纽约高线公园二期
High Line, Section 2
2014-08-14 14:21:24    | keywords: 纽约  公园  工业  旧址  可持续  城市  环境 
纽约高线公园二期
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“项目在城市中的地位举足轻重。高线二期工程延续了一期工程的巨大构想,同时也尝试加入新的元素。设计严谨却不失先前的创造力。项目触动人心,不仅考虑了人们的健康方面,在暴雨雨水控制和自然生境修复方面也做得十分到位。”——2013专业奖评语

“This is a great thing for the city. It continues the big idea of the first phase of the High Line, but they did experiment with some things. The rigor is there, but they are continuing with the inventiveness. This project touches people. It enhances human health, controls stormwater, and restores natural habitats.”—2013 Professional Awards Jury
 
By James Corner Field Operations, New York City
 
 
项目概述
纽约高线公园坐落在抬升的铁路上,这一非凡的公共空间连接了附近的社区,成为都市环境“绿化”的新典范。这一标志着创新设计和可持续性的公园向世人展现了欣赏城市的新角度,也为其他城市的设计提供灵感,证明了景观设计可以给城市生活质量带来急剧的变化。
 
场地和背景
高线公园跨越了曼哈顿西边超过23个城市街区,衔接了3个独特小区并产生互动:肉库区、西切尔西、地狱厨房(克林顿区)。旧址建于1930年,是“西边改善项目”的一部分,旨在缓解人们对交通事故的恐惧,将危险的火车轨道从街面移到高架上。1980年后,这条线路被废弃,渐渐成为附近社区的眼中钉,濒临拆除的后果。就在那时,一个充满机会主义色彩的景观方案诞生,几个纽约人经过丰富的想象提出了将其改造成公园的建议。1999年,“高线之友”这一非营利组织以保护高线为使命致力于实现令人称奇的高线公园。高线公园最终建成了,隶属于纽约市政府,“高线之友”负责维护和运营。高线一期于2009年6月开放,覆盖9个街区(从甘斯沃尔特街到第20大道)。二期于2011年6月开放,覆盖10个街区(从第20大道到第30大道),将公园的长度翻一倍延伸至1英里(约1.6千米)。一期工程广受欢迎,远远超出大家的预期,这对于二期工程而言挑战巨大,而二期工程也不负众望,承袭了一期工程的风格,同时还加入了一些令人耳目一新并为之欣喜的元素。场地本身激发了设计灵感。高线二期从北边的西切尔西第20大道到第30大道的西边铁路庭院的开端都有着自己的独特定位。更为逼仄与笔直,两侧的土地融合了历史仓库、住宅大楼和新建建筑。尺度显得更具亲和力,更为饱满,更加私密,给人一种脱离大城市而更专注于社区的感觉。
 
可持续性
作为颇具野心的城市更新项目,高线公园最本质的元素是保留并重新利用的愿景。这在政治、生态、历史、社会、经济可持续方面显得意义深远。政治方面,两名社区居民为此做出的贡献证明了社区行动主义的意义。生态方面,在市中心建造了占地6英亩(24 281平方米)的绿色屋顶。历史方面,这一翻新工程将废弃的铁路线改造成新型公共空间。社会方面,这一世界一流的社区公园成为家庭和游客的社交聚会场所。经济方面,通过企业的努力实现了公共空间的营利,吸引了各行各业来此驻扎,刺激了当地经济的增长。二期工程将半英里(约804.7米)的基础设施改造成公园用地,减缓了城市热岛效应,建造了重要的栖息地。精心挑选了300多个物种形成初级本土景观,使其与周围特定的环境条件相适应。开放步道节点沿线采用绿色屋顶技术,改善了蓄水、排水和通风的功能,将灌溉需求降至最低。材料的回收利用体现在木材、钢材和用于预制混凝土的本土集料。公园采用LED节能灯具。有营业许可的摊位贩售着当地可持续的成品食物。公园还为社区提供各种各样的免费教育课程。
 
独特性
高线公园与城市的关系奠定了它的独特性和强劲的感染力。高线公园横向连贯了丰富的城市景观,两侧的建筑类型呈现多元化,建筑与高线公园形成了良好的过渡。这条私密的步道集合展现了哈德逊河的美丽风景。社区街道和城市标志纪念碑构成真实的纽约体验,这也是高线公园如此引人注目的部分原因。这不仅是一个场所,还是一趟旅程,将“漫步道”的理念重新导入城市公园的体验中。距离地面30英尺(约9米)的高线公园营造了身处城市却脱离城市的独特都市体验。与“逃离”城市的主流思想形成强烈对比,高线公园的设计将城市融入其中,使人们从中获得灵感并进行社交。连那些熟悉周围环境的纽约人也会爬上高线公园,欣赏城市风景崭新而出乎预料的一面。
 
设计意图
设计方尊重高线本身的特质,充分利用现有的元素,同时从旧有元素中“衍生”一些新的元素。贯穿整个设计过程的宗旨是“保持简单、保持野性、保持慢速、保持安静”。设计不追求刻意将精致的元素融入公园,而是旨在突显现有的环境,让置身其间的人感受到沉浸而专注的体验、松散的漫步基调,仿佛超现实的城市旅程。在这个项目中,保护和创新相互交织,体现在旧有结构经过二次利用后成为引人入胜且举世无双的新型休闲设施和公共漫步道。
 
材料搭配
通过硬朗的工业材料(混凝土、生锈的钢材、再生木材)来表现高线公园曾经是铁路和被废弃景观的历史。草类和多年生植物的精心配置表达一种充满野性的动态景观。铁轨和转轨器等历史旧物经过重新搭配融入景观中。保护和突显原有结构体现在各种小品、入口点和横道线方面,在公园里欣赏这些特色,能够得到对场地的另一番新颖解读。在有限的宽度和深度的结构里,植物、家具、路面铺装、灯具和其他设施完全融合在一起,高线公园被设计为一体化的系统。融合了创新技术的路面铺装独具特色,采用混凝土板搭建,板与板的衔接处经过修边的精细处理后形成细缝,在其间整合植物和铁轨,水能自由地流动,被导入植物床,进而将灌溉的需求将至最低。定制的“向上翻卷”长凳仿佛从路面上生长出来的,这一优雅的悬臂长凳能让人们欣赏到独特的风景,同时促进社交互动。二期工程在基本设计元素和材料搭配方面承袭了一期工程的极简风格,同时也不动声色地融入了一些令人惊奇的元素,这体现在高线DNA的延伸方面,比如将铁轨直接嵌入路面铺装系统中以及将公园唯一的草坪带入景观中。
 
漫步公园
二期工程通过一组风格各异的空间来突显独特的场地环境,如灌木丛、台阶座椅和草坪、高架林地和观景台、野花地、放射状长凳和裁切地。“灌木丛”位于第20和第22大道之间,灌木花境和小树形成密集的植物群落,标志了这里是公园另一期工程的开始,围合出通往西切尔西住宅小区的大门。在第22大道,“台阶座椅”被用于各种活动,如即兴表演、家庭野餐、浪漫的户外晚餐、艺术课程、日光浴等。占地4 900平方英尺(约455平方米)的草坪将第23大道“向上翻卷”,游客得以在往上几英尺的空中欣赏河流的风格。“高架林地”位于第25和第26大道之间,金属步道距离高线公园的地平线8英尺(约2.4米),其下的植物郁郁葱葱,游客得以在此纳凉。步道的观景分支中,第26大道观景台能欣赏到更为美丽的城市风景,同时人们还能联想到曾经伫立在此处的广告牌。“野花地”位于第26和第29大道之间,耐旱耐寒的草种和花期不同的多年生植物令此地在四季呈现不同的风景。在第29大道,高线公园朝着哈德逊河的方向缓缓弯曲,形成长长的弧线,与近一个街区长度的“放射状长凳”形成呼应。在二期工程北边的终端,步道缓缓抬高,其下的区域里的混凝土甲板被移除,展现了旧有结构的原貌。观景台悬浮在这块“裁切地”上,营造了超现实的感觉,游客向下望,能透过旧有结构窥视到第30大道的交通状况。
 
影响和灵感
高线公园对于曼哈顿西边的复兴做出了巨大的贡献,强有力地促进了投资的注入,成为附近社区的标志性景点。2005年,纽约市重新划分了高线公园附近的土地,旨在保护社区特征的同时又促进其发展。重新划区和公园的成功设计相结合,营造了纽约市发展最快且最具活力的社区,在过去的十年里人口增长超过60%。2006年之后,高线公园附近的土地获得新建建筑的许可,进而建筑数量翻番,启动了至少29个重要开发项目(19个建成项目,10个项目正在施工中),带来了超过20亿美元的私人投资,新增12 000个工作岗位。高线公园南端一带正在建造惠特尼美国艺术博物馆,建成后将成为此地主要的文化中心。公园的设计尊重场所的特性使其成为地标,这份真实感吸引了一批忠诚的支持者为其付出,其他城市受启发也纷纷来此调研复制这一成果的可行性。
 
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左:总平面图
坐落在曼哈顿西边被抬升的历史铁路运输线上的高线公园长1英里(约1.6千米),覆盖范围从甘斯沃尔特街到第30大道。
 
Left: Site Plan
The High Line is a public park built on an historic freight rail line elevated above the streets on Manhattan's West Side. Running between Gansevoort and West 30th Streets, the High Line is now one mile in length.
Image: James Corner Field Operations
 
右:朝南鸟瞰图
高线公园一期于2009年6月开放,二期于2011年6月开放。那年夏季,在第30大道上临时搭建了啤酒花园和溜冰场。
 
Right: Aerial View Looking South
The first section of the High Line opened in June of 2009, the second section in June of 2011. That summer, a temporary beer garden and roller rink anchored the ground level on 30th Street.
Image: Iwan Baan
 
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左:切尔西灌木丛
游客从草原似的景观“切尔西草地”向北移动。“灌木丛”位于第20和第22大道之间,灌木花境和小树形成密集的植物群落,标志了这里是公园另一期工程的开始。
 
Left: Chelsea Thicket
As visitors move north from the Chelsea Grasslands' prairie-like landscape, a dense planting of flowering shrubs and small trees indicates the beginning of a new section of the park, between West 20th and West 22nd Streets. 
Image: Iwan Baan
 
右:放射状长凳
在第29大道,高线公园朝着哈德逊河的方向缓缓弯曲,形成长长的弧线,成为与西边铁路庭院衔接的标志性过渡带。步道向西沿边是长长的木质条凳。
 
Right: Radial Bench
At West 29th Street, the High Line begins a long, gentle curve toward the Hudson River, signifying a transition to the West Side Rail Yards. A long wooden bench sweeps westward along the edge of the pathway. 
Image: Iwan Baan
 
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左:第23大道草坪
公园北角是“向上翻卷”的草坪,将游客向上抬升几英尺,东边可以欣赏布鲁克林区的风景,西边可以欣赏哈德逊河和对面的新泽西州的风景。
 
Left: 23rd Street Lawn
At its northern end, the Lawn “peels up,” lifting visitors several feet into the air and offering views of Brooklyn to the east, and the Hudson River and New Jersey to the west.
Image: Iwan Baan
 
右:公共艺术步道区
高线艺术始于2009年,展现了各种类型的艺术品,如专注于场地特征的作品、展览、表演、视频、广告牌装置等。这里展示的作品是萨拉·施所创作的“依然是与景观一起的生活(生境模型)”。
 
Right: Pace for Public Art
Founded in 2009, High Line Art presents a wide array of artwork including site-specific commissions, exhibitions, performances, video programs, and a series of billboard interventions. Shown here is Sarah Sze's Still Life with Landscape (Model for a Habitat).
Image: Iwan Baan
 
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左:高架林地
不同的节点搭建步道支线观景台,人们得以驻足停留并欣赏其下植物的美景以及远方城市的风景。

Left: The Woodland Flyover
At various points, overlooks branch off the walkway, creating opportunities to pause and enjoy views of the plantings below and the city beyond.
Image: Iwan Baan
 
右:高架林地鸟瞰图
金属步道距离高线公园的地平线8英尺(约2.4米),地被植物像毯子一样包裹了其下起伏的地形,将游客向上引导在漆树和木兰树的树荫下纳凉。

Right: Aerial View of The Woodland Flyover
A metal walkway rises eight feet above the High Line, allowing groundcover plants to blanket the undulating terrain below, and carrying visitors upward, into a canopy of sumac and magnolia trees.
Image: Iwan Baan
 
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左:第26大道观景台
在第26大道西街,观景台呈现了更加美丽的城市风光,同时令人联想到此地被移除的广告牌。
 
Left: 26th Street Viewing Spur
At West 26th Street, the Viewing Spur's frame enhances views of the city while recalling the billboards that were once attached to the High Line. 
Image: Iwan Baan
 
右:切尔西草地
当火车停止运行的时候,场地上的植物自然生长,受此启发,高线公园的设计团队在切尔西草地上采用野草和充满朝气的野花进行植物配置,使此地呈现四季不同的色彩和风景。
 
Right: Chelsea Grasslands
Inspired by the self-sown landscape that grew on the High Line when the trains stopped running, the High Line design team filled the Chelsea Grasslands with wild grasses and vibrant wildflowers that add color and texture throughout four seasons. 
Image: Iwan Baan
 
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左:野花地
直线型的步道呈现极简风格,沿途的野花散布在铁轨旧址上,游客在穿越城市的时候能够欣赏到高线公园这一绿轴的风景。

Left: Wildflower Field
The simplicity of the straight walkway, running alongside the wildflowers interspersed between the original railroad tracks, allows visitors to appreciate the green axis of the High Line, as it moves through the city.
Image: Iwan Baan
 
右:第23大道草坪和台阶座椅
这片多出来的空地成为聚会空间,用回收的柚木建造台阶座椅,这一材料的使用遍布4 900平方英尺(约455平方米)的南端草坪。

Right: 23rd Street Lawn and Seating Steps
The extra width in this area was used to create a gathering space, with Seating Steps made of reclaimed teak anchoring the southern end of a 4,900-square-foot lawn.
Image: Iwan Baan
 
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左:高架林地
金属步道距离高线公园的地平线8英尺(约2.4米),地被植物像毯子一样包裹了其下起伏的地形,将游客向上引导至树荫下纳凉。

Left: The Woodland Flyover
A metal walkway rises eight feet above the High Line, allowing groundcover plants to blanket the undulating terrain below, and carrying visitors upward, into a canopy of trees.
Image: Iwan Baan
 
右:第30大街裁切地和观景台
二期北面的终端,混凝土甲板被移除,展现了高线公园钢制架构的优点。

Right: 30th Street Cut-Out and Viewing Platform
Near the northern terminus of Section 2 the concrete decking has been removed, showcasing the strength of the High Line's steel frame.
Image: Iwan Baan
 
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左:高架下的植物景观
高线公园的植物配置变幻万千,丰富的色彩、肌理和过渡带呈现四季不同的景色,鼓励人们再次游览此地。
 
Left: Planting View Under the Flyover
The High Line has a continually changing palette of plants. It rewards repeat visits in all seasons with its huge range of colors, textures and relationships.
Image: Casual Capture
 
右:植物
花期不同的植物相互搭配,从1月底至11月中旬呈现多样化的景观。高线公园的植物在种类和数量上都非常多,营造了昆虫和鸟类往来的富饶生境,丰富了游客的体验。
 
Right: Planting
The plantings emphasize diversity in bloom times, with plants blooming from late January to mid-November. The High Line has an extraordinary number and diversity of plants, which create a rich habitat for insects and birds and a rich experience for visitors. 
Image: Mercer County Master Gardeners
 
 
Project Statement
The High Line is an elevated railroad reclaimed as an extraordinary public space, a connector of neighborhoods and a new model for the ‘greening' of the urban environment. It is creating a new way of seeing the city, is recognized as an icon for innovative design and sustainability and is an inspiration to other cities - proof of the dramatic change that landscape architecture can have on the quality of life in cities.
 
Site and Context
The High Line spans over twenty-three city blocks on Manhattan's West Side, connecting and interacting with 3 distinctive neighborhoods: the Meatpacking District, West Chelsea, and Hell's Kitchen/Clinton. It was built in the 1930's as part of the West Side Improvement Project to lift freight traffic in the air, removing dangerous trains from the streets below. Left unused since 1980, the line was considered an eyesore in the neighborhood and was under threat of demolition. During that time an opportunistic landscape began to grow, capturing the imagination of a few New Yorkers and triggering the idea for its conversion into a park. In 1999, the Friends of the High Line formed with the mission to save the High Line and transform it into an extraordinary public park. The High Line Park is now built, owned by the City of New York, and maintained and operated by Friends of the High Line. Section 1 opened in June of 2009, from Gansevoort Street to 20th Street (9 blocks). Section 2 opened in June of 2011, from 20th Street to 30th Street (10 blocks), doubling the length of the park to 1 mile in length. The popularity of the first section far exceeded everyone's expectations, so a challenge for Section 2 was to live up to this promise, build upon its identity and success and create something new and exciting. The site itself provided the inspiration. Section 2 has its own distinct identity as it moves north from 20th Street in West Chelsea to the beginning of the West Side Rail Yards at 30th Street. It is narrower and straighter, bounded on both sides by an eclectic mix of historic warehouses, residential buildings and new development. The scale is much more intimate, intense, even voyeuristic, creating a feeling of being more removed from the big city and more immersed in the neighborhood.
 
Truly Sustainable
As an ambitious urban reclamation project, the High Line's very essence is born out of the desire to preserve and recycle. It is significant and meaningful as a project that is politically, ecologically, historically, socially, and economically sustainable. Politically as a testament to community activism, saved by 2 neighborhood residents; Ecologically as a 6-acre green roof in the middle of the city; Historically as a retrofit project, transforming an abandoned rail line into a new public space; Socially as both a neighborhood and world-class park, where families, tourists, and the community meet and socialize; and Economically as an entrepreneurial effort that has demonstrated the ability of public spaces to generate revenue, attract businesses, and stimulate local economic growth. Section 2 transforms half a mile of infrastructure into parkland, reducing the heat island effect and creating significant habitat. Over 300 species were carefully selected to produce a primarily native landscape working with specific environmental conditions. Green-roof technologies along with open joint pavement enhance water retention, drainage and aeration and minimize irrigation requirements. Recycled materials are promoted including reclaimed wood, recycled steel and local aggregate for precast concrete. The park is lit with energy-efficient LED lighting, local and sustainably grown food is promoted at concession stands and a variety of free educational programs are offered to the community.
 
Why the High Line Is Unique
The High Line's relationship to the City is what makes it so powerful and unique. It is a consistent transect through a varied city landscape. The mix of building types and how they meet the High Line, along with the intimate choreography of the pathways directed towards views of the Hudson River, neighborhood streets and iconic city monuments is an authentic New York experience and part of what makes it so appealing. It is a journey, in addition to a place, and has thus reintroduced the notion of ‘promenading' back into the urban park experience. Elevated 30 feet above the ground, the High Line provides a unique urban experience; where one is both a part of the City and removed from the City at the same time. In contrast to being envisioned primarily as an ‘escape' from the City, the High Line design uses the City for inspiration and exchange. Even New Yorkers familiar with their surroundings, come up onto the High Line and see their city in a new and unexpected way.
 
Design Intent
It has always been our position to respect the innate character of the High Line itself; to capitalize on what is already there and to "grow" something new out of something old. The mantra throughout the design process was ‘‘Keep it Simple, Keep it Wild, Keep it Slow, and Keep it Quiet'. The intent was not to overdesign the park with elaborate interventions, but rather intensify the existing context and design it as an immersive experience, episodic walk and surreal journey in the City. In this project, preservation and innovation come together through the adaptive reuse of the existing structure as a new, compelling, one-of-a kind recreational amenity and public promenade.
 
Materials
The High Line's past as both a working railroad and abandoned landscape are reflected in the design through the use of industrial and robust materials (concrete, weathered steel, reclaimed wood); the selection and arrangement of grasses and perennials to further define a wild and dynamic landscape; the integration of historical artifacts such as reinstalled rail tracks and switches; and the preservation and exposure of the existing structure at features, access points and cross streets. When observed in the context of the new park, these features allow for a fresh interpretation of the site. Designed as an integrated system, the High Line's plantings, furnishing, paving, lighting and utilities were conceived and built as one system, working together within the limited width and depth of the structure itself. The signature paving is an innovative technology in as much as it is a walking surface; built from individual concrete planks with open joints and specially tapered edges and seams that integrate planting and rail tracks, permit the free flow of water, direct water to planting beds and minimize irrigation requirements. The custom designed ‘peel-up' bench grows out of the paving, rising to form an elegant cantilevered bench oriented towards particular views or arranged for increased sociability. In Section 2, the simplicity in design material and basic design elements remain consistent with Section 1, with some subtle surprises that expand upon the High Line ‘DNA', such as embedding the rail tracks directly into the paving system or introducing the only lawn in the park.
 
A Walk in the Park
Unique site conditions are further emphasized through a sequence of distinctive rooms along Section 2, including the Thicket, the Seating Steps + Lawn, the Woodland Flyover + Viewing Spur, the Wildflower Field, the Radial Bench and the Cut-out. In the ‘Thicket', between 20th and 22nd Streets, a dense planting of flowering shrubs and small trees indicates the beginning of a new section of the park, creating an enclosure and gateway into the residential neighborhood of West Chelsea. At 22nd Street, the ‘Seating Steps' are used for a range of activities including impromptu performances, family picnics, romantic outdoor dinners, art classes and sunbathing. A 4,900-square-foot lawn “peels up” over 23rd Street, lifting visitors several feet into the air and offering views from river to river. In the ‘Woodland Flyover,' between 25th and 26th Streets, a metal walkway rises 8 feet above the High Line, allowing plants to grow underneath while carrying visitors into a canopy of trees. Overlooks branch off the walkway, including the 26th Street Viewing Spur whose frame enhances views of the city while recalling the billboards that were once there. The ‘Wildflower Field' between 26th and 29th Streets, is dominated by hardy, drought-resistance grasses and perennials with variation in blooms throughout the year. At 29th Street, the High Line begins a long, gentle curve toward the Hudson River, echoed by a nearly 1-block long ‘Radial Bench'. At the northern terminus of Section 2, the pathway slowly rises above an area where the concrete decking has been removed, showcasing the existing structure. A viewing platform hovers above this ‘Cut-Out', creating a surreal moment where visitors can peer down through the structure to the traffic below on 30th Street.
 
Impact and Inspiration
Recognized as a significant contributor in the revitalization of Manhattan's West Side, the High Line has become a defining feature in its neighborhood and a powerful catalyst for investment. In 2005, the City rezoned the area around the High Line to encourage development while protecting the neighborhood character. The combination of the rezoning and the success of the park have helped to create one of the fastest growing and most vibrant neighborhoods in NYC, with a population increase of more than 60 percent in the last 10 years. Since 2006, new building permits around the High Line doubled and at least 29 major development projects have been initiated (19 completed, 10 underway) accounting for more than $2 billion in private investment including 12,000 new jobs. Construction has begun on a new downtown home for the Whitney Museum of American Art, which will serve as a major cultural anchor at the southern end of the High Line. The design of the park is iconic and specific to its place – this authenticity has generated a loyal group of supporters and devoted fans and has inspired other cities to investigate the feasibility of replicating it in their cities.
 
 
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