美国俄亥俄州克利夫兰市中心佩尔克公园
Perk Park in Downtown Cleveland, Oh
2014-09-28 09:29:33    | keywords: 克利夫兰  俄亥俄州  美国  公园 
美国俄亥俄州克利夫兰市中心佩尔克公园
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Courtesy of Thomas Balsley Associates. 90degree版权所有,不得转载。
 
纽约托马斯·贝尔斯利联合设计事务所(下文简称:贝尔斯利事务所),设计建造了一系列广受美国公众好评的公园与公共空间作品。现该事务所正在进行俄亥俄州克利夫兰市地标性公共景观项目佩尔克公园的相关收尾工作。佩尔克公园位于克利夫兰市中心,占地1英亩(约0.4公顷),是一处长期搁置、无人问津的公共绿地,也曾是20世纪60年代现代主义建筑大师贝聿铭进行城市重建规划中的一部分。如今,贝尔斯利事务所将把它打造成为一个充满活力、环境宜人的21世纪全新城市绿地空间。
 
佩尔克公园以克利夫兰前市长拉尔夫·佩尔克的姓氏命名,地处东十二大街与切斯特大道交汇处,因其特殊的地理位置而成为数十年前贝聿铭城市重建规划中的若干中心地块之一。该项目场地上的首个公园于1972年建成,在当时,那是全新的粗线条景观组合体:核心区是一个下沉式公共广场空间,周边环绕摆放着笨重的混凝土植栽盆。一时间,这处公园迅速成为了流浪者与鸽子最为喜好的休憩及栖息地,普通民众渐渐不愿踏足于此,因而,它日趋荒废,埋没在中心商业区的繁华之中。
 
贝尔斯利事务所与吉姆·麦克奈特公司的当地分部取得合作,共同完成该项目的设计与建造。他们的首要任务是要思考如何将新建成的公园空间和谐地融入到现有的周边城市环境中,使它自然过渡,回归城市,并将其全面开放,与毗邻街区进行有效连接,进而成为城市中心区的一个重要组成部分,而不再是一处无人踏足的荒废地块。“不能让这些公共空间与周边街道分离开去,”贝尔斯利先生说道,“这是一种陈旧的景观设计思路,已经不合时宜了。”
 
新建成的佩尔克公园景观与周边街景相互应衬,共同打造出贝尔斯利先生所描述的“森林与草地”设计理念。公园中的遮荫绿树,以及经过修整的植栽草丘,都保留了原有的设计形态;原先的中央水池则被大片开放式草坪所替代,与草丘共同形成城市中心区大型绿化带,加之人工塑造精致小丘的点缀,整个公园空间在明媚的阳光中更显悠闲、惬意。
 
原先拥挤凌乱的混凝土植栽盆被移除,公园绿地的视野更加清晰、开阔。公园北侧是一片静谧的皂荚树林休憩区,阳光照射下,斑驳的树影倒映于林间碎石路面上,光影追逐间,极富生趣。椭圆状草丘随意地分布于公园中,营造出生动有趣的起伏地貌。这些草丘所呈现的柔美曲线与周边一系列呈几何排列且高达20英尺(约6米)的街景灯柱形成了和谐的视觉对比。夜幕降临,灯柱开启,公园绿地与毗邻建筑在灯光照射下互为衬托,组合成迷人的都市夜景。
 
饮食摊点与高架式露台咖啡座等实用街具设施的植入,令公园更具活力,也更富人性化。由贝尔斯利事务所专门为该项目定制的贵妃休闲躺椅、旋转式高脚咖啡桌、咖啡厅休闲椅等景观街具安放于公园的各个适当位置,有了它们,整个公共空间就宛若一间大型的温馨户外居室,舒适感倍增。中央绿地的四周由配有座椅设施的若干花草植栽槽围合而成,大型椭圆状草丘柔化着周边的硬质景观,同时也为孩子们提供了理想的嬉戏场所,在这里,人们还可举行各类娱乐演出活动,以丰富平淡的日常都市生活。
 
整个项目的建成,共计斥资300万美元(约合人民币1841万元),未超出同类项目美国国家标准预算的要求,这些资金中有国家拨款,也有私募基金。克利夫兰市政府与公园所在辖区的相关非盈利性募捐组织共同为该项目筹集大量资金,以有效缓解项目方的费用负担。
 
贝尔斯利事务所设计建造的佩尔克公园景观,充分展现了小型城市公共空间的巨大开发潜力。从纽约到墨西哥城,从达拉斯到坦帕,贝尔斯利事务所已经成功改造了数个同类城市公共废弃地块项目,为民众营造出一处又一处景致宜人、环境优美的公共绿地空间。
 
 
NEW YORK, NY – Thomas Balsley Associates, creators of some of America’s most acclaimed parks and public spaces, are putting the finishing touches on a new landmark project for the city of Cleveland, Ohio. Perk Park is a one-acre greenspace in the middle of downtown that transforms a long-neglected corner of modernist architect I.M. Pei’s historic 1960 master plan into a lively, welcoming urban environment for the 21st century. 
 
Named for former Cleveland Mayor Ralph Perk, the park is located at East 12th Street and Chester Avenue, on one of several downtown parcels bulldozed decades ago as part of Pei’s urban renewal scheme. The first park on the site was completed in 1972: a New Brutalist ensemble of heavy concrete planters surrounding a sunken plaza, the old park quickly became a favorite haunt of vagrants and pigeons, an unloved and underused blight in the middle of the bustling central business district. 
 
Balsley—working with the local office of Jim McKnight—was tasked first with giving the park back to its urban context, to open it up to the adjacent streets and make it feel a part of, rather than apart from, its immediate surounds. “You can’t let these sorts of public spaces cower from the street,” says Balsley. “That was the old way, and it didn’t work.” 
 
The new park greets the street courtesy of what Balsley describes as a “forest and meadow” concept. Shade trees, as well as modified versions of the original planted mounds, are preserved from the old design; but now they’re complimented by a wide-open lawn sitting atop the former central sink, punctuated by a sculptural knoll perfect for daylight lounging. 
 
Clear lines of sight replace the huddled bunkers. On the space’s north side, a secluded seating area is embedded in a grove of honey locusts, the trees casting their dappled shade on a forest floor of crushed stone. The oval mounds scattered throughout provide topographic relief, and their gentle curvilinear forms contrast with a geometric grid of 20-foot-tall light wands that echoes the rhythm of the nearby buildings while providing night-time drama.
 
The park is further activated by a program that includes food vendors and overlook terraces with café seating. Custom furniture by Balsley—chaise lounge chairs, high cafe tables with swivel stools, cafe lounge chairs—accord with the designer’s philosophy that public space should have the feel of an intimate “outdoor room”. Perimeter garden beds with still more seating help define the formal lawn, even as the large oval mound at its center softens its effect, providing a place for children to play and for adults to take in staged performances and the quotidian ballet of city life. 
 
All this was accomplished on a modest budget by national standards: $3 million, drawn from a mix of public and private funds. The City of Cleveland partnered with area nonprofit ParkWorks, which drummed up substantial donations that helped ease the cost burden.
 
Balsley’s new Perk Park embodies the untapped potential of small urban public spaces. Just as they have for cities from New York to Mexico City, from Dallas to Tampa, the firm has helped transform a wasteland into common ground, a source of pride and pleasure for the whole community. 
 
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托马斯·贝尔斯利联合设计事务所简介
在过往的35年间,托马斯·贝尔斯利联合设计事务所通过适当的景观设计,已经为世界各地的许多城市公共空间进行成功改造,极大丰富了城市公众的业余生活。贝尔斯利事务所承接各类项目,包括:项目可行性分析、已建成城市公园改造、滨水空间设计、商业景观设计、住宅景观设计、娱乐场所景观设计等等,业务范围广泛:从大型区域总体规划到小型城市空间,以及城市景观街具设计,都有所涉及。企业的核心设计理念是托马斯·贝尔斯利本人所坚守的设计信念:“公共开放空间是民众共同享有的空间,对其进行有效建设是民主体制的最佳体现”。仅在纽约当地,由该事务所设计建成的公园和广场空间就达100余处,其中包括切尔西滨水公园及南滨河公园等。此外,其余各地区项目还包括旧金山猎人角码头、坦帕市科蒂斯·希克森公园、丹佛天际公园、巴尔的摩西岸公园、日本大阪世贸中心广场以及韩国麻谷滨水区等众多项目。
 
About Thomas Balsley Associates
For over 35 years, Thomas Balsley Associates has reshaped urban space around the world by designing landscapes that teem with public life. Thomas Balsley Associates projects’ range from feasibility studies to built urban parks, waterfronts, commercial, residential, and recreational landscapes. Scales of work range from master plans to small urban spaces and urban furniture. Central to the firm’s design approach is Thomas Balsley’s belief that “public open spaces are the great democratic spaces, the ultimate common ground.” In New York City alone, the firm has designed more than 100 public parks and plazas including Chelsea Waterside Park and Riverside Park South. Projects outside New York include Hunters Point Shipyard/Candlestick in San Francisco, Curtis Hixon Waterfront Park in Tampa, Skyline Park in Denver, West Shore Park in Baltimore, the World Trade Center Plaza in Osaka, Japan and the Magok Waterfront in South Korea.
 

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