拉菲特绿廊+复兴廊道/连接新奥尔良社区
Lafitte Greenway + Revitalization Corridor | Linking New Orleans Neighborhoods
2014-08-14 10:43:25    | keywords: 新奥尔良  绿廊  廊道  规划 
拉菲特绿廊+复兴廊道/连接新奥尔良社区
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“项目十分落地,且预算不多。信息传达得十分清晰,逻辑性强。文化和环境方面做得十分到位。资料非常棒,效果图很美。项目融合了新奥尔良市众多社区的参与。”
——2013专业奖评语
 
“This has legs and was done without a lot of budget. The information is conveyed clearly and logically. The cultural and environmental aspects are good. The documentation is excellent and the renderings are beautiful. It shows there was a lot of community involvement in New Orleans.”
—2013 Professional Awards Jury
 
By Design Workshop, Inc., Austin, TX & Aspen, CO

 
项目概述
自2005年卡特里娜飓风所造成的毁灭性破坏后,作为第一批复兴项目之一,3.1英里(约4.99千米)长的拉菲特绿廊将成为连接此地居民与路易斯安那州新奥尔良市中心的多功能交通廊道,同时注入生机勃勃的景象。景观设计师带领了一个多学科团队,融合了公众参与,统一了众多可预见的目标,通过各种尺度的设计将这处旧工业铁路廊道改造成全美知名的绿廊。
 
场址
拉菲特绿廊占地54英亩(约218 530平方米),曾是运河和铁路用地,连接了法国历史街区和圣约翰支流以及庞恰特雷恩湖。拉菲特廊道占地1 375英亩(约5 564 428平方米),包括拉菲特绿廊和一片集住宅、零售、工业用地于一体的混合地块。廊道覆盖居民13 583人,横跨整座城市,展现了200年的历史脉络:从殖民时期建造的法国区到20世纪中叶郊区的城中小区。目前,该区社会经济条件跨度大,种族构成复杂,这一社区参与的背景极富挑战。
 
挑战
新奥尔良市聘请了多学科团队来完成四个综合任务:1.拉菲特绿廊总体规划;2.拉菲特廊道复兴计划;3.绿廊施工文件;4.运营和维护计划。这需要设计团队付出超凡的努力来达到以下要求:评估绿廊在整座城市中的地位,明确整个廊道的复兴策略,绿廊施工的细部设计方案。基于这三个截然不同的要求,顾问团队进行规划和设计,同时在廊道的重要管理、预算和运营方面给予建议。
 
流程
在规划和设计拉菲特绿廊的过程中,顾问团队执行严格的流程以确保工作最终能获得预期中的超凡效果。实现这样一个长期可持续的项目,最重要的是通过历史、环境、艺术、社区和经济这五个全局设计原则来了解关键问题。团队通过这些问题来制定目标:精准的、可预见的、行动导向的、现实的、时间为基础的(缩写SMART)。SMART里的每一个目标,至少每个关联垒线的现状都有一个度量,由此成功能够被预见。通过最好的实践经验、案例分析以及LEED(针对社区开发)和美国森林协会等研究的对比来形成每个度量的基准。这一流程达成了一套策略,不仅整合进绿廊设计里,还整合进廊道复兴建议里。
 
社区支持
社区参与的方法包括了新奥尔良市所有的社区,尤其是廊道上的小区和组织。整个策略系列化地涵盖了三场公众会议、八场公众演讲、75次以上的股东会议、网络调查以及由居民组成的12个团队参与的“芯片游戏”。该游戏以合作演练的形式让社区居民给出建议,内容涉及公园设施的类型、与绿廊相适应的景观效果。游戏的设计基础来源于廊道上13 583位居民对公园方案的建议。基于“芯片游戏”的结果,顾问团队制定出本土公园方案的标准,这一标准可以用作城市未来公园的规划指南。这一游戏的参与者来自拉菲特绿廊的各个股东团队,包括拉菲特绿廊的朋友、社区成员、当地小学和中学的学生。
 
绿廊愿景
总设计概念采用历史生态的原则,同时依托场址丰富的历史脉络,融合了社区参与和先前的计划。绵延几英里的柏树林突显了老水池运河的历史线,让人联想到原先覆盖场址的“柏树森林”。柏树林里,临时雨水花园栽种了本土路易斯安那鸢尾(新奥尔良的市花),景色十分美丽。锈迹斑斑的铺装带呼应了原先横跨场址的火车轨道。植物配置折射出南路易斯安那州的自然植被形态:绿廊向上延伸至梅泰里山脊,达到河流的自然水位,沼泽物种是低地硬木和高地物种之间的过渡。
社区配套设施和绿廊设计元素相互协调,形成的开放空间可以用于举办正式和非正式的活动。以18世纪的地图为地理参照,这里曾经是老水池运河的历史步道。新步道(卡隆德莱特步道)采用环保碎砖铺装,包括公园里的次级园路以及宽阔的漫步道,这与200年前的做法颇为相似。除了细石步道的铺装,根据新奥尔良的传统,一条红砖铺就的挡土墙能够抵御敌人和邪恶精灵的入侵!在拉菲特社区花园这一美国历史上使用最久的社区花园旧址上,新建了一个社区花园。
 
可持续原则
绿廊的可持续设计体现在暴雨雨水处理的绿色基础设施、本土植物配置、旧建筑的二次设计以及减少不渗水表面。拉菲特绿廊将成为新奥尔良市首批旨在减缓城市热岛效应和提升暴雨雨水处理能力的项目之一,同时这些项目的成效是可预见的。值得一提的是圣约翰支流等自然条件的修复将营造一片鱼类和野生动物的栖息地,生物多样性得以保留,水质也得以提升。重新设计后的社区空间包括小山和圆形剧场,用作加洛舞等当地社区节日的活动场所。
 
复兴计划
此外,景观设计师被要求为附近的廊道主导制定一个经济复兴策略。策略包括通往学校的安全路径、剧烈扩张的远超LEED标准的社区园艺方案以及主要路口混合功能节点的营造。景观设计师致力于确保绿廊被划分为开放空间,而不是其他功能的用地。一套以形态为基础的开发标准补充了这座城市的新区划分法规,确保这个新市民资产的填充物井然有序。廊道范围内的暴雨雨水处理策略也将解决此区的历史雨洪问题。
 
愿景实施
随着绿廊将在这座城市里史无前例地大面积采用绿色基础设施和本土植物材料,这就不仅仅是建造绿廊了,还必须有运营管理策略。新奥尔良市的公园运营是全美最为独特的,其运营划分为两个实体:公园和公园道以及新奥尔良休闲发展委员会。景观设计师很有必要准备一份维护预算和草案,同时与两个实体间的绿廊管理进行沟通协商。此外,虽然绿廊的造价预估在35 000 000美元,这两个实体却只能付出6 500 000美元。面对这一财政紧缩的严峻形势,景观设计师也被要求制定一份伙伴关系方案,由此不同的民间团体可以出资共同开发这个项目。
 
可预见的成功
基于可持续设计的整体框架,景观设计师在历史、环境、社区、经济和艺术方面制定了性能度量、垒线测量和基准,这些都远远超过了LEED和可持续场地评价的标准,将取得大量积极的成果。例如,柏树林的重新引入将使绿荫覆盖率从3%增加到46%。十年一遇的暴雨雨水落到场地上将不再采用管道进行疏导,由此减轻了新奥尔良市原有高税收的暴雨雨水系统的负担,也减少了下沉的可能性。通过百分百地采用本土植物材料,野生动物和鸟类的数量也将翻两番。
 
未来
计划成功地回应了附近社区的需求,将这一贫瘠之地转变为郁郁葱葱且充满活力的绿廊。最重要的是,这个计划回馈了新奥尔良市,很好地使用了这个未被充分利用的公共空间,将新奥尔良的市民聚集在一块公共土地上。通过综合分析的手法和强有力的规划流程,拉菲特绿廊吸纳了各方的声音,打造了一个重获新生的标志性绿廊。
 
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左:总平面图
3.1英里(约4.99千米)长的拉菲特绿廊属于公路用地,曾经作为铁轨廊道用于货物运输,现在正着手将其改造成充满活力的多功能运输廊道,衔接居民与法国区中心。

Left: Site Plan. The Lafitte Greenway is a 3.1-mile long right-of-way that was once used for the transportation of goods along a rail corridor. It is currently envisioned as a vibrant multi-modal transportation corridor linking residents to the heart of the French Quarter.
Image: Design Workshop
 
右:拉菲特绿廊占地54英亩(约218 530平方米),这一贫瘠之地曾经是工业铁轨廊道,现在正安然地成为复兴这座新月城(新奥尔良市的别称)的催化剂。

Right: The Lafitte Greenway, a 54-acre barren stretch of land once used as an industrial rail corridor, is poised to become a catalyst for change in the Crescent City.
Image: John Moon, Design Workshop
 
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左:这块称作拉菲特绿廊的棕地场址横跨新奥尔良市七个历史小区。目前,绿廊是这些小区的分割线,设计和复兴策略旨在以公共场所的形式集合这些社区的居民。

Left: The brownfield site known as the Lafitte Greenway crosses seven historic New Orleans neighborhoods. While the Greenway currently acts as a divider of these neighborhoods, the design and revitalization strategy aims to unite these communities on a common ground.
Image: Design Workshop
 
右:计划回应了社区的需求,将这一贫瘠之地转变为郁郁葱葱的绿廊。最重要的是,这个计划很好地使用了这个未被充分利用的公共空间,将新奥尔良的市民聚集在一块公共土地上。
 
Right: The plan responds to the needs of the community and replenishes the barren stretch of land into a lush Greenway. Most importantly, this plan capitalizes on underutilized public space, bringing the citizens of New Orleans together on a common ground.
 
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左:1800年至1900年间,铁路和老水池运河是圣约翰支流的延伸区,起到促进这座城市贸易往来的作用。随着城市化的扩张,支流改造成沟渠,树荫渐渐退化,这一丰富的生态系统在慢慢消亡。

Left: Between 1800 and 1900, the railroad and Carondelet Canal served as extensions of Bayou St. John that facilitated trade to the City. The bayou was channelized and tree canopy severely degraded, as this once rich ecosystem diminished due to urbanization.
Image: Design Workshop
 
中:这块区域将重新成为具有潜力的绿廊,设计团队对历史、水文和生态的修复展开调研。通过线性雨水花园和多功能运输网络来展现运河和铁路的历史

Middle: As the area re-emerged as a potential Greenway, the design team investigated systems that speak to the restoration of history, hydrology and ecology. The Canal and railroad are revealed through the use of linear rain gardens and a multi-modal transportation network.
Image: Design Workshop
 
右:绿廊步道衔接了田地、果园、雨水花园和休闲空间,营造了极富动态体验的场所。改造后的绿廊不仅连接了各个小区,还展现了设计、功能、背景和环保方面的独特性。

Right: The Greenway trail weaves through fields, orchards, rain gardens, and recreational spaces, creating dynamic experiences across the site. The Greenway is transformed into a spine that not only connects neighborhoods, but provides distinction of design, function, context, and environmental responsibility.
Image: Design Workshop
 
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左:对新奥尔良市景观类型的深入分析,揭示了群落交错区呈现多样化并将廊道和绿道一分为二。立面悄无声息的变化展现了植物配置的手法,包括哪个种类的植物能让这个复杂的环境欣欣向荣。

Left: An in-depth analysis of the New Orleans landscape typologies shows the diverse ecotones that bisect the Corridor and Greenway. Subtle changes in elevation inform the planting design that determines which types of plant species will thrive in this complex environment.
Image: Design Workshop
 
右:绿廊的设计和施工得到了政府、股东、社区成员和设计团队的巨大支持,最后的方案是所有人一起努力的结果。

Right: The immense amount of support for the design and construction of the Greenway resulted in a plan that was truly created by a collective effort from the City, stakeholders, community members, and the design team.
Image: Design Workshop
 
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左:水文的研究揭示了绿廊的高地位置,事实上这很容易引发周边住宅和商铺的洪水泛滥。减缓暴雨雨水径流的策略在于营造休闲场地,它能吸纳暴雨雨水自然蓄水池两倍的水量。

Left: Research of the hydrology revealed that the Greenway is a high point and actually causes localized flooding of adjacent homes and businesses. Strategies to mitigate stormwater runoff include carving out recreation fields that double as natural stormwater reservoirs.
Image: John Moon, Design Workshop
 
中:除了花园空间和休闲场所,此区域的规划性和连续性仍然欠缺。计划的重要目标:确保使用者安全的同时为当地社区提供与其需求相符的规划元素。

Middle: While there is some park space and neutral grounds for recreation, the area lacks sufficient programming and connectivity. A significant goal of the plan is to provide program elements determined by the local community while ensuring the safety of visitors.
Image: John Moon, Design Workshop
 
右:社区厚重的历史底蕴和多元化的特征都体现在绿廊的设计策略和计划建议中。绿廊没有隔断社区之间的交往,而是努力将居民聚集在一起产生互动。
 
Right: The rich history and mix of neighborhood identities are reflected in the design strategy for the Greenway and recommendations of the plan. Instead of acting as a barrier of neighborhoods, the Greenway seeks to unite residents and foster community interaction.
Image: Design Workshop
 
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左:历史运河部分重新设计成具有艺术气息的休闲空间,用于展现生态和历史脉络。通过充分利用旧有基础设施,设计达成了减缓暴雨雨水和提升生活质量的目标。
 
Left: Portions of the historic canal are re-envisioned as recreational spaces and provide artistic opportunities to display ecological and historic processes. By capitalizing on existing infrastructures, the design achieves the goal of mitigating stormwater and increasing quality of life.
Image: Design Workshop
 
右:运河历史线翻新后成为雨水花园,其内全部栽种本土植物。设计的环境可持续性体现在本土生态的修复和野生动物栖息地的营造,同时社区居民也有了一处重要的休闲场所。

Right: The historic alignment of the Canal is retrofitted as a rain garden with 100-percent native plant material. The design achieves environmental sustainability by restoring the native ecology and increasing habitat for wildlife, while providing essential recreation space for the community.
Image: Design Workshop
 
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左:由廊道居民决定的规划元素融合进公园里,有利于居民的身心健康。开放空间采用被动式通风,不仅为居民提供舒适的区域,还降低了对环境产生需求的压力。

Left: Programmatic elements identified by Corridor residents are integrated into the park, achieving access to health and wellness. Open spaces are passively ventilated, providing areas of human comfort while also reducing vulnerability to environmental stresses.
Image: Design Workshop
 
右:将原有的市属大楼改造为露天展馆,配套的社区花园和雨水收集系统为旧有结构提供解决方法。将历史建筑融入绿廊不仅体现了经济可持续性,还为社区活动提供了意义重大的聚会空间。

Right: Transforming the existing City-owned building into an open-air pavilion with community gardens and rainwater collection system offers new solutions for existing structures. Incorporating historic buildings within the Greenway achieves economic sustainability and provides meaningful gathering space for community events.
Image: Design Workshop
 
 
Project Statement
As one of the first revitalization projects since the devastation of 2005's Hurricane Katrina, the 3.1-mile linear Lafitte Greenway will become a vibrant, multi-modal transportation corridor linking residents to the heart of New Orleans, Louisiana. The landscape architect led a multi-disciplinary effort—incorporating public input, synthesizing many measurable objectives and working across a range of scales—to transform an old industrial rail corridor into a celebrated Greenway.
 
The Site
The 54-acre Lafitte Greenway was once a former shipping canal and railroad right-of-way that connected the historic French Quarter to Bayou St. John and Lake Pontchartrain. The Lafitte Corridor is a 1,375-acre district that includes the Lafitte Greenway and a rich mix of residential, retail and industrial uses. The Corridor contains 13,583 residents and traverses a cross-section of the City reflecting 200-year settlement patterns ranging from the colonial-era settlement of the Vieux Carré to the mid-twentieth-century suburban neighborhood of Mid-City. Presently, this district contains a spectrum of socioeconomic conditions and racial compositions, creating a challenging context for community engagement.
 
The Challenge
The City of New Orleans retained a multi-disciplinary team to complete four comprehensive tasks: 1) the Lafitte Greenway Master Plan, 2) the Lafitte Corridor Revitalization Plan 3) construction documents for the Greenway and an 4) Operations and Maintenance Plan. This extraordinary effort required the design team to assess the role of the Greenway within the City as a whole, identify a revitalization strategy for the entire Corridor and create a detailed design for the implementation of the Greenway. The consultant team planned and designed at these three distinct scales but also advised on the important management, budget and operations of the Greenway.
 
Process
In planning and designing the Lafitte Greenway, the consultant team followed a rigorous process to ensure that the work resulted in extraordinary outcomes with measurable results. Understanding critical questions through five overarching design principles—History, Environment, Art, Community and Economics—was paramount to creating a project that was sustainable for the long term. These questions helped the team form goals that were Specific, Measurable, Action-oriented, Realistic and Time-based (SMART). For each SMART goal, at least one metric with an associated baseline existing condition was established by which success could be measured. Best practices, case studies and research from sources such as LEED® ND and American Forests were compared to establish benchmarks for each metric. This process resulted in a set of strategies that has been integrated into the design of the Greenway and the revitalization recommendations for the Corridor.
 
Garnering Community Support
The community engagement approach was inclusive of all segments of the New Orleans community, with specific focus on neighborhoods and organizations within the Corridor. The overall strategy involved a series of three public meetings, eight public presentations, over 75 stakeholder meetings, online surveys and Chip Game events with 12 constituent groups. The Chip Game was a collaborative exercise allowing the community to suggest types of park facilities and landscape treatments appropriate to the Greenway. The foundation of the game was developed through recommendations for park programming based on the Corridor's population of 13,583 residents. Chip Game results allowed the consultant team to develop a local park program standard which could be used as a guide for future park planning in the city. The Chip Game was played by various stakeholder groups of the Lafitte Greenway including the Friends of Lafitte Corridor, community members, and students from the local high school and elementary school.
 
Envisioning the Greenway
The overall design concept draws upon principles of historic ecology and builds upon the rich layers of the site's history while also taking into account community input and previous plans. The historic alignment of Carondelet Canal is marked by a mile-long bosque of bald cypress trees evocative of the Cipriére au Bois (Cypress Forest) that once covered the site. Within this grove is an ephemeral rain garden filled with stunning displays of native Louisiana iris, New Orleans' city flower. Rust stained bands of paving trace the location of train tracks once traversing the site. Plantings reflect the natural vegetation patterns of south Louisiana with swamp species that transition to bottomland hardwoods and upland species as the Greenway rises to the Metairie Ridge and natural level of the river.
The design creates synergies between existing community facilities and designed elements of the Greenway, providing open space for formal and informal activities. Geo-referencing of 18th century maps identified the location of the Carondelet Walk, a historic tow path of the Carondelet Canal. The new Carondelet Walk of crushed, recycled brick provides a secondary path within the park and a grand promenade, much as the original had done 200 years before. In addition to a fine walking surface, according to New Orleans tradition, a line of red brick dust wards away enemies and evil spirits! A new community garden is placed where the Lafitte community garden, once the longest continuously operated community garden in America, was located.
 
Sustainable Principles
The design for the Greenway incorporates sustainable design through green stormwater infrastructure, native plantings, adaptive re-use of existing buildings and the reduction of impervious surface. The Lafitte Greenway will be one of the first projects in New Orleans that creates measurable outcomes that aim to lessen the effects of urban heat island and increase stormwater management capacity. Specifically, the restoration of the natural edge conditions of Bayou St. John will encourage fish and wildlife habitat, support biodiversity and increase water quality. The reconfigured community space will provide a hill and amphitheater for local community festivals such as Bayou Boogaloo.
 
The Revitalization Plan
In addition, the landscape architects were called upon to lead an economic revitalization strategy for the surrounding Corridor. Strategies were developed for Safe Routes to School, for a dramatic expansion of the community gardening program which will exceed LEED® standards, and for the creation of nodal mixed-use development at major intersections. The landscape architects worked to ensure the Greenway was zoned as open space, thus avoiding use of the land for other purposes. A set of form-based development standards will supplement the City's new zoning ordinance to ensure orderly infill in response to this new civic asset. A Corridor-wide strategy for stormwater management will also address the district's historic flooding problems.
 
Implementing the Vision
As the Greenway will employ the most extensive use of green infrastructure and native plant material in the City's history, it is not sufficient to merely build the Greenway; there must also be a strategy for its operation and management. New Orleans is unique among American cities in that park operations are divided between two entities: Parks and Parkways and the New Orleans Recreational Development Commission. It was necessary, therefore, for the landscape architect to prepare a maintenance budget and protocols as well as to negotiate the management of the Greenway between these two entities. In addition, although it is estimated to cost $35 million to construct the Greenway, these two entities have only $6.5 million dollars available for construction. Thus, in a severe climate of fiscal austerity, the landscape architect was also called upon to develop a partnership program in which various civic groups could develop and fund portions of the project.
 
Measuring Success
Working within a holistic, sustainable design framework, the landscape architects created a system of performance metrics, baseline measurements and benchmarks in the categories of history, environment, community, economics and art which far exceed those of LEED® or Sustainable Sites. A number of positive outcomes will be achieved. For example, restoring the historic Cypress tree canopy will result in an increase from three-percent to 46-percent tree canopy coverage. One-hundred percent of the storm water falling on-site during the 10-year storm will be captured without the use of pipes, thus lessening the load on New Orleans' already overtaxed stormwater system and reducing subsidence. Finally, through the use of 100-percent native plant material, wildlife and bird populations are projected to quadruple.
 
Future
The plan successfully responds to the needs of adjacent communities and it replenishes the barren stretch of land into a lush, vibrant Greenway. Most importantly, this plan gives back to the City of New Orleans and capitalizes on underutilized public space, bringing the citizens of New Orleans together on a common ground. By taking a comprehensive approach to analysis and implementing a robust planning process, the Lafitte Greenway considers all voices of the people and breathes life into an iconic Greenway.
 
Via ASLA  译:90degree
 
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