塞勒姆州立大学——湿地走廊
Salem State University – Marsh Hall
2014-10-11 10:59:45    | keywords: 塞勒姆  湿地  校园  景观 
塞勒姆州立大学——湿地走廊
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“这处湿地走廊位于塞勒姆州立大学校园中央,与校园环境巧妙契合……精心栽植的生态草沟与走廊景观的总体设计完美融合。项目整体布局清晰、醒目,不失为同类设计的范本。”
—2014ASLA专业奖评语
“This is located the middle of a college campus and it fits in so beautifully…The detailed bioswale is well-executed and integrates nicely into the overall design. It’s very sharp and should be emulated.”
- 2014 Awards Jury
 
 
项目概述
 
塞勒姆州立大学校园内新增的湿地走廊景观设施由525小块湿地组成,将校园景观与毗邻的湿地滩涂重新连于一体,同时,也营造出一处环境清新的休闲开放空间,更有助于改善项目场地的排水状况,促进校园的整体生态健康。细致的场地规划得到了很好地落实,不动声色地将现代气息融入设计中,并在视觉上引导学生研究设计师是如何依据古老的塞勒姆码头建筑风格及其材质,来确立不同的雨水蓄存方法的。
 
项目描述
 
场地环境及设计难点
项目场地起初是西尔瓦尼亚一处极需治理的工业用地。场地毗邻的居住区内早前种植过一些树木,均因周边恶劣的工业环境,或死或枯。经过相应的土壤检测,又与植栽养护人员进行讨论,并咨询过树艺专家后,相关人员发现,项目场地上的土壤曾经是埋于工厂地底的土壤,已被地基压实,因而并不具备健康土壤的透气性(由于长年不透气,导致土壤固化,取样过程中,土壤钻头都有所损坏)。就生物学角度而言,这样的土壤已经是名存实亡的废土,存在的仅是它的物理形态而已,因此无法为植物提供任何所需养分。此外,尽管固有的地下雨水蓄存系统可直接引入湿地进行灌溉,然而项目场地的平地地形存在一定的排水难度,这也降低了土壤的质量。而湿地滩涂本身就是具有潜质的未开发资源,可观赏稀有鸟类,是游憩的良佳之所,但现有场地上的大西洋走廊结构却将大部分的湿地滩涂隐匿于校园的其余地块中。
 
设计解决方案
该校园地块先前主要用作各类机动交通工具的中转场所,因此景观建设也都以适应车辆行驶作为主要的考量因素。该项目伊始,景观设计师便与客户和建筑师取得通力合作,寻求各种不同的方法进行系统化的场地建设,以打造出高品质的户外空间,并将原先孤立的交通中转功能植入其中,与通往湿地滩涂的人行通道相连,营建出更为科学的雨水处理系统。实质上,这一校园地块中的开放空间十分有限,而客户方则希望建立一个相对传统的校园空间格局。合成式“Z字形”学生住宿区廊道的建立,自然地形成了两个全新的大型公共空间,并由一个两层楼高的户外入口门栏构筑物连接其中,在这里可以瞥见南面的湿地滩涂。项目场地的规划设计与布局以一条宽大而醒目的中脊轴线步道为基准向周边延展开去,这条步道指引着从两个公共空间到湿地滩涂的前行方向。项目场地前端有一处鲜少使用的车辆下客区,经拆除后改造成为校园北面的一片绿地区域,为学生们提供了理想的户外聚会场地,同时也是湿地走廊与学生宿舍自助餐厅的主入口。场地上原有的工业用地地形得以保留,并由一面狭长的混凝土质坐人矮墙将其隔离成相对独立的空间,这面矮墙向行人指明校园主体建筑的入口。校园南面的“湿地走廊空间”由一块斜坡式休闲草坪开放空间和一条180英尺(约55米)长的生态草沟组成,并径直向湿地区延伸,这里汇集了项目场地的所有雨水径流。二期步道扩建工程将延伸至湿地边缘地带的一座观景台处(考虑到相关工程进度的灵活许可性要求,加之学生住宿区廊道建设工期吃紧,观景台的建造顺延至项目的二期工程中,当时预计于2012年动工)。
 
环境因素
校园中央公共空间的土壤经过扩增、加强空气流通以及层阶式划分处理后,种植上绿草,形成一块斜坡式草坪。这样便有效改进了地面排水系统,并使得土壤得以松化,充分吸收水分与养分,也为校园提供了一处开放式游乐区,相较于曾经贫瘠的土壤地块,平添了许多视觉趣味。180万美元(约合人民币1106万元)的景观建设预算中,近10%花费在了场地修复上。两大全新绿地公共空间、41 000平方英尺(约3809平方米)的屋顶区域,以及毗邻各广场空间中的雨水都汇集流入到植栽着本土草种、蒲草和多年生植物的狭长生态草沟中。在这里,雨水中的淤泥和杂质都能得以有效过滤,大部分的雨水渗流回地面,并缓缓流入到湿地滩涂中。生态草沟的内侧是填石铁栅,塞勒姆码头上典型的航运建筑风格蕴含其中。位于生态草沟外侧的斜坡式草坪可为特大暴雨提供额外的雨水蓄存空间,这一点已在项目竣工后不久后塞勒姆经历的一场狂风暴雨中得到了充分的证实。在那场暴风雨中,斜坡式草坪20英尺(约6米)范围内的积水在一小时后全部流入到其后的生态草沟内。填石铁栅及其上方的重蚁木看台和漫步桥的设计建造,很好地体现了人工构筑物与自然景观的和谐相融,同时也在这处自然雨水管理系统构筑物的中部营造出一个较为随意的聚集空间。隐匿于漫步桥下方的LED照明装置,为夜幕中的生态草沟增添了一份恬静、优雅的观感。此外,学生宿舍楼底楼自助餐厅延展空间的上方是面积达6200平方英尺(约576平方米)的景天属植栽绿色屋顶,为各宿舍间提供了理想的绿植观景台,有效减缓了雨水径流,并为项目场地提供了额外的绿化设施,也为建筑本身的有效降温起到了良好的作用。校园各处的建筑式景观带中也都种植着相应的景天属植物,并由海滩卵石小渠将其有序分隔。这些景观带与几何状地面铺装相映成趣,从宿舍高层向下望去,二者便在视觉上融于一体。景天属植物往往随着季节的变化而变化,因而这些景观带也随之模糊了彼此的边界,展示出植物所应有的特质。
 
该项目在使用频率极高的大学校园中心区域内,巧妙地将土壤修复和雨水管理进行整合化设计处理,并充分展现各自的作用及特点,而湿地走廊的成功构建在这看似对立的二者间起到了重要的平衡作用。坐椅矮墙、户外坐歇区以及漫步桥等设施都以合理、自然的户外景观街具形式呈现,为学生们提供了怡人的户外活动场所。同时,对场地原始土质进行悉心研究,并大量扩增新鲜土壤,创建生态草沟等举措,都为校园及毗邻的湿地滩涂营造出更为健康的自然环境。然而,最为关键的是,在天然雨水操控系统的作用下,数百名学生可以不再为校园积水而烦忧,能够每天自由自在地享受校园美景。这无疑让学生们更为切身地了解和接受这样极富创新性,且极有利于环境的设计及构建技术。
 
Project Statement
 
The addition of the new 525 bed Marsh Hall created a unique opportunity to re-connect the campus to the adjacent tidal marsh while creating open space for recreation, improving site drainage and augmenting the overall ecological health of the campus. The refined and carefully executed site plan gives modern form to a natural process, educates students about alternative storm water practices while making architectural and material references to the historic Salem Wharf.
 
Project Narrative
 
Project Context and Design Challenges
The project site was a former industrial site for Sylvania in need of extreme remediation. Trees that had been planted at an earlier adjacent residential project had either died or failed to grow much. Through soils testing, discussions with maintenance staff & consultation with an arborist it was discovered that the site’s soils, once under the factory floor, had been compacted to the point of impermeability (a soil boring drill bit actually broke during sampling). The soil was biologically dead with only scant traces of organic matter and unable to support plant life of any kind. In addition, despite the existence of a traditional subsurface storm water system that emptied directly into the marsh, the flat site had drainage issues, which were also decreasing the quality of the soils. The tidal marsh itself, was an untapped resource with the potential to offer recreational opportunities including exceptional bird watching, but existing Atlantic Hall largely hid it from the rest of the campus.
 
Design Solution
This campus had traditionally been a largely commuter campus and the landscape had developed around accommodating the car. The landscape architect worked closely with the client & architect from the beginning, looking at alternative ways to organize the building that would create high quality outdoor spaces that could bring unity to a disjointed commuter campus, connect pedestrians to the tidal marsh and create a more sensitive approach to stormwater. This portion of campus has minimal open space and the client wanted to establish a more traditional campus development pattern. The resulting “Z-shaped” residence hall forms two new courtyards, connected by a 2-story outdoor portal that frames views of the tidal marsh to the south. The site design is organized along a strong central spine, an exposed aggregate walkway that orients the courtyards to the marsh. A seldom-used vehicular drop-off was eliminated at the front of the site to create the northern “campus green” courtyard which serves as a gathering space and the main entry to the hall and cafeteria. An existing landform from the industrial past of the site was retained but intersected by a long, board-formed concrete seat wall that directs pedestrians to the building entrances. The southern “marsh courtyard” features a tilted lawn open space for recreation and a 180’ long bio-swale that collects the site’s storm water and extends in a straight line toward the marsh. A phase two walkway extension will terminate at an overlook at the marsh edge (due to permitting requirements and the aggressive schedule of the residence hall, the overlook was postponed to the second phase of the project, slated to begin in 2012).
 
Environmental Aspects
The soil in the central courtyard space was augmented, aerated, and graded to create a tilted lawn plane. This improves overland drainage, breaks up soil compaction, provides an open play area, and adds visual interest to what used to be an extremely flat site. Nearly 10% of the $1.8 million landscape budget was spent on site remediation. Storm water from both courtyards, 41,000 square feet of roof area, and adjacent plazas flows into a linear bio-swale which is filled with native grasses, rushes, and perennials. Here silt and contaminants are filtered out and most of the storm water infiltrates back into the ground. What doesn’t infiltrate is slowly released into the tidal marsh. The bio-swale is lined with stone-filled gabions on one side, evoking the feel of a wharf, an appropriate reference for historic “seafaring” Salem. The tilted lawn forms the opposite side, providing extra holding capacity in unusually large rain events. This was tested shortly after construction completion when Salem experienced a massive rain storm. The water extended 20’ into the tilted lawn but had completely receded to the bio-swale one hour later. The gabion system, with its Ipe stadium seating and gangplank bridges, also gives an architectural expression to a natural process and allows for informal gathering in the midst of natural storm water management. LED lighting is concealed underneath the gangplanks, illuminating the bio-swale at night. In addition, a 6,200 square foot sedum green roof extends over the lower level dining hall, lending a green foreground view from the dorm rooms above, slowing the storm water flow and providing additional environmental and building operations benefits. The sedums are arranged by variety in architectural bands separated by beach pebble runnels. The bands align with the paving geometry on the ground, creating a strong correlation when viewed from the residential rooms above. As the sedum varieties migrate over time the bands will become less graphic demonstrating the process of plant naturalization and colonization.
 
This project combines and highlights soil remediation and storm water management in a central campus environment with everyday use by college students. Marsh Hall shows that these two seemingly opposite goals can coexist. The formal, contextually appropriate character of the walls, seating areas, and gangplank bridges encourages student use, while the careful study and augmentation of the soil and the creation of the bio-swale allow for a healthier campus and adjacent tidal marsh. Most critical, though, is the fact that hundreds of students will interact, on a daily basis, with a natural storm water system. This will undoubtedly make them more aware and accepting of this innovative, environmentally beneficial technology.

 
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狭长的坐人矮墙与中脊步道经由开放式的建筑入口,将校园中的两大公共空间连于一体,同时为远处的湿地滩涂指明了方向
Long, linear board-formed seat walls and the central spine walkway link the two courtyards together through the open building portal and gesture towards the tidal marsh in the distance.
Image: Westphalen Photography
 
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总平面图  Overall Site Plan 
Image: Westphalen Photography
 
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平面详图  Detailed Site Plan 
Image: Westphalen Photography
 
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180英尺(约55米)长的生态草沟为草木枯荣的季节过程增添了几分现代感,并在视觉上引导学生研究设计师是如何依据古老的塞勒姆码头建筑风格及其材质,来确立不同的雨水蓄存方法的
The 180’ long bio-swale gives modern form to a natural process, educates students about alternative storm water practices while making architectural and material references to the historic Salem Wharf.
Image: Westphalen Photography
 
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场地现状平面图  Existing Site
Image: Westphalen Photography
 
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鲜少使用的车辆下客区经拆除后,改造成为这片绿地,并将校园商务中心大楼与湿地走廊连于一体。大楼底楼的餐厅延展空间,其屋顶满种着景天属植物,使得屋顶景致与湿地走廊路面铺装的几何样式形成视觉的统一,同时也为楼内高层提供了一片绿意盎然的景观前景
A seldom-used vehicular drop-off was eliminated to create this campus green connecting the existing Enterprise Center with Marsh Hall. A sedum roof visually extends the paver ground geometry to the roof while affording a green foreground for the rooms above.
Image: Robert Benson
 
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除生态草沟外,“湿地走廊空间”的主要组成部分还包括:以填石铁栅为基座的重蚁木看台、学生宿舍楼底楼餐厅延展空间绿色屋顶,以及配有定制钢筋混凝土坐憩街具的户外就餐区
In addition to the bio-swale, the “marsh courtyard” features, Ipe stadium seating over the gabions, a green roof over the cafeteria and a dining terrace with custom concrete and steel furniture.
Image: Westphalen Photography
 
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二期步道扩建工程将延伸至湿地边缘地带的一座观景台处(见图片上方)
A phase two walkway extension will terminate at an overlook at the marsh edge (at the top of the photo).
Image: Westphalen Photography
 
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重蚁木漫步桥通往走廊空间中央的斜坡草坪。该草坪在提供娱乐空间的同时,也改善着场地的排水状况,并最终提高土壤的健康质量
Ipe “gangplank” bridges provide access to the tilted lawn at center of the courtyard. The lawn provides room for recreation and improves site drainage and as a result soil health.
Image: Westphalen Photography
 
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层阶式不锈钢填石铁栅上平铺着一层重蚁木,为学生们提供了理想的户外聚会空间及进入草坪的通道
Ipe wood covers sections of the stainless steel gabions providing gathering space and access to the lawn for students.
Image: Westphalen Photography
 
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生态草沟、中脊步道以及其它配套景观设施的线性布局营造出了一种滨海氛围
The linearity of the bio-swale, central spine walkway & furnishings evokes a coastal edge condition.
Image: Westphalen Photography
 
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混凝土地面铺装将码头特质注入走廊空间,而石质椅背则为坐人矮墙增添了符合人体工学的舒适度,并为众多独立式长凳营造出视觉纽带
Boardform concrete adds to the wharf character while stock bench backs add ergonomic comfort to seat walls and provide a visual tie to the free-standing benches.
Image: Westphalen Photography
 
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夜幕降临,漫步桥、生态草沟及本土滨水植物在线形LED景观照明中更显恬静优雅
At night linear LED fixtures highlight the gangplank bridges, bio-swale and native riparian plantings.
Image: Westphalen Photography
 
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就现实及象征意义而言,湿地走廊的设计建造使整个校园与毗邻的湿地滩涂动植物栖息地得以重新相连
With this design, the entire campus can reconnect both physically and symbolically to the adjacent tidal marsh, a habitat rich in plant and animal life.
Image: Westphalen Photography


项目信息:
 
设计与施工团队
景观设计师:瓦格纳•霍奇森景观设计事务所:H.基思•瓦格纳,美国景观设计师协会理事;杰弗里•霍奇森,美国景观设计师协会会员;迈克•苏利文
建筑师:迪梅拉•谢弗(马萨诸塞州 波士顿)
土木工程:尼奇工程公司(马萨诸塞州 波士顿)
照明设计:卡普兰•格林•麦卡罗尔(加利福尼亚州 洛杉矶)
总承包商:沃尔什兄弟建筑承包公司(马萨诸塞州 波士顿)
项目经理:LeftField工程管理公司(马萨诸塞州 波士顿)
景观承包商:Xquisite景观项目承包公司(马萨诸塞州 斯托顿)
树艺师及土壤顾问:树木工场(佛蒙特州 蒙彼利埃)
摄影师:罗伯特•本森摄影公司(康涅狄格州 哈特福德)、威斯特华伦摄影公司(佛蒙特州谢尔本)
 
特色材料
地面铺砖材料:汉诺威铺砖建材公司
坐人矮墙靠背:Bancal Bench Santa & Cole Collection、Landscape Forms
垃圾箱:Chase Park、Landscape Forms
嵌入式壁灯:贝加照明
立杆灯:蒙特卡洛立杆灯,赫斯公司
荧光灯棒:Corral Column, Selux
自行车停车场:AAA Ribbonrack,不锈钢
场地边缘建设:Permaloc
景观桌椅:定制式混凝土与钢材,凯特•克利尔(艺术家,佛蒙特州 伯灵顿)
景观木桥:定制式重蚁木、钢材、缆绳
填石铁栅:模块化填石系统、不锈钢铁栅
树池格栅:Urban Accessories, Flat Rainbow, Aluminum
屋顶绿化:Liveroof 
台阶前缘:Balco
铁丝网格:Greenscreen
混凝土整体着色:LM Scofield
 
Project Resources:
 
Design & Construction Team
Landscape Architect: Wagner Hodgson Landscape Architecture: H. Keith Wagner, FASLA; Jeffrey Hodgson, ASLA; Mike Sullivan
Architect: DiMella Shaffer, Boston, MA
Civil Engineer: Nitsch Engineering, Boston, MA
Lighting: Kaplan Gehring McCarroll, Los Angeles, CA
General Contractor: Walsh Brothers Construction, Boston, MA
Project Manager: LeftField Project Management, Boston, MA
Landscape Contractor: Xquisite Landscape, Stoughton, MA
Arborist & Soil Consultant: Treeworks, Montpelier, VT
Photographers: Robert Benson Photography, Hartford, CT; Westphalen Photography, Shelburne, VT
 
Featured Products
Pavers: Hanover Pavers
Bench Backs for Seatwall: Bancal Bench Santa & Cole Collection, Landscape Forms
Litter Receptacles: Chase Park, Landscape Forms
Recessed Wall Lights: Bega
Pole Lights: Montego Pole Light, Hess
Light Sticks: Corral Column, Selux
Bike Parking: AAA Ribbonrack, stainless steel.
Edging: Permaloc
Tables & Chairs: Custom Concrete & Steel, Artist Kat Clear, Burlington VT
Wood Bridges: Custom Ipe, steel, cable rail.
Gabions: Modular Gabion Systems, Stainless steel gabions.
Tree Grates: Urban Accessories, Flat Rainbow, Aluminum.
Green Roof: Liveroof
Stair Nosing: Balco
Wire trellis: Greenscreen
Integral Pigment for Concrete: LM Scofield

 
Via ASLA  90degree编译,本文未经许可,不得转载。

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