美国亚利桑那州立大学理工学院校园——新型学术性综合设施
Arizona State University Polytechnic Campus — New Academic Complex
2014-10-30 15:15:18    | keywords: 美国  校园  景观  综合设施  学术 
美国亚利桑那州立大学理工学院校园——新型学术性综合设施
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“全新的校园景观与建筑风格形成和谐统一的整体。视觉上并非呈现出传统、严肃的学术氛围,而是借助于看似粗糙、零乱的景观塑造,赋予校园沙漠般悠闲、松弛的自然环境。精心制定的植栽策略,增强了校园的可观赏性,营造出惬意、舒适的漫步空间。这些植栽树种以其特有的自然魅力渲染出充满色彩与活力的别样学术景观。”——2012年ASLA专业奖评语
“It’s a new campus and new kind of architecture that is also consistent and it works. It doesn’t feel institutional; it’s kind of rough and tumbles like the desert. It has a great planting strategy that takes the scale of the campus and makes it comfortable to walk around during the day. Those trees are amazing and give color and excitement to the campus.”—2012 Professional Awards Jury
 
 
项目概述
 
美国亚利桑那州立大学(下文简称:ASU)理工学院校园新建项目占地21英亩(约8.5公顷),其中包括五幢全新的综合教学楼建筑。该项目旨在将原先用作空军基地的贫瘠校园地块改建成为索诺兰沙漠景观风格的闲适学习场所。设计师们将项目场地上一条原先常年雨天积水严重的沥青主干道改造成为具有良好渗透性和蓄水功能的小河道,周边是若干新建的校园林荫道和户外活动空间。这样的改造为师生们的日常生活增添了许多自然环境元素,增进了人们彼此间的交流,同时也改善了原先沥青马路雨天积水的现象。
 
项目描述
 
设计背景/设计与施工
项目团队是一支由多领域人员共同组成的综合型设计团队,他们与校方进行通力合作,团队各领域间也相互协作,密切配合,将全新项目与校园现状进行紧密联系、对比分析。ASU理工学院的生源一直不尽如人意,其中原因之一便是这里前空军基地凝重的军事氛围。全新的校园改建项目,其主旨就是为了彻底改变这处校园空间在人们心目中的长期不良印象。项目团队对原先明显的常春藤联盟式校园总体规划设计进行重新审视,并为该项目制定出全新的规划策略,对整个校园景观进行彻底改造,为师生们营造独特的索诺兰沙漠少水景观氛围,索诺兰沙漠每年仅拥有7英寸(约0.2米)的雨水量。
 
基于校方对雨水滞积解决方案的迫切需要,同时受到索诺兰沙漠沟壑的启发,设计师们在全新校园空间中一条东西走向的人行步道沿边地带挖掘小河道水体设施,这样,在沙漠式校园广场中,原先滞积的雨水便可缓缓排入这处小河道中,进而营造清水自然景观。在沙漠绿树的掩映下,稳固的风化花岗岩林荫步道遍及整个校园,有助于减缓城市热岛效应,同时,纹饰混凝土铺砖的合理应用,有效确保了校园环境中必备的无障碍通道及紧急疏散通道等道路设施的建设。原先项目场地上保留下来的沙漠树种以及原生小灌木、仙人掌和相应植物种子的种植,为营建河道栖息地提供了良好的绿化环境。在下雨天里,河道充分蓄积雨水,并对周边植栽进行缓慢而具深度地灌溉,同时,通过对校园原先洪泛易发区的有效蓄水,减缓河道下游非校园区域的雨水径流。沙漠广场是理工学院校园中的核心区域,也是标志性区域,移除了原先另一条不透水的洪泛易发沥青路段,并对校园核心区的北部边缘地带起到了景观重塑的良好作用。
 
每个独幢建筑的中庭空间植栽都与校园整体的植栽布局相互应衬,以营造整个校园的微气候环境。莫里森农业经济系的教学楼中庭中设有一系列灌溉渠,用以浇灌庭中果园,将东山溪谷的天然农耕和灌溉环境微缩移植到校园中。科学技术系教学楼的建筑中庭中,有一面生机盎然的本土植栽墙体,种植着各类本土植物,且毗连一处灌溉小泉,对植栽进行定期浇灌,犹如亚利桑那峡谷的缩影。此外,户外教学场地也建造于这些中庭空间之中。由若干生态人行小道围合而成的一个运动场,构成了人文艺术教育系教学楼的建筑中庭空间,其中拥有一块视野开阔的草坪集会空间。运动场的边缘设有一块独立式的栅格状石笼景观背景墙,整块墙体都是由原先项目场地上的鹅卵石回收砌筑而成的。华纳萨顿通道庭园实质上是一个构筑式林荫通道,其上方覆盖着藤蔓植物,整条通道连接着校园的各个行政办公区,为师生们创建了一处荫蔽的日常步行环境。该通道庭园空间内种植着许多本土滨水树种和植被,可有效收集并蓄存毗邻建筑中滞积的雨水。
 
环境敏感性及可持续性
由于项目场地位于前威廉姆斯空军基地内,原有的地面铺装材料大多以沥青、混凝土和鹅卵石为主。这些材料都得以充分回收,并应用于全新校园景观中的户外空间和停车场地面铺装中,此外,大量原先的混凝土地面铺装材料还广泛应用于校园坐歇景观街具和挡土墙等硬质景观元素的砌筑中。原先的鹅卵石则用于砌筑校园中各庭园的独立式栅格状石笼景观背景墙,以围合出若干相对独立的庭园空间。
 
该项目的设计中,为校园增添了许多生态植物、透水性植物以及城市野生植物等品种,丰富了校园空间的生物多样性。本土耐旱植物大都交错种植于各式硬质景观设施之间,营造出贯穿整个校园的惬意、荫凉的空间体验,吸引着社会人士前来休憩、纳凉。校园中的植栽景观在雨水的滋养下长势旺盛,为沙漠动物群提供了理想的栖息之所,吸引它们纷纷至此。多处植栽区内还应用了先进的滴灌系统,以有效节约水源。
 
为项目客户和其他设计师提供的设计价值参数
对于这一占地21英亩(约8.5公顷)的景观设计项目,包含原有设施的拆除费用及水电费等,项目团队的总体预算为500万美元(约合3100万人民币)。在这样充裕的项目经费预算支持下,项目团队为校园打造出了一系列全新的学生活动广场、建筑中庭和植栽花园,同时还通过巧妙设计,成功地解决了校园中最为严重的雨水滞积问题。有些人可能会质疑:“在如此少雨的地区,为什么雨水治理成为关键问题?”项目团队认为:对于在少雨的沙漠地区和城市中居住的民众而言,合理开凿可蓄积雨水水源的相应河道,并对水源进行适当处理,令其转变成为生活用水,这一点是至关重要的。而从成本节约角度分析,项目团队为校方最大程度地衍生了资金的使用价值,有效地控制了成本支出。该项目的建成,为校方增加了20%的生源,学生们纷纷慕名而来,都想亲身体验这片沙漠中的学习绿洲。
 
ASU发展规划师兼资深副校长里奇·斯坦利曾感慨道:“合理的景观改造和全新建筑的建造,使得校园成功摆脱了原先空军基地的环境束缚,加之项目设计中加入了理工学院自身研发的一些革新性方案,整个校园景观充满着活力与创意,成为一座社会公认的理想化新兴大学校园。优美的校园环境,加之具有特色的教学课程,使得学校生源不断增加,因而,学生住宿设施的建设也在逐步酝酿之中。理工学院的景观设计模式已经成为我校其他新进校园建设项目的一个参考范本。我校位于宣德勒市中心以及哈瓦苏湖城的校园规划项目,都参考了该项目的景观规划形式。”
 
Project Statement
 
The Arizona State University (ASU) Polytechnic Academic Campus project consists of 21 acres of site work in association with five new classroom building complexes. The goal was to transform the barren site of the former Air Force base into a thriving Sonoran Desert campus for learning. A major large asphalt street that formerly flooded during rains was transformed into a permeable, water harvesting arroyo adjacent to new campus malls and courtyards, giving students and faculty a daily connection to nature and each other while celebrating the path of precious, ephemeral rain water on campus.
 
Project Narrative
 
Design Context/ Design and Execution
Our interdisciplinary design team worked together with our client to seamlessly meld the new project with the existing campus and with each others’ scopes of work. ASU had struggled attracting students to this campus in part because of the oppressive over-paved ambience of the former air force base. The goal was to transform the perception and feel of the campus with this major new project. Our team reviewed the campus master plan which had a decidedly Ivy League approach to the campus design and developed a new master plan strategy for the project. We reinvented what a campus could be in the unique region of the Sonoran desert which only receives 7” of rainfall a year.
 
Inspired by our client’s need for storm water solutions and the Sonoran Desert’s arroyos, the design of the desert mall allows campus drainage to meander through a new, high performance, water cleansing native landscape adjacent to new major east west pedestrian circulation through the campus. Stabilized decomposed granite walkways in combination with desert shade trees help to reduce the urban heat island effect while the judicious use of textured concrete paving ensures ADA accessibility and proper emergency access required for a campus setting. Salvaged desert trees and small native shrubs, cacti and seed were used to create the arroyo habitat. During a rain event the arroyo captures and slows the storm water providing supplemental deep watering to the vegetation while lessening the effect of run-off to downstream offsite properties by retaining water within this historically troublesome, flood prone area. The desert mall is the heart and identity of the Polytechnic campus and will eventually be repeated on the north end of the campus core to replace yet another asphalt road with similar impervious and flooding challenges.
 
Each individual building courtyard is designed to relate to the schools program housed within and to take advantage of the microclimates created by the buildings. The Morrison School of Agribusiness courtyard includes a series of irrigation canals that feed an orchard court recalling the agricultural heritage and irrigation of the East Valley. The School of Science and Technology courtyard is shaped by a living wall planted with native vegetation adjacent to an irrigation seep, creating a periodic water event similar to those found in Arizona canyons. In addition, outdoor classrooms are designed into the space. Shaped by an amphitheater built from recycled sidewalks, the Education Humanities and Art courtyard includes a lawn gathering space to view performances. The backdrop to the amphitheater is freestanding gabion wall filled with the abundance of existing river rock from the site. Serving as a pedestrian link between administrative offices, the Wanner Sutton canal courtyard transports students through a shade structure tunnel that will soon be covered with vines. The courtyard exhibits native riparian trees and vegetation made possible by the collection and retention of storm water collected from the adjacent buildings.
 
Environmental Sensitivity and Sustainability
Situated on the former Williams Air Force Base, the existing conditions consisted of acres of asphalt, extensive concrete sidewalks and expanses of river rock covered ground. These materials were re-used for new outdoor spaces and parking areas. Harvested concrete paving was transformed into campus seating elements and retaining walls throughout the project. Existing river rock was used in gabions to construct both freestanding and retaining walls to create another layer of enclosure to the courtyards.
 
The project increased biomass, permeability and urban wildlife for the campus. Drought tolerant native plants were woven together with judicious hardscape to create comfortable, cooler spaces throughout to encourage social interaction and human comfort. The landscape nourished by storm water also provides habitat for desert fauna that visit the site. A state of the art drip irrigation system was used to allow many of the zones to eventually be turned off completely of water.
 
Design Value to Client and Other Designers
Our budget for the 21 acre project for landscape architecture was 5 million including demolition and utilities. Using this very modest per acre budget we created new student malls, courtyards and gardens while transforming storm water problems into an underlying concept for the entire project site design uniquely suited for our region. Some might say “why is storm water important when you get rain so infrequently?” Our response is that it is even more important because the path of ephemeral water in the desert — the arroyo — is the sustaining life force of the desert and urban dwellers that call it their home. Economically the value for our client ASU is that we wisely stretched their dollars for maximum impact. Since the project was completed enrollment at the campus has increased by 20 percent as more students seek out this desert learning oasis.
 
Rich Stanley, Senior Vice President & University Planner for ASU said “The landscape design and the new buildings have transformed a campus that struggled to escape its image as a former air force base into a place recognized as great emerging university campus that is as attractive and innovative as the polytechnic innovation programs offered. The combination of the environment and the programs has allowed substantial enrollment growth and the initiation of a new student residential program. The Polytechnic landscape theme is now referenced as a goal for some of our new projects. The campus planning at Lake Havasu City and in downtown Chandler have both used the Polytechnic Campus to help guide the landscape plans.” 
 
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校园核心区改造前景象:中央步道是昔日的洪泛频发区;左侧是原有的校园建筑地块;右侧是全新建筑和翻新建筑的项目建设场地
Before: Shot of the core campus showing existing buildings to the left; the existing street that used to flood, and project site for the new buildings and renovated buildings to the right.
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
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Site Plan    总平面图
Image: Ten Eyck Landscape Architects, Inc.
 
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左图:改造后的中央步道:项目团队将原先洪泛频发的中央步道边缘地带进行挖掘处理,开凿出一条索诺兰沙漠式小河道,与全新的校园广场景观相互应衬,同时,中央步道上设有若干景观索桥,与原先的校园核心区相连通。此外,对于右侧的全新建筑群落而言,它也是理想的消防车道
After: Our team proposed to excavate the flooding street to create a Sonoran desert arroyo with a new campus mall that doubles as a fire lane along the new buildings on the right, with bridges connecting to the original campus core.
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
右图:从毫无生机的空军基地到充满活力的校园景观,该项目为校园打造出了全新的学生活动中心,学生们可以在户外就餐露台上享受美食,也可在沙漠植栽园中安静地学习、冥想,纵横交错的各式植栽步道系统,将校园各处连通于一体,形成便利的校园交通网
This transformation of a former sterile air force base to a vibrant college campus is represented at the new student center where shaded dining terraces transition to desert gardens. Tertiary paths organize the planting while allowing desire lines. 
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
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由混凝土、固化风化花岗岩和补充性植栽共同组合而成的林荫道,有效减缓了太阳眩光,为沙漠气候中的人们带来丝丝凉意
Using a combination of concrete, and stabilized decomposed granite and offset planting for the mall reduces glare and helps with psychological cooling for desert dwellers. 
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
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左图:项目团队将农业经济系教学楼中庭空间设计成为活动集会场地和果园,庭中还设有灌溉蓄水池坐椅矮墙和若干小水沟,当庭中植栽和果园需要灌溉时,或在干旱季节里,蓄水池中的水源就会流经小水沟进行灌溉
The agribusiness courtyard is designed as an event gathering space and orchard with irrigation cistern seat walls and runnels as the organizing element conveying deep water when irrigating and the memory of water when dry. 
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
右图:架设于小河道上的人行桥,能够直接有效地将人行步道上的雨水排入河道中,同时,这些人行桥也是通往校园各庭园空间的必由之路
The path of rain water is expressed through footbridges that also act as thresholds into campus courtyards.
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
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这处庭园空间围裹于各间实验室中,师生们可以在静谧的自然环境中进行学术探讨。实质上,庭园空间就如同一个户外生活化的实验室,滨水水景墙、灌溉蓄水池坐椅矮墙,营造出理想的户外教学场所
This courtyard is surrounded by labs, and University faculty wanted to connect students to the natural environment. The courtyard was envisioned as an outdoor living laboratory with outdoor classroom study areas, a riparian living seep wall and irrigation cistern.
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
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原先两幢教学楼之间的一处停车场,如今改造成为杨木灌溉水道庭园,将水源灌溉入全新的乔木区,同时也引导着人们的步行路径
A former parking lot between two existing buildings, the cottonwood canal courtyard conveys water along with the new arbor that guides people through the space.
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
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彩饰活化墙体有效阻隔了毗邻步行主干道的嘈杂,为其左侧的户外教室提供了安静的教学环境。校园建筑群、活化墙体、水流缓缓的小泉以及本土滨水植物,共同营造出校园的微气候,让师生们在校园中便可体验亚利桑那大峡谷的荫蔽与凉爽
The living wall to the left screens the outdoor classroom from a major walkway. The microclimate created by the buildings, living wall, ephemeral seep and native riparian plants suggest the sheltered feeling of an Arizona canyon.
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
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原先场地上回收的混凝土和路缘石材料都充分利用于校园重建项目中
Salvaged concrete and curbs were re-purposed throughout the project. 
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
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校园尽头处的一个庭园空间,毗邻刚刚翻修的校园影院,南面和西面都是全新建筑群。这个庭园可作露天剧场使用,由从原先场地上回收的混凝土挡土墙和回收鹅卵石砌筑的金属栅格墙体共同围合而成
The last courtyard, next to a renovated theater with new buildings to the south and west, is an amphitheater formed with salvaged concrete retaining walls and gabion courtyard walls filled with river rock salvaged from the site. 
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
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在这个宁谧的微气候小空间中,中心区域嫩绿的草坪显得格外醒目,周边还有序地环绕着各色沙漠植栽
In this microclimatic space, turf is judiciously used as the centerpiece, surrounded by ordered desert gardens. 
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
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景观设计师与建筑师共同合作,将原先光线过于阴暗的教学楼带顶式人行通道改造成为以藤蔓植物覆盖作为顶篷的荫凉步道。步道旁边是灌溉水沟,雨季时节,伴着潺潺的水声漫步于此,惬意之感油然而生
We worked with the architect to transition from deep shade of the classroom building breezeways to the new mall using vine covered scrims and sheltered seating next to irrigation seeps. 
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
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在校园的一处交叉路口,一个由收回混凝土砌筑而成的交互式植栽池内,种植着沙漠乳草,这为处步行空间增添了几分绿意
Punctuated at a student crossing, an ephemeral path of water is created with salvaged concrete inter-planted with desert milkweed. 
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
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昔日贫瘠、凝重的空军基地,如今的面貌焕然一新,形成了索诺兰沙漠绿洲风格的校园景观,为学生们营造出惬意、舒适的学习环境——由于该项目的成功打造,学校的生源成倍增长
A former barren, over-paved air force base is transformed into a Sonoran Desert campus oasis that is true to the region and an inspiring place to learn — campus enrollment has doubled since project completion. 
Image: Bill Timmerman
 
项目信息:
景观设计:坦恩·艾克景观设计事务所
项目负责人:克丽斯汀·E·坦恩·艾克,美国景观设计师协会理事;项目经理:罗杰·索查,美国景观设计师协会会员;项目景观设计师:朱汀·特利,美国景观设计师协会会员;项目设计师:迈克·查普曼、杰瑞米·比尔斯、马特·康恩、艾莉莎·普里贝、崔西·比格勒
设计与施工团队
建筑设计:Lake | Flato
建筑设计:RSP建筑设计事务所
土木工程:Wood Patel and Associates
总承包商:DPR, Inc.
灌溉设计:Aqua Engineering
景观承包商:ISS-Grounds Control
结构工程:Paragon
特色材料
独立式栅格状石笼景观背景墙及挡土墙:希尔菲格挡土墙建造公司
彩饰活化墙体土壤垒结:Colbond
预制式混凝土垃圾桶:科尼盖设计
固化风化花岗岩:Stabilizer Solutions
用于构筑景观桥体、藤幕及草地花园藤架的金属丝网藤粗布、桥梁“踏板”:McNichols
 
Project Resources:
Landscape Architect: Ten Eyck Landscape Architects, Inc.
Project Principal: Christine E. Ten Eyck, FASLA; Project Manager: Roger Socha, ASLA; Project Landscape Architect: Judeen Terrey, ASLA; and Project Designers: Mike Chapman, Jeramy Beals, Matt Conn, Alyssa Priebe, and Trish Bigler
Design & Construction Team
Architect: Lake | Flato
Architect: RSP Architects
Civil Engineer: Wood Patel and Associates
General Contractor: DPR, Inc.
Irrigation Design: Aqua Engineering
Landscape Contractor: ISS-Grounds Control
Structural Engineer: Paragon
Featured Products
ArtWeld gabions for retaining and freestanding walls: Hillfiker Retaining Walls
Enkamat Living Wall Soil Fabric: Colbond
Precast Concrete Urns: Kornegay Design
Stabilized Decomposed Granite: Stabilizer Solutions
Woven Wire Mesh for Bridges, Vine Scrims, and Arbors; “Tread Plank” for Bridges: McNichols
 
Via ASLA  90degree编译,本文未经许可,不得转载。
 

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