宾夕法尼亚大学休梅克绿地
Shoemaker Green, University of Pennsylvania
2014-10-14 15:07:39    | keywords: 校园景观  绿地 
宾夕法尼亚大学休梅克绿地
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“该项目构思巧妙,设计细腻,在校园中央的一处方形地块中将绿地草坪空间与雨水花园及相关系统等元素和谐融于一体,且空间布局自然、柔和,其融合度令人叹为观止……通过设计,绿地环境得以有效改善与维护,也为树木生长创造了良好的环境空间,进而彰显出这处方形地块的整体景观魅力。”——2014 ASLA专业奖评语
"This beautifully detailed design is remarkable for its ability on a central quad to combine green lawn space with rain gardens and systems, which are incredibly hard to merge, and it does it in a comfortable manner...It’s going to maintain well. They’ve allowed for tree growth and brought attention to it."—2014 Awards Jury
 
 
项目概述
 
休梅克绿地位于宾夕法尼亚大学(下文简称:宾大)历史悠久的田径运动场核心区内,是一处占地2.75英亩(约1.1公顷)的全新公共绿地空间。该项目将校园中一处未得到充分利用的荒废角落改造成人与自然、历史与当代和谐共融的高效能式功能地块。场地设计的生态复杂性和相关整体解析在竣工后的绿地形式中得以充分体现:最终呈现于人们面前的是一处极为迷人、惬意的校园空间。
 
项目描述
 
项目简介
休梅克绿地占地2.75英亩(约1.1公顷),位于第33街以东,介于沃尔纳特街与斯普鲁斯两条街道之间。该项目将一处由年久失修的网球场和若干狭窄步道以及具有历史意义的战争纪念碑景点组成的场地改造为费城西部鲜少的公共绿化空间设施。项目设计借鉴了宾大传统校园绿地的相关特点,营造出一种熟识、亲切的景观视觉,同时将毗邻的各建筑入口、人行步道、路缘石边界设施以及陡峭斜坡阶梯进行了恰如其缝地整合。整块绿地是宾大主体东西走向步行系统的重要组成部分,连接着校园中心区与田径运动场,也是宾大校区东扩规划的重点建设区域。项目场地沿边是宾大两大标志性体育设施场所:菲尔德豪斯体育场和富兰克林运动场,休梅克绿地成为了这两大历史性建筑设施的前庭空间。该项目为可持续性校园设计创建了标杆,并赢得了可持续场地倡议组织的二星级设计荣誉。
 
休梅克绿地以中央半圆形草坪和一个大型雨水花园组成,其边缘是由精细石材砌筑而成的挡土墙和若干蜿蜒雅致的人行步道。通过对宾大传统景观材料及设计风格的延用,这一全新的绿地设施自然地融入到原有校园环境系统中,并实现其有效扩展。硕大的层阶式花岗岩坐人矮墙为绿地提供了适当的坐歇设施,绿地上种植着几棵刺槐树,为在此休憩的人们平添了几分舒适与惬意。绿地中随意地放置着咖啡吧式桌椅和宾大校园特色休闲长椅,为人们提供了一个灵活的多功能公共聚集空间。高效节能的照明设计为休梅克绿地的夜间安全提供了保障,夜幕中的校园历史建筑在这些柔和灯光的照射中,更具特有的沧桑韵味,整个绿地空间的文化及历史内含也得以有力提升。
 
场地分析
项目伊始,设计师们便对项目场地状况进行了彻底深入地评估,以对整个场地空间的历史背景、环境现状、生态结构以及功能性做系统的回顾与了解。整个绿地的设计都是以宾大师生及教职员工对校园自然绿化环境的需求与喜好为出发点,对其可持续性及其在四季变化中的可观赏性等因素做了综合考量。因而,一个由宾大代表、费城相关机构代表和设计团队代表组成的多方利益团体应孕而生,对整个项目设计过程进行严格监督和审查,最终呈现出这样一处令各方都点头称赞的完美绿地空间。
 
场地规划
休梅克绿地主体需迎合一系列的休闲娱乐需求,并能够适用于各种不同规模校园活动的举办。同时,作为校园田径运动场核心区的全新开放公共空间,还需具备诸多前所未有的综合性功用。绿地空间投入使用后,现可为各类大小活动提供有效场所,其中包括一些重大的校内活动,诸如:毕业典礼、大型集会以及宾州接力赛等国际性比赛,同样,也可用于户外教学、播放夜晚露天电影、举办音乐会和展览会等等。
 
过渡空间
在斯库基尔河沿岸宾大校园区域连接总体规划中,休梅克绿地成为了校园中央古老建筑区与新式时尚开放空间之间的一种和谐过渡。该绿地延续了故有的刺槐/史密斯步行走道的设计风格,并植入了宾大传统的绿化景观元素,同时还将有效反映可持续发展及生态发展景观设计重要性的新型设计元素纳入其中。
 
系统化设计思路
该项目设计团队打造出一个综合型功能性校园景观空间,在提供完备的生态系统功能设施的同时,还满足了宾大校方提出的一系列系统化要求。该绿地的功能化运行如同人体中的肾脏,通过对灌溉所用雨水进行传送、过滤及蓄存的一个综合性景观系统,收集了整个项目场地95%的雨水量。其余的水源需求则依靠毗邻建筑的屋顶雨水径流及空调冷凝水。
 
休梅克绿地设计基于一种系统化设计思路,将自然生态系统(土壤、植物、昆虫、鸟类和人类)与人工营造系统(建筑构件和基础设施)共同组合成为一个功能型景观整体。设计采取双管齐下的有效方法对场地内的雨水进行系统管理。其中:首要策略是将雨水径流传送至一个包含人工设计土壤层和各类原生植物的大型双层式雨水花园中,并对大量的雨水进行治理、过滤、蓄存,最终排出用以灌溉;其次是从项目场地及毗邻建筑中收集雨水径流及空调冷凝水,并将其释放到主体绿地下方的土壤层中。这些水源在经过工人设计的土壤层中得以有效过滤,并渗入到绿地以下几英尺深的大型蓄水台中。原有网球场中的很大一部分得以留存,并置于现有绿地下方,以协同地下大型蓄水台的有效运作。地下蓄水台的所有水源都经由地下排水系统传送到另一个大型蓄水池中进行蓄存,并得以再利用,用于滋养土壤、灌溉植被。一旦遭遇特大暴雨,上述整个系统处于满负荷运作状态,则雨水将溢流入原有的市政下水道设施中,以有力避免绿地及周边校园区域的严重积水。
 
该项目施工过程中,所有原先被拆除的材料都得以充分回收或升级再造。项目承包商们从施工中获悉了如何安装非传统雨水基础设施的相应方法;确切地说,他们是了解了雨水处理设施与土壤及植栽材料协同作用的重要性。具体的施工协调和测序是该项目成功施行最为重要的环节。此外,费城水利部门和可持续场地倡议组织都对该项目进行了严格检测,并要求对相关项目文档进行详尽编制。
 
场地监测
休梅克绿地是鲜少的优秀典范式绿色基础设施,它是一个经过严格检测的高效能景观项目,将水源进行有效回收、过滤,并重新回流利用于景观环境中。历时五年的监测性规划制定,使得景观建筑师、宾大教师、学生和教职员工,以及广大公众都有机会共同参与到这一真正意义上的“生态景观系统”中去。该项目的景观设计师们与宾大教职员工及学生代表共同对以下几个方面做了积极而深入的监测——项目场地进出雨水的数量和质量;对项目系统程式化运作起到支持性作用的土壤的生物性质、多样性、演变过程、碳稳固性、养分循环以及土质本身;植栽材料的健康状况(即生长与根部发育状况)及其对土壤水分的蒸散速率;灌溉水源获取及再利用系统的运行性能及效率;人们对该绿地使用频率的跟踪式监测;绿地的生物自卫关联性和人们对于绿地景观的感知与体验——从而将促成宾大关于绿化环境维系方面的长久性校规的出台。对于项目场地性能的精心设计与持续性监测将有助于树立未来大学校园景观设计的典范,同时也有助于对美国国家可持续性景观设计指南和建筑规范的修订产生积极的影响。
 
Project Statement
Shoemaker Green is a new, 2.75-acre public green at the heart of the University of Pennsylvania’s historic athletics precinct. The project has transformed an underused and under-appreciated corner of the campus into a harmonious merger of people and place, of history and emergence, and of function with high performance. The ecological sophistication and holistic approach to site design is evident in the final form of the work: a profoundly beautiful and fitting campus space.
 
Project Narrative
 
Introduction
Shoemaker Green is a 2.75-acre site located immediately east of 33rd Street between Walnut and Spruce Streets. The project transformed an existing site with aging tennis courts, narrow pathways, and obstructed views of a historic War Memorial into a cherished public amenity for West Philadelphia. The design draws on the character of Penn’s College Green to create a familiar feel while seamlessly integrating adjacent building entrances, pathways, curbs, and steps across a steeply sloping site. The completed green is a vital component of the University of Pennsylvania’s primary east-west pedestrian system, connecting the central campus to the athletics precinct, and serving as the focal point of Penn’s eastward expansion. The site is bordered by the University’s most iconic athletic facilities, the Palestra Fieldhouse and Franklin Field, and serves as the “front yard” to these historic structures. The project sets a benchmark for sustainable campus design, earning two-stars from the Sustainable Sites Initiative (SITES™). 
 
The green is organized around a central, semicircular lawn and a large rain garden, bordered by precisely-detailed stone retaining walls and elegantly-graded pathways. The green integrates with and extends the existing campus circulation system by utilizing the University’s landscape standard materials and treatments, but with a modern sensibility. Seating is provided by large, multi-leveled granite seat walls, welcoming visitors with comfortable Black Locust wood insets. Café tables and chairs, as well as free-standing benches typical of the Penn campus, offer flexible gathering spaces throughout the site. High-efficiency lighting provides safety at night, while heightening the sense of place by beautifully illuminating the historic architecture.
 
Site Analysis
The design of Shoemaker Green began with an in-depth site assessment to methodically review and understand the space’s history, context, ecological structure, and functional capacity. The design was sensitive to the needs and requirements of site users, born of a long appreciation of the nature of Penn’s population and their needs and preferences over the hours and seasons that the green would be occupied. A diverse stakeholder group, including representatives from within the University, Philadelphia agencies, and the design community, refined the final design through a rigorous design review process.
 
Site Program
Shoemaker Green caters to a program of mainly passive recreation, but the site can adapt to accommodate events and activities at multiple scales. This park has met the demand for new open space in the historic athletics precinct to host a myriad of uses, many of which had not previously existed on campus. The green now graciously supports a wide range of different-sized events, including large, key campus moments such as graduation and convocation, international events like the Penn Relays, and new programming such as outdoor classrooms, movie nights, concerts, and fairs.
 
Transitional Space
Shoemaker Green provides a transition from the historic fabric at the core of campus to the more contemporary new open space developments of the PennConnects Master Plan along the Schuylkill River. The green continues the Locust Walk/Smith Walk corridor, referencing landscape elements of Penn’s historic College Green while introducing new design elements that reflect the importance of sustainability and ecologically sensitive landscape design.
 
Systems-Based Thinking
Shoemaker Green has created a functional landscape that provides eco-system services in addition to satisfying the programmatic requirements set forth by the University. The site functions much like a kidney capturing ninety-five percent of the site’s rainwater through an integrated landscape system that includes the conveyance, filtering, and storage of stormwater for reuse as irrigation. Additional water is provided from roof runoff and air conditioning condensate from the adjacent buildings.
 
The design of Shoemaker Green stems from a systems-based thinking that integrates natural systems (soils, plants, insects, birds and human beings) with man-made systems (building components and infrastructure) to function as a whole. The design has a two-pronged approach to manage the site’s stormwater. The first strategy is to convey stormwater runoff to a large, two-tiered rain garden that contains designed soils and native plant species to manage, filter, store, and transpire a significant amount of stormwater. A second approach is to collect stormwater runoff from the site, as well as runoff from the roof and condensate from adjacent buildings, and release the water into the soil under the main green. This water is cleaned while percolating through the designed soils as it makes its way to a large storage bed several feet below the green. A large portion of the existing tennis courts were left in-place under the main green to support a recycled aggregate storage bed. Any excess water that is not taken up by the soils and plants is captured in this bed through an underdrainage system and conveyed to a large cistern and stored for reuse. Once the entire system reaches full capacity, very large storms overflow to the existing municipal sewer line preventing flooding.
 
During construction, all existing materials were recycled or upcycled. Contractors were educated about installing non-traditional stormwater infrastructure; specifically, the importance of working with soils and plant material. Detailed coordination of construction activities and sequencing was paramount to the importance of the successful implementation of this project. Stringent testing and documentation were required by both the Philadelphia Water Department and SITES™.
 
Site Monitoring
Shoemaker Green has become what green infrastructure seldom is: a monitored, high-performance landscape that captures, filters, and effectively delivers clean water back to the environment. A five-year monitoring plan has been developed to allow landscape architects, University of Pennsylvania faculty, students and staff, and the general public to interact with a truly “living system.” The following aspects of the project are being actively monitored by the project landscape architects, faculty, and students, and will shape University policy for years to come: Stormwater quantity and quality entering and exiting the site; Soil biology, diversity, evolution, carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, and capacity to support programmed activities; Robustness (growth and root development) and evapotranspiration rates of the plant material; Performance and efficiency of the irrigation capture and reuse system; Behavior mapping to track people’s use of the site; and, Biophilic connections and people’s perception and experience of the green. The design and ongoing monitoring of site performance will help inform future University landscape design and help influence national sustainable landscape guidelines and building codes.
 
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生机盎然的开放空间
休梅克绿地横贯校园中央,是一处灵活的多功能公共聚集空间:可供休憩和户外教学之用,也可在此举办大型活动,如:户外音乐会、毕业典礼及宾州接力赛等国际性比赛
Resilient Open Space
Shoemaker Green provides flexible gathering spaces throughout the site and accommodates a multitude of uses, from passive use and outdoor classrooms, to larger events, such as outdoor concerts, graduation, and international events, like the Penn Relays.
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
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鲜明的视野
休梅克绿地项目将校园内一处未得到充分利用的荒废角落改造成和谐娴静的都市公共空间,在宾大最具标志性的运动设施衬托下形成了鲜明的视野
Dramatic Views
The Shoemaker Green project has transformed an underused and under-appreciated corner of the campus into a harmonious urban park with dramatic views of the University of Pennsylvania’s most iconic athletic facilities.
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
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总平面图
休梅克绿地的巧妙设计打造出一大片半圆形中央草坪空间,其周边还配有宽阔的ADA无障碍道路、大型雨水花园、具有历史意义的战争纪念碑以及若干设有多个入口的学术及运动建筑设施
Site Plan
The design of Shoemaker Green creates a large, semicircular central green that is framed by sweeping, ADA accessible pathways, a large rain garden, a historic War Memorial, and several academic and athletic facilities with multiple entrances.
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
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功能性景观
休梅克绿地设计基于系统思维,将自然与人造两大系统有机结合,进而促成绿地功能的全面性
Performance - Based Landscape
The design of Shoemaker Green stems from a systems-based thinking that integrates natural systems with man-made systems to function holistically.
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
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粗糙地表的地下结构
相较于地表功能性景观的营造,地下土壤的合理配置更为重要。项目场地原先是一处深达30英尺(约9米)的城市土堆,因此,现有的网球场大部分得以原地保留,以形成富有层次感的地下储水与排水系统
Beauty is More Than Skin Deep
Designed soils were paramount to the creation of a functional landscape. The site is built over thirty feet of urban fill. Therefore, a large portion of the existing tennis courts were left in-place for sub-surface storage.
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
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水景营造
大型双层式雨水花园营造于项目场地的一处下沉空间内,可阻截场地内过半的暴雨径流。园中种有许多当地植被,可促进大部分雨水的蒸发
Celebration of Water
A large, two-tiered rain garden sits at the low-point of the site and captures over half of the site’s stormwater runoff. The rain garden is planted with native species that transpire a significant amount of rain water. 
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
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与自然的纽带
休梅克绿地的建造为生活在都市喧嚣中的费城人提供了暂时休憩的闲暇之所,这里的多重绿化体验令市民们沉浸在大自然的美好之中
Biophilic Connections
The Shoemaker Green project is a respite from the dense, urban setting of Philadelphia and offers a multitude of experiences for users to immerse themselves in nature. 
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
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过渡空间
休梅克绿地成为校园中央古老建筑与其东部扩建新式时尚空间之间的一种和谐过渡
Transitional Space
The Shoemaker Green project is a transitional space between the historic fabric of the campus core and the new, modern spaces of the campus’s eastward expansion.
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
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艺术的光芒
围合绿地空间的坐人矮墙,其细节设计完美地诠释了景观艺术与墙体砌筑工艺的和谐共融。花岗岩墙体构造细腻、工艺精湛,将休梅克绿地营造成为一处能轻松容纳多个团体的联谊空间
Artistic Flare
The detailing of the site walls is a wonderful expression of both art and craftsmanship. Granite walls are precisely detailed and fabricated to become social gathering spaces that can comfortably accommodate multiple groups. 
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
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令人难忘的景观空间
在阳光充足的竞技广场上,置放着许多可供多人落坐的景观长椅,人们在这里可以尽情享受阳光的亲抚。橡树丛在温暖的时节里洒下斑驳的树影,在萧瑟的寒冬里亦可使人沐浴在灿烂的阳光中
Memorable Spaces
The social benches of the Palestra Plaza are located to capture the site’s best solar orientation. A bosque of oak trees provide shade during the warmer months while allowing users to bask in the sunlight during the winter months. 
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
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联谊空间
咖啡馆外随意地摆放着桌椅,人们可以凭借自己的喜好自由挪动这些桌椅,在惬意的视觉环境中尽情享受午餐与咖啡时光
Social Gathering Spaces
Loose tables and chairs are located outside of the café space allowing users to arrange their own spaces while enjoying lunch or a cup of coffee. 
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
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建筑表现
绿地主入口处的墙体由一系列硕大的花岗岩块砌筑而成,并根据原有地形坡度的高差从路缘石边缘逐步过渡成挡土墙。沿着绿地西侧边缘砌筑的墙体造型独特,在挡土墙与坐人矮墙之间转换着角色
Architectural Expression
The main entrance wall is a series of monolithic granite segments that transition from a curb to a retaining wall as the grade falls away. The precisely detailed wall slips between a retaining wall and a seat wall along the western edge. 
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
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历史背景
休梅克绿地的设计建造,其历史意义旨在为校园内的古老建筑营造良好的绿化环境,同时为校园景观标准提供21世纪的全新解读。以竞技广场为背景的战争纪念碑庄严地矗立在那里,见证着校园的历史
Historic Context
The design of Shoemaker Green celebrates the historic fabric of the campus while introducing a 21st Century interpretation of the campus standards. The War Memorial is shown in the foreground with the Palestra in the background.
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
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休憩空间
该项目将原先未得到充分利用的校园场地改造成标志性绿地休憩空间,进而营造出广阔的绿化视角
A Place of Respite
Shoemaker Green affords spectacular long views across the main green transforming this once underused site into an iconic green space.
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
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城市肌理
休梅克绿地的美学魅力充分诠释了城市环境中的生态设计所具有的全新意义
Urban Context
The aesthetic of Shoemaker Green expresses a new sensibility toward ecological design all within the context of an urban setting.
Image: Barrett Doherty and Andropogon
 
 
项目信息:
设计与施工团队
首席设计师:约斯·阿尔米那那,美国景观设计师协会理事;托马斯·阿莫鲁索,美国景观设计师协会隶属机构成员;托德·蒙哥马利;约翰·柯林斯;亚迪尔·里维拉·迪亚兹;那吉姆·切亚
照明设计:蒂利特照明设计
总承包服务:P·艾格尼斯
工程(土木-雨水):梅利尔拉设计有限责任公司
工程(土木-公共设施):斯坦泰克
工程(结构):克斯特霍德
成本估算:国际顾问咨询有限公司
灌溉设计:灌溉顾问咨询有限公司
土壤科学:克拉尔土地科学公司
木工服务:菲奥雷拉木工服务公司
生物修复:生态景观管理公司
特色材料
沥青铺装:汉诺威建筑产品公司
大卵石材料:查普伦石材
蓄水设施:奥特玛雷预制装置有限公司
空间石材、边石材料、踏板:北卡罗莱纳花岗岩石材公司
调光器安装设施:韦斯科喷泉设计公司
景观街具:Kenneth Lynch & Sons、维克多·士丹利、Furnitubes 
花岗岩铺路石及鹅卵石:高桥石材公司、诺林诺克建筑石材公司
灌溉设施:Baseline Systems
照明设施:WE-EF照明
木材供应:菲奥雷拉木工服务公司
金属加工:罗伊·J·谢尔顿有限公司、克雷森特钢铁厂
植栽供应:威廉·F·哈默尔苗圃、哈尔卡苗圃、科尔苗圃、北溪苗圃
草皮供应:约翰逊草皮农场
土壤供应:专业绿色材料供应公司
沟道排水:锻术及城市设施维修服务公司
 
Project Resources:
Design & Construction Team
Lead Designers: José Almiñana, FASLA; Thomas Amoroso, Affiliate ASLA; Todd Montgomery; John Collins; Yadiel Rivera Diaz; Ngim Chea
Lighting: Tillett Lighting Design
General Contracting: P. Agnes
Engineering (Civil-Stormwater): Meliora Design LLC
Engineering (Civil-Utilities): Stantec
Engineering (Structural): Keast and Hood
Cost Estimating: International Consultants Inc.
Irrigation Design: Irrigation Consulting Inc.
Soil Scientist: Craul Land Scientists
Woodwork: Fiorella Woodworking
Biological Amendments: Ecological Landscape Management
Featured Products
Asphalt pavers: Hanover Architectural Products
Boulders: Champlain Stone
Cistern: Altomare Precast Inc.
Dimensional stone, curbing, and treads: The North Carolina Granite Corp
Electrical vault structure: Wesco Fountains
Furniture: Kenneth Lynch & Sons, Victor Stanley, and Furnitubes
Granite setts and cobbles: High Bridge Stone Co. and Rolling Rock Building Stone
Irrigation: Baseline Systems
Lighting: WE-EF Lighting
Lumber: Fiorella Woodworking
Metal fabrication: Roy J. Shelton, Inc., and Crescent Iron Works
Plants: William F. Hammel Nursery, Halka Nursery, Cole’s Nurseries, and North Creek Nurseries
Sod: Johnson Sod Farm
Soils: Green Pro Materials
Trench drain: Ironsmith and Urban Accessories
 

Via ASLA  90degree编译,本文未经许可,不得转载。
 

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