美国9·11国家纪念广场
National 9/11 Memorial
2014-09-26 09:41:00    | keywords: 美国  纽约  纪念  广场  景观 
美国9·11国家纪念广场
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“整个广场设计呈现出一种坚韧的素雅,清晰的细节令人惊叹。苍翠的广场树林与世贸双塔遗址处的方形坑洞瀑布水景池相互映衬,却又形成各自独立的景观语言。尽管从这些图片中无法体会到瀑布水声所带来的心灵震撼,但此情此景依旧引人注目。”——2012 年ASLA专业奖评语

“Besides the tenacity it took to get this built, the articulation of detail is phenomenal. The forest and voids are symbiotic even if not chatting with one another. The sound experience of the voids is an element you can’t see in photographs, but is also compelling.”—2012 ASLA Professional Awards Jury
 
 
项目概述
美国9•11国家纪念广场的建成是为了缅怀与纪念2001年9月11日在纽约市世贸中心大楼及五角大楼恐怖袭击事件中的罹难者们,同时也是对1993年2月26日世贸中心大爆炸事件中罹难者的缅怀。位于被炸毁世贸双塔遗址处的两个大型坑洞式瀑布水景池,与围植于周边的橡树林共同构成了重建后纽约市世贸中心的核心区域,并为这一充满着喧嚣的城市中心提供了一处冥思与回忆的宁静之所。
 
项目描述

设计背景
项目场地占地8英亩(约3.2公顷),位于曼哈顿下城区人口最为密集的城市街区和世界商贸中心区内。从诸多层面上看,该项目的设计与建造着实存在着相当多的复杂因素,同时还需要面对:从地方及国家政要到罹难者家属,再到多重繁复的客户方、户外设计评论家以及普通大众等社会各方的重重审视。这也许是当代景观设计史上拥有最高社会关注度与公众期待值的项目。
 
表面看似布局简单的纪念广场,其实质上是一个完全生态化的巨型绿色屋顶,它凌驾于诸多城市地下建筑设施之上,诸如:PATH地铁站及其相关地下道路、纪念馆、城市中心制冷站、地下停车场以及其它地下基础设施。7年间,设计团队与上述机构及利益相关者们进行反复协商,历经种种设计挑战,跨越多个行政辖区与多幢建筑的延展空间,最终完成了这一广场的设计与建造,为公众呈现出一个风格统一的景观视觉整体。
 
设计与施工
该项目的设计主体是位于世贸双塔遗址处的两个大型坑洞式瀑布水景池,这也是该项目的核心区域。两个坑洞式构筑物的规模尺度设置都与2001年9月11日这个灾难性的日子密切相关,同时,两个水景池的池沿护墙上都镌刻着1993年和2001年这两次灾难性事件中的罹难者名字。水景池周边的广场空间设计实现了以下四个主要目标:
• 首先,强化与拓展人们在广场空间内对两个水景池的观赏视角;
• 其次,营造纪念氛围,让人们全身心地投入到缅怀罹难者的情境之中而不受外界干扰,这是纪念性景观环境设计中不可或缺的考量因素;
• 再次,将这处纪念空间与周边喧杂的城市街景与繁忙的都市生活隔离开去;
• 最后,为曼哈顿下城区营建一处环境宁谧、景致宜人,且具人性化的公共休憩空间。
设计师采用一种令前来纪念广场参观的各类不同受众都能够理解的象征性符号语言,来形象诠释9·11事件给世人造成的巨大心灵创伤,这种符号语言被设计师命名为“倒映虚空”,是整个项目设计理念中至关重要的组成部分,具体体现于两个方形坑洞瀑布水景池的设计中。如果应用类似于当代艺术家迈克尔·黑泽尔独特的方位识别语言进行观察与解析,无论从哪个方位看,这两个水景池都可渲染出一种虚空的缺失之美。这样别具匠心的设计使得9·11所带来的巨大创伤永久地定格于此,给予悼念,赋予冥想。两个水景池占地1英亩(约0.4公顷),地下凿深30英尺(约9米),水池四壁长年饰以瀑布水景。设计团队通过利用相同尺寸实物模型对水的相关性能进行反复研究后,开发出一种锥形围堰式瀑布水景设施,这种设施既可有效提升水能及其他能源效率,同时又可呈现十分醒目而美观的瀑布视觉效果。夜晚,在灯光的照射下,两处瀑布水景更显壮观。前来纪念广场参观的人们,进入到由416棵橡树围合而成的这处庄严地界,暂时摆脱了城市日常生活中的琐碎与烦恼,静心冥想,哀悼逝者。在炎炎夏日里,这片枝繁叶盛的橡树林为人们遮荫消暑,而在秋风瑟瑟的时节里,片片金黄色的叶子纷纷飘落,成为广场上一道别致的风景线。冬季到来时,阳光照射在光秃秃的树枝上,光影交错间,演绎着生命更替的凄美;到了春天,这些树木又开始了新一轮的季节循环,绽放自然界的复苏之美。
在橡树林围合着的核心空间中,参观者们驻足于两个巨型水景池周边,欣赏着雷鸣般作响的瀑布,哀思着在那声巨响之后逝去生命的人们。在水景池的青铜质护墙上镌刻着罹难者的名字,参观者目视这些名字,寄托心中哀思之后,便要带着心灵的慰藉和对生命的珍视,匆匆穿越橡树林,回到喧闹的都市生活中去。视觉透过橡树林中各枝干的间隔处,整个纪念广场空间清晰可见,与此同时,茂盛的枝叶也弱化了视线中周边林立的高楼。广场上,各式小石块、地被植物、草坪以及钢质格栅,将单调的地面布局装点得既简约素雅,又略带生趣。
纪念广场小树林以“自然”森林为蓝本,种植了400余棵直立挺拔且枝叶茂盛的橡树,往来于此的人们会发现,树木成拱状排列,形成一条条通往核心水景区的拱状林中走道,为人们指引着方向。这些拱状走道象征着原世贸中心建筑设计师米诺儒·雅马萨奇分别设置于原世贸双塔建筑底部的两座拱桥。通过赋予如此的象征意义,整个树林仿佛也在搭建自然与人类之间的桥梁。树林中还有一处绿草丛生的静谧空间,它远离广场中的匆匆脚步,营造着一份独特的安宁。此外,为了更加有效地容纳每年9月11日举办各类哀悼活动时的大量人流,设计师们在广场空间内特辟出一处绿草公园休憩地块,以供人流的交替与缓冲。在看似随机各异的林中树距间,放置着三三两两的休憩长椅,与周边精心布局的地被植栽区共同构建出一系列大小不一、各具特色且采光各不相同的小型绿植地块。
 
该广场的设计建造并没有应用过多装饰性元素和材料,形式单一、简约,但却注重场地采光与安全性。广场上的卵石装饰、地面铺砖以及休憩长椅也都统一采用同一类型的花岗岩材质。地被植物也仅选用了常绿性英国长春藤和普通的草皮草进行栽植。单一的橡树树种遍植于整个纪念广场。广场空间整体色彩布局也显示出特有的单一与庄重。广场上的一草一木、一砖一瓦,都是景观设计师们经过广泛、细致的分析与研究,精心挑选而来的。
 
环境可持续性及设计价值分析
在整个项目设计和施工过程中,广场的可持续性都在材料的持久性和景观设计相应性能这两方面得以体现。广场地表与排水基础设施被设计成为一个拥有自持蓄水功能的大型蓄水池,可对降雨和冰雪融水进行蓄积,并引入场地内各处储水设施中,并通过专门的滴喷浇灌系统将这些水源重新利用于广场橡树林的浇灌中。广场橡树林是世贸中心景观区域重建后,最为密集的核心植被区。随着林中树木的不断成长,茂密的枝叶将营造出越来越多的阴凉休憩空间,为往来的参观者们提供更为舒适的冥想环境,同时也可有效减缓广场地表的热量吸收。树叶的蒸腾对整个广场区域的有效降温也起到了关键作用。在广场的设计中,还植入了维护性地下管道网络系统,便于广场内所有的灌溉、电力及排水设施的地下埋置。这些地下管道的设置,为维修人员接近各设施,进行相应的检测、调试以及维修提供了极大的便利,就长远角度而言,也有效地延长了纪念广场的整体使用期限。此外,丰富的土壤资源、充分的水源灌溉、清新的空气和良好的排水系统,都是橡树林长期健康生长过程中最为关键的几大元素。总量高达4万吨的土壤资源埋藏于广场地表下方,可确保每一棵橡树都成长为枝叶繁茂的撑天大树。石质地面铺砖采用沙子进行铺砌定位,以取代硬质的灰浆铺砌,可避免维修时对石砖的损坏,有效节省了未来对石矿资源的需求量。
 
Project Statement
The Memorial commemorates the victims of the attacks of September 11, 2001, at the World Trade Center, Shanksville, Pennsylvania, the Pentagon, and the World Trade Center attack of February 26, 1993. Two fountain-lined voids, on the locations of the destroyed twin towers, and a surrounding forest of oak trees form the core of the rebuilt World Trade Center in New York City and provide a place for contemplation and remembrance within this revitalized urban center.
 
Project Narrative
 
Design Context
Located in Lower Manhattan, this 8-acre site resides in one of the most densely populated urban neighborhoods and business centers in the world. On many levels, the project was intensely complex, with multiple constituents influencing the design from local and state politicians, family members of the victims, a multi-headed client framework, outside design critics, and the general public. Perhaps no other project in our generation has played out under such scrutiny or with such stratospheric expectations. 
Despite its apparent simplicity, the Memorial is a massive green roof — a fully constructed ecology — that operates on top of multiple structures including the PATH station and tracks, the Memorial Museum, a central chiller plant, parking, and additional infrastructure. For more than 7 years, the landscape architect coordinated with these multiple agencies and stakeholders and navigated the design through the challenging process to establish a consistent visitor experience that extends over multiple structures and through several jurisdictions.
 
Design and Execution
The design features two gigantic voids, centered on the locations of the destroyed twin towers. The scale of the voids recalls the terrible losses of September 11, 2001, and names displayed at the perimeter of both voids commemorate the victims of both the 1993 and 2001 attacks. The plaza surrounding the voids is designed to accomplish four main objectives:
• First, to deepen and enlarge the visitor’s perception of the level plane into which the voids are cut
• Second, to participate in the procession, both physical and spiritual, that is essential to the visitor’s experience of the memorial;
• Third, to separate the reverential mood of the Memorial from the busy life of the surrounding city streets;
• Fourth, to provide a quiet, beautiful, and human-scaled public open space for Lower Manhattan.
The broad scope of the trauma of 9/11 requires that the Memorial use a symbolic language understood by a diverse audience; this language is an integral part of “Reflecting Absence”. Visitors will leave the everyday life of the city and enter into a sacred zone defined by a dense forest of 416 oak trees. Above, the high canopy of leaves provides welcome shade in the heat of the summer and seasonal color in the fall. In the winter the sun will cast shadows through a light tracery of bare branches, and in spring, the trees will express the renewal of nature. Using a language similar to Michael Heizer's North, East, South, West, the voids render absence visible. In this way, the overwhelming losses of September 11th are given permanent presence. The one-acre voids of the fountains, cut 30 feet into the site, are lined with waterfalls. Using full-scale mock-ups to study the performance of the water, the design team developed a tapered, rounded weir that is both water-and-energy efficient as well as highly visible and beautiful. With the addition of lighting, the waterfalls are also visible at night.
 
Within the protected space of the forest, visitors will arrive at the two great voids with their thundering waterfalls. After viewing the victims’ names on the bronze parapets of the voids, visitors will move back to the city through the trees and take comfort from the soothing, life-affirming forest. Through the trunks of the trees the flat plane of the park is visible in its entirety. The density of the trunks extends the apparent depth and size of the plane and at the same time softens the view of the buildings beyond. The horizontal surfaces of the plaza — stone, ground-cover, lawn, and steel grating — are patterned to assert and reinforce the flatness of the constructed plane.
 
The Memorial grove will resemble a “natural” forest of over 400 swamp oaks, until visitors discover that the trees align to form arching corridors in one orientation. The form recalls the arches that World Trade Center architect Minoru Yamasaki placed at the bottom of the original towers. In this way, the grove expresses the shared patterns of nature and humanity. A grassy clearing within the grove is a quiet space away from the bustle of the plaza. Designed to accommodate ceremonies — specifically, the reading of victims' names annually on September 11th — the space also provides soft green park space on typical days. Within the Memorial grove, the varying distances between trees, the placement of benches, and the rhythm of ground-cover beds will create spaces with distinct scale, character, and qualities of light. 
The plaza is built of relatively few elements and materials. A single pole, for instance, incorporates lighting and security. One type of granite is used for cobblestones, pavers, and benches. Planted ground coverings are limited to evergreen English ivies and turf grass. A single tree species is repeated throughout the Memorial grove. The limited palette is critical to the notable quietness of the plaza. The landscape architect conducted wide searches and brought great care to the selection of each material.

Environmental Sustainability and Design Value
Throughout the design and construction process, sustainability of the plaza was considered in terms of both material endurance and landscape performance. The plaza surface-and-drainage infrastructure is designed to function as a large self-sustaining cistern. Water from rainfall and snow melt is channeled into large holding tanks and re-used to support the Memorial forest via a specialized drip-and-spray irrigation system. The Memorial grove is a dense planting of trees—a forest at the heart of the redeveloped World Trade Center. As they grow the trees will provide shaded space to increase comfort for visitors and reduce heat absorption on the plaza. The transpiration of the many leaves will cool the air throughout the district. The plaza is designed with a network of maintenance tunnels that provide access to site systems — irrigation, electrical, and drainage. These tunnels will extend the life of the plaza by allowing maintenance crews to access, test, adjust, and repair systems with ease. Substantial soil volumes, adequately irrigated, aerated, and drained, are the most critical element in the long-term success of the Memorial grove. An enormous volume of soil — 40,000 tons in total — lies buried beneath the plaza to ensure that the oaks will grow and thrive to maturity. The stone paving is set in place using sand instead of a rigid mortar. When repairs are required, the stone can be removed undamaged and re-set in sand again. There will be no need for quarrying additional stone in the future.
 
 
图说:

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总平面图
Site Plan
 
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在茂密的橡树林簇拥中,一处生机盎然的纪念广场形成了重建后世贸中心的核心区域
The dense forest of oak trees is a living memorial that forms the core of the rebuilt World Trade Center.
 
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纪念广场正式对外开放首日,罹难者家属们纷纷聚集于世贸双塔遗址处的两座巨型坑洞瀑布水景池旁,悼念逝去的亲人
The families of the victims of September 11th gather on opening day around the waterfall revealing the vast scale of the voids.
 
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沿边的成排橡树,为水景池旁寄托哀思的人们,提供了理想的情感体验空间
The forest provides a protected space for the heightened emotional experience at the edge of the voids.
 
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水景池的青铜质护墙上镌刻着罹难者的名字,便于亲人前来祭奠
Victims’ names incised in bronze panels invite offerings left by loved ones.
 
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参观者们驻足于两个巨型水景池周边,欣赏着雷鸣般作响的瀑布,哀思着在那声巨响之后逝去生命的人们
At the edge of the voids, the roar of the waterfall generates an evocative mood of remembrance.
 
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满目挺拔的橡树林,在它们的微妙变化间,折射着季节的更替
Majestic Oaks were chosen for their ability to express the passing of time.
 
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广场中特色地面绿化景观的设计可为人们提供理想的悼念及相关活动场所
The landscape is designed to support mourning as well as active celebration.
 
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纪念广场中的林间空地,可用于举办各类纪念性活动
The memorial glade, an opening within the forest, will be used for commemorative events.
 
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平坦而简约的广场地面布局,有利于将人们的视线直接引入核心坑洞水景区
The flatness and pattern of the plaza deepens the visitor’s perception of the voids.
 
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锥形围堰式瀑布水景设施,既可有效提升水能及其他能源效率,又可呈现醒目而美观的瀑布视觉效果
The tapered, rounded wier is both water-and-energy efficient as well as highly visible and beautiful.
 
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合理的石质地面铺装尺度以及相应的细节设计和座椅布局,赋予了这一视野宽阔的广场空间以人性化魅力
The subtlety of proportion and detail in the stone paving and seating gives the vast plaza a human scale.
 
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夜幕下,人们沉浸于壮观的瀑布灯景之中
The spectacular lighting engages night-time visitors.
 
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瀑布灯景在暮色的应衬中,折射出丝丝悲凉,更增添了人们对逝者的哀思
The night lighting further adds to the spirit of remembrances.
 
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整个纪念广场实质上是一个完全生态化的巨型绿色屋顶,它有效实现了对雨水的回收再利用,将其用于灌溉广场植被
The memorial is a massive green roof, a fully constructed ecology, that captures and re-uses storm water to support plant-life.
 
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纪念广场空间一直延伸至城市日常生活区,为周边提供了良好的绿化环境
The memorial extends into the city and contributes to the surrounding urban life.

 
项目信息:
PWP设计团队首席设计师:彼得·沃克(美国景观设计师协会理事)
设计团队成员:马修·多纳姆、大卫·沃克、科纳德·林格伦
建筑师:美国汉德建筑公司:迈克尔·阿拉德
助理建筑师:戴维斯·布罗迪·邦德
设计与施工团队:
树艺设计:Paul Cowie Associates
灯光设计:Fisher Marantz Stone
机械、电力和建筑系统监管:Jaros Baum & Bolles
铺装工程:Mark Smallridge and Associates
标识与环境导示设计:C&G Partners
结构工程:WSP Cantor Seinuk
特色景观及材料:
土壤生物刺激素:VermiTechnology Unlimited
定制式灯杆:Selux
瀑布水景:Dan Euser Waterarchitecture, Inc. (DEW)
灌溉设计:Northern Designs
灌溉控制器与湿度传感器:Baseline, Inc.
金属沟道排水盖:Johnson Screens
聚合体沙质地面铺砌材料:Techniseal
草皮:Tuckahoe Turf Farms
土壤:C.R. Dixon & Associates
地表土壤混合物:Long Island Compost
 
Project Resources:
PWP Team Lead Designer: Peter Walker, FASLA
Design Team: Matthew Donham; David Walker; Conard Lindgren
Architect: Michael Arad of Handel Architects
Associate Architect: Davis Brody Bond
Design & Construction Team:
Arborist: Paul Cowie Associates
Lighting Design: Fisher Marantz Stone
Mechanical, Electrical, and Building Requirements: Jaros Baum & Bolles
Paving Engineer: Mark Smallridge and Associates
Signage and Wayfinding: C&G Partners
Structural Engineer: WSP Cantor Seinuk
Featured Products: 
Bio Stimulant for Soil: VermiTechnology Unlimited
Custom Light Pole: Selux
Fountains: Dan Euser Waterarchitecture, Inc. (DEW)
Irrigation: Northern Designs
Irrigation Controller and Moisture Sensors: Baseline, Inc.
Metal Trench Drain Covers: Johnson Screens
PolymericJoint Sand For Sand Set Pavers: Techniseal
Sod: Tuckahoe Turf Farms
Soils: C.R. Dixon & Associates
Topsoil Blends: Long Island Compost
 


Via ASLA  90degree编译,本文未经许可,不得转载。
 

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