德克萨斯州西部大牧场住宅景观
West Texas Ranch
2014-11-03 11:23:04    | keywords: 德克萨斯州  牧场  景观 
德克萨斯州西部大牧场住宅景观
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“该项目从水源合理利用、植物采选和气候应对等方面入手,体现了设计团队为地区环境的改善耗费的大量精力。整个项目从设计形式、材料选择到景观结构,无不强调自然美感,折射出设计师们对地区生态其及固有自然魅力的充分尊重。适当的光影效果、简约的景观布局,加之淡雅的色彩装点,都有力增强了这一大尺度景观项目的内在美。同时,这一迷人的景致也赋予设计师强劲的场所感。”
——2014ASLA专业奖评语
“This project exemplifies what it means to pay close attention to the regional environment from water use to plant selection and climate response. It reflects a deep respect for the place and its inherent beauty, a raw elegance that is emphasized through the design’s forms, materials, and textures. The use of shadows, textures, and subtle colors enhances the inherent beauty of the large landscape. The awesome landscape gives a sense of place to the architecture.”- 2014 Awards Jury
 
项目概述
 
历史悠久的德克萨斯州西部大牧场位于基安蒂山脉的山麓丘陵中,曾经拥有着无限美丽的自然风光。然而,一度这里成为了大量放牧的农场,几年间,自然环境遭受严重破坏,面临着生态恢复与美化改造的双重挑战。当地的原始资源、修复的本土植被以及富有视觉对比度的开放式和遮蔽式户外空间,形成了集传统与现代、私密与开放于一体的大型景观场所,有效增强了其场所感。
 
项目描述
 
原有的牧场住宅、简易平房、8000英亩(约3237公顷)的荒地以及南面的斜坡草地一度就是德克萨斯州西部大牧场的全部。牧场道路的建造以及大量的放牧运作,严重影响了此地的土质,造成土壤硬化和自然景观的退化。项目客户希望这些退化的景观区域能够得以充分修复,并将户外聚集空间、水池、草坪、荫蔽地块、果树林和庭园空间等低维护景观元素一并纳入到牧场景观的改造中。经过对2.5英亩(约1公顷)的局部地块进行精心设计,如今的德克萨斯州西部大牧场面貌焕然一新,成为植被繁茂的沙漠草原和景致怡人的住宅花园。
 
项目设计尊崇景观文化的传承,同时对生态完整性进行了有效修复。旧有的牧场道路得以重新翻修,并种植了相应的本土草种。大量草种以及丝兰、龙舌兰、仙人掌、蜡大戟、阿巴伽羽果树、牧豆树、沙漠柳树等各色植物的种植,弱化了翻新后的道路和停车场区域的边界。由固化风化花岗岩铺砌而成的牧场步行道,穿过住宅的栅格状金属大门,并在大门入口处设有若干钢质台阶。毗邻住宅的挑高地块中,沙漠砖石(嵌入到模铸混凝土中的本土石材)挡土墙围合出一系列的户外生活空间。由先前在此地长期居住的牧场主人种植的美洲山核桃树和紫荆树得以完好保留,以视对当地文化历史的尊重。受到项目场地上原有的山核桃树和该地区山核桃果园特色的启发,设计团队设计并建造了一个全新的山核桃果园,营造出荫蔽、凉爽的户外用餐空间。石质挡土墙、水池以及野牛草草坪,这些景观元素和谐地融于一体,并与南部的广阔牧区形成有效的视觉连接,整个牧场景观显得有序而整洁。住宅金属栅格入口大门与草地花园藤架、当地石材以及各类本土植物共同形成了强有力的设计语言,为德克萨斯州西部的荒漠气候增添了生机与活力,柔化了周边的荒凉氛围。
 
环境敏感性
设计师们尽力将当地植栽材料充分应用到景观设计中,以为本土野生动植物营造一处健康生境。数年前粗糙建造的道路系统,显得毫无生气,且遭到严重的雨水侵蚀,加之毫无节制的车辆通行,当地生态环境遭到破坏,基于如此的场地状况,设计团队对其进行了大力度的生态修复,在道路两侧大量种植了各类本土草种,诸如垂穗草和格兰马草等。住宅庭园空间中种植着耐旱性较强的本土植物,吸引了大量当地鸟类和蝴蝶前来驻足、休憩,整个牧场住宅显得生机盎然。从毗邻的斯托克顿边界地带取集种子并种植于挑高地块中的牧豆树,成为了住宅景观区中的主要沙漠树种,并与沙漠柳树和其它耐旱植物共同形成住宅景观植物群落。住宅墙体由当地沙材与牧场石材共同砌筑而成,以形成住宅内外的统一性视觉美感。除种植于植栽槽中的冰山玫瑰、山核桃树和果树需要悉心养护之外,所有新进种植的植物都可在极度干旱的环境中生存。所有上述这些环境营造,最终成就了这样一处井然有序却又不失粗犷本质的沙漠牧场景观,在人类社会与自然环境之间架起了一座平衡、健康的桥梁。
 
设计价值
该项目的设计是客户、建筑师、景观设计师以及承包商多方通力协作的典范案例,在确保牧场自然特质的前提下,实现多种景观材料的巧妙融合,并创建了行之有效的可持续性景观系统。项目客户对于玫瑰花园空间的设计有着自己独到而富浪漫的见解,要求在园中种植各类绿色植物,景观设计师们将客户的愿景付诸实践,并营造出简约而美观的景观空间;而在本土植栽园的设计中,经讨论决定,以展示生命力旺盛的乡土植物和硬质景观为主,强调本土气息。项目设计的灵感主要来自于牧场的本土自然景观,设计师们本着谨慎的设计态度,用适当的景观语言将地区特有的迷人自然景致勾勒出来,为客户营造出一种粗犷的宁静之美。该项目还纳入到新书《私密天堂》的编撰中,这是一本关于私宅景观设计的书籍,探索住宅庭园设计中“传统元素与诸如可持续性发展、植物耐旱性以及本土植栽的合理应用等当代热门焦点之间应当如何寻求交集,营造理想景观空间”等问题。因而,该项目将会成为探讨此类问题的成功实例,同时也为同类项目的设计树立了标杆。
 
Project Statement
 
A historic West Texas ranch, beautifully nestled in the foothills of the Chinati Mountains, had suffered significant degradation throughout its years as a working ranch and presented the challenge of both ecological remediation and aesthetic transformation. Locally sourced materials, re-vegetation with native plants, and the contrast of exposed and enclosed outdoor spaces form a landscape that resonates with both the traditional and the contemporary, the intimate and the vast, thereby heightening a sense of place.
 
Project Narrative
 
An existing ranch house, bunk house, and 8,000 acres of arid, south sloping grassland were once all that composed this West Texas Ranch. Ranch roads and grazing from its years as a working ranch had compacted soils and degraded the landscape. The client wished to restore these degraded areas and integrate a low-maintenance outdoor gathering space, pool, lawn, shade, fruit trees, and flowering gardens into the ranch landscape. Through the careful design of 2.5 acres, West Texas Ranch is now at once a thriving desert grassland and place-appropriate residential garden.
 
The design honors the cultural heritage of the landscape while repairing its ecological integrity. Old ranch roads have been “chiseled” and are re-vegetated with native grasses. The edges of new roads and parking are softened by native plantings that include grasses, yucca, agave, prickly pear, candelillia, apache plume, mesquite and desert willow. Stabilized decomposed granite walkways with steel step risers pass through woven mesh entry gates. Desert masonry (native stone imbedded in cast concrete) retaining walls enclose outdoor living spaces on a level plinth adjacent to the house. Pecan and redbud trees planted by a former long-time ranch owner were left in place as a homage to the land's cultural history. Inspired by existing pecan trees on site and pecan orchards characteristic of the area, a new orchard of pecan trees was designed to create shade in the garden for an outdoor dining area. The stone retaining wall, pool, and buffalo grass lawn are seamlessly integrated and, through this horizontal emphasis, connect the client with an uncluttered view of the expansive southern horizon. Steel gates and arbors, local stone, and native planting create a cohesive design language that withstands the stark West Texas climate.
 
Environmental Sensitivity
Every effort was made to integrate locally-sourced materials and bolster the health of native wildlife. Bare and eroding roads produced by years of unrestrained vehicular destruction were remediated with an assortment of native grass plantings, including side oats grama and blue grama. Xeric native plants bring life to the interior walled gardens, attracting local birds and butterflies. Native mesquite trees grown from seed in nearby Fort Stockton were used as the main desert tree beyond the plinth walls, along with desert willows and other drought tolerant plants. Walls were made from local sand and stone from the ranch, calling attention to the inherent beauty of the land itself. With the exception of one bed of iceberg roses and the pecan and fruit trees, all of the new plantings will survive intense droughts. These efforts create a sleek, yet rugged landscape that balances human and environmental wellbeing.
 
Design Value
The design of the West Texas Ranch is a model of collaboration between the client, architect, landscape architect and contractor that established a cohesive material language and sustainable landscape system in keeping with the character of the ranch. The client had a romantic vision of rose gardens with a medley of verdant plants, which the landscape architect helped transform into one of simple, native gardens through discussions that highlighted the beauty of tough, indigenous plants and hardscape materials. The project is inspired by place and designed with restraint to highlight the harsh beauty of the region, which inspires a feeling of serenity in the client. West Texas Ranch is featured in a new book, Private Paradise, which explores gardens that “demonstrate the intersection of traditional elements of garden design and current concerns such as sustainability, drought tolerance, and use of native plants”. Recognized as such, West Texas Ranch may become a model for ranch restoration and residential design for other residents living in regions of harsh sun and drought.
 
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建筑师和景观设计师取得通力协作,将遮荫篷构筑物建筑元素与水池和硬质景观等景观元素和谐地融于一体
The architect and landscape architect worked hand-in-hand to develop a seamless relationship between the new shade structure by the architect and the pool and hardscape by the landscape architect.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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牧场住宅位于占地8000英亩(约3237公顷)的广阔牧场上,围裹于奇瓦瓦沙漠高地中。从远处眺望翻新后的牧场住宅,清晰、醒目,住宅北面是平顶山丘,南面是一望无际的辽阔草原
Surrounded by the high Chihuahuan Desert on an 8,000 acre ranch, the renovated ranch house can be seen in the distance with mesas to the north and the house facing south with a vast view of an immense grassy plain.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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改造前的牧场住宅周边,草地贫瘠、荒芜,常年毫无节制的车辆通行,致使当地生态环境遭到破坏
This “before” photo of the existing ranch house shows the condition of the surrounding grassland after years of vehicular abuse.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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改造后的牧场住宅焕然一新,沙漠砖石挡土墙围合出整个住宅区域,有效维护住区安全,同时,也有利于周边草地的生态修复
This image illustrates the completed renovations to the ranch house, a new desert masonry plinth defining a level, protected precinct around the house, and the emergence of the grassland restoration.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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在占地8000英亩(约3237公顷)的牧场沙漠高地中进行景观设计,着实是一种挑战。其设计内容包括:一系列的荫蔽户外空间、住宅安全保护区域、聚会式开放草坪空间、水池、住宅外围区域的植被修复,且将这些景观元素与项目场地上的各种建筑元素融于一体,并规划出相应的车行道设施
Situated in the high desert on an 8,000 acre ranch, the landscape architectural program includes shaded outdoor spaces, definition of a protected area around the house, an open lawn for gatherings, a pool, native revegetation of disturbed areas, integration with the architecture, and planning for vehicle circulation.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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水池的其中一面墙体与住宅外围的沙漠砖石档土墙形成一体,整个水池高出周边景观区地表18英寸(约0.5米)。野牛草草坪阶式水池露台从水池处一直延伸至住宅庭园的主聚会空间内
The pool is integrated horizontally into the desert masonry retaining wall and raised 18” above the surrounding landscape. A buffalo grass lawn deck steps down from the pool to the main gathering space of the garden.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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入口大门与沙漠砖石墙体共同围合出全新的住宅庭园空间。原先住宅周边的斜坡经相应的挑高处理后,形成了住宅的挑高式保护地块,在远处视野中更加引人注目
The entry gate and desert masonry walls enclose the new garden. By raising the previously sloping grade to a level plinth around the house, the distant views seem more dramatic.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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进入住宅庭园,各色植栽瞬间映入眼帘,本土草种、鼠尾草、阿巴伽羽果树、山核桃树等长势都十分旺盛。原先栽种于入口小径尽头的紫荆树也得以完好保留
Entering the garden, one experiences plantings of native grasses, salvias, Apache plume, and pecan trees. The existing redbud tree at the end of the path was protected in place.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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受到项目场地上原有的山核桃树和该地区山核桃果园特色的启发,设计团队迎合客户需求,设计并建造了一个全新的山核桃小果园,营造出荫蔽、凉爽的户外用餐空间
The landscape architect was inspired by remnant pecan trees on site and orchards in the area. To satisfy the client’s want for shade, a small orchard was proposed for the outdoor dining area with distant views beyond.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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斑驳的树荫为住宅营造出一处充满凉意的休憩空间。牧草点缀着曼陀罗花和其它多年生植物,生趣十足。质朴的木桌和天然的砾石路面,唤起人们对昔日荒芜农场的记忆
Dappled shade provides a cooling respite. Grasses punctuated with Sacred Datura and other perennials create interest. A simple wooden table and gravel paving evoke the rugged history of the site as a working ranch.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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专为这处简易房屋设计的钢质砾石庭园,结构简单,园中种植着牧豆树和沙漠柳树等遮荫树种,而在庭园周边的地势较低处则种植着蜡大戟和龙舌兰等植物
A simple steel and gravel court was designed for the bunk house, which is framed by honey mesquite and desert willow for shade. Candellia and agave surround the court at the lower grade.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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这一灌溉蓄水池为毗邻另一处简易庭园中的四棵杏树提供充足的水源。蓄水池周边种植着风雨兰和德州水苏等地被植物
An irrigation cistern deeply waters four neighboring apricot trees in another protected court at the bunk house. Rainlily and Texas Betony are used as groundcover.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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住宅主屋的观景门廊周边种植着白鸟草、鼠尾草和醉鱼草,吸引着成群的蝴蝶和黄莺前来驻足
The screened porch at the main house is surrounded by a garden of gaura, salvia, and buddleia that attract swarms of butterflies and songbirds.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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水池与沙漠砖石墙体形成一个和谐的整体,池中掩映出不断变化的天空景致,成为住宅庭园中又一道独特的风景
The pool is integrated into the desert masonry wall and serves as an ever-changing mirror in the garden.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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景观设计师们不仅悉心呵护着壮美的天然牧场风光,还补充种植了许多本土植物,并增添了许多自然景观元素,更加有力地对牧场景致进行保护和提升
The landscape architect was careful not to detract from the spectacular views, but rather to preserve and enhance them with natural materials and native plantings.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
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水池的设计与小型硬质景观元素的水平放置相得益彰。经过修复后的全新牧场,俨然成为城市居民的休闲度假佳所,他们沉浸在奇瓦瓦沙漠高地的迷人自然风光之中,享受着大自然赋予的美妙生境
The pool is designed to align with the horizon using as little hardscape as possible. The ranch is a place where the urban dweller can escape to feel protected but immersed in the beauty of the high Chihuahuan Desert.
Image by: Terry Moore, Christine Ten Eyck, Trish Bigler
 
项目信息:
设计与施工团队
首席设计师:克丽斯汀·坦恩·艾克,美国景观设计师协会理事 / 坦恩·艾克设计团队成员:朱汀·特利、陶德·布里格斯、崔西·比格勒
建筑设计师:雷克·弗雷托
总承包商:Garza Construction - Jamey Garza
景观承包商:Tom’s Tree Place
灌溉设计顾问:Hines Irrigation
特色材料
树种植栽:Tom’s Tree Place and Mountain States Wholesale Nursery
固化风化花岗岩:Stabilizer Solutions
石材供应:项目场地周边区域
石笼墙体及钢丝笼:希尔菲格挡土墙建造公司
藤架及入口大门金属丝网:McNichols
灌溉设施:Rainbird
 
Project Resources:
Design & Construction Team
Lead Designer: Christine Ten Eyck, FASLA / Ten Eyck Team: Judeen Terrey, Todd Briggs, Trish Bigler
Architect: Lake Flato
General Contractor: Garza Construction - Jamey Garza
Landscape Contractor: Tom’s Tree Place
Consultant: Hines Irrigation
Featured Products
Plants and Trees: Tom’s Tree Place and Mountain States Wholesale Nursery
Stabilized Decomposed Granite: Stabilizer Solutions
Boulders and Rocks: From Surrounding Area
Artweld Gabion Wall Wire Baskets: Hilfiker
Woven Wire Mesh for Arbors and Gates: McNichols
Irrigation Products: Rainbird
 
 
Via ASLA  90degree编译,本文未经许可,不得转载。

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