。这是关于探索花园和积累知识的多元化体验。
 
新公共空间
作为展示澳大利亚植物种群的最大植物园,澳大利亚花园现今收藏了各种植物,供科研、教育、环保之用,其在帮助科学家和公众理解历史、当前使用以及自然和城市环境里未来植物等方面有着举足轻重的地位。澳大利亚花园突显了生物多样性的重要性,提升了公众对物种保护和生态系统的认知,促进了世界生物遗产的保护。
此外,澳大利亚花园还扮演了另一个角色,即作为城市扩张的新公共空间。生物多样性和可持续性的信息也整合进这一新型游客观光地。游客不仅来此探索植物,还能通过工作坊、音乐、影院、市集、咖啡馆、游乐室等互动体验获得身心的愉悦。
 
治愈设计
澳大利亚花园坐落在采砂场旧址,植物不复存在,土壤外翻朝天。设计团队并没有引进新土壤,而是与作为园艺家和设计师的保罗·汤普森合作,通过植物挑选和搭配来创新性地解决场地条件的困境,最终栽种了1 700种总计170 000株植物。植物的挑选不仅涉及对低品质的有机介质的适应性,还涉及低用水量的抗旱性。
 
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Introduction
In a former sand quarry, a new Botanic Garden has been completed, one that allows visitors to follow a metaphorical journey of water through the Australian landscape, from the desert to the coastal fringe.
Via the artistry of Landscape Architecture, this integrated landscape brings together Horticulture, Architecture, Ecology, and Art to create the largest botanic garden devoted to Australian flora. It seeks, through the design of themed experiences, to inspire visitors to see our plants in new ways.
The completion of the Australian Garden comes at a time when Botanic Gardens world-wide are questioning existing research and recreational paradigms and refocusing anew on messages of landscape conservation and a renewed interest in meaningful visitor engagement. 
The Australian Garden engages visitors by expressing the love – hate relationship Australian’s have with their landscape. It is embraced or shunned by its people, loved for its sublime beauty or loathed as the cause of hardship. Artists and writers have often been inspired to design or write in response to subtle rhythms, flowing forms and tenacious flora of our landscape. Whilst others have attempted to order the landscape, and conceive of it as humanly designed form. 
At the Australian Garden these tensions are the creative genesis of the design, expressing our reverence and sense of awe, the natural landscape, and our innate impulse to change it, to make it into a humanly contrived form of beautiful, yet our own, work. 
On the east side of the garden, Exhibition Gardens, Display Landscapes, Research Plots and Forestry arrays that illustrate our propensity to frame and order our landscapes in more formal manners, whilst on the west, visitors are subsumed by gardens that are inspired by natural cycles, immersive landscapes and irregular floristic forms. Water plays a mediating role between these two conditions, taking visitors from rockpool escarpments, meandering river bends, melaleuca spits and coastal edges. 
 
An Experience
Gardens in Australia have traditionally been modeled on European precedents or more recently attempted to recreate the seductive qualities of the Australian landscape. The Australian Garden by contrast uses the Australian landscape as its inspiration to create a sequence of powerful sculptural and artistic landscape experiences that recognize its diversity, breadth of scale and wonderful contrasts. Via these creative landscape compositions, the project seeks to stimulate and educate visitors into the potential use and diversity of Australian flora.
 
Distillation
Visitors engage with the botanical collections via an intrinsically interpretive experience. Didactic signage is shunned in favour of a landscape design approach that communicates narratives via experience and immersion. Here design is a catalyst to evoke qualities of the Australian landscape, via abstraction, distillation and sculpted experiences. This design approach captures a heightened experience that does not rely on mimicry, or simulacra. 
Designed experiences such as walking across the tangle of a Eucalypt forest floor, or the passage through wind pruned coastal heath, is juxtaposed amongst the order reminiscent of forestry plantations and gardens that evoke the patterns of urbanisation on our coastal fringe. The botanical collection plays a fundamental supporting role in accentuating the interpretive experience.
Here the narrative has informed the composition and the experience reinforces the message. It aims to strike a balance, between abstraction, metaphor and poetry. Not every visitor will take home the same message, as each will have their own experience. It allows many layers of emotional and intellectual discovery.
 
Choreography
Walking through the Australian landscape is a journey of constant weaves, shifts and jumps. One never travels in a straight line. The flora gets in the way! This choreography of movement, is captured in The Australian Garden, where visitors are taken on a distinctly unconventional journey. Visitors are invited into the landscape via a pathway system that constantly morphs according to the landscape narrative and garden experience. Crusty paths in the Gondwana Garden, shift to become over water circular grated plate which connects to a field of stones where the actual path is no longer apparent. 
Equally as there is not one linear narrative to describe the Australian landscape, paths in the Australian landscape lead visitors on many journeys and many experiences. This is a garden of discovery, of multiple experiences and of cumulative knowledge.
 
The New Public
As is the largest Botanic Garden devoted to the display of Australian flora, the Australian Garden is now host to a vast collection of plants for scientific, educative, and conservation purposes. It plays a vital role in helping scientists and the public understand the history, present day uses and what the future may hold for plants in natural and urban environments. It embraces the importance of biodiversity and our increased understanding of the need to protect species and ecosystems to safeguard the world’s biological heritage.
The Australian Garden however performs another role, one as the new public realm for an ever expanding city. Messages of biodiversity and sustainability are integrated into its role as a new major visitor destination where not only do visitors come to explore the plant collections but to also be entertained, through interactive workshops, music, cinema, markets, cafes and play. 
 
A Rehabilitation Strategy 
The Australian Garden is located in a former sand quarry that had denuded the vegetation and exhumed all traces of soil. Rather than importing new soil media, the design team, working with horticulturalist and designer, Paul Thompson, asked how could the design and selection of flora respond creatively to this challenging site condition. The outcome utilizes 170,000 plants across 1700 species all adapted to this challenging site condition, with species selected not only for their suitability to low organic media, but also their adaptation to low water utilization and drought tolerance.
 
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