花园中的城市住宅
City House in a Garden
2014-11-11 13:57:14    | keywords: 住宅  花园  城市  景观 
花园中的城市住宅
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“对于景观设计师而言,在高楼林立间设计建造一处精致秀美的小型城市住宅庭园空间,无疑是一种巨大的挑战,而该项目展现的正是这样一处充满绿意的城市住宅小庭园:精美而合理的空间布局,藤蔓和蕨类植物植栽空间的细节设计,加之浇注式混凝土和醒目庭园家具的色彩搭配,多样化混搭的悉心组合,营造出淡雅、温馨的景观环境。在设计结构、植栽色彩和空间形式的映衬中,建筑与景观彼此相融,创建出这一极富自然特色的艺术庭园作品。”——2014ASLA专业奖评语
“To create a beautiful small urban garden may be one of the hardest challenges of a landscape architect and this project excels. It is beautifully crafted and detailed form the vines and ferns that merge with the cast concrete to the colors of the plants that highlight the furniture. The careful integration of diverse programs remains elegant and welcoming. The architecture and landscape extend one another through texture, color, and form, creating remarkable garden as a work of art and as a place of nature.”- 2014 Awards Jury
 
 
项目概述
 
芝加哥一贯倡导营造“花园城市”。恰巧的是,该项目的客户也正想为自己营造一处花园中的城市住宅。城市与绿化这两大元素的结合,必然在公共与私密、室内与户外、形式化与否以及装饰与原始这几者之间产生剧烈的碰撞,进而创建出植栽绿化景观与铜质、重蚁木和混凝土等材料混合建造的住宅建筑和谐相融的景观空间。迥然不同的空间设计元素及材料元素协调地融于一体,同时每一个元素的自身内在价值在融合的补互中得以有效提升。
 
项目描述
 
该住宅项目位于芝加哥市区人口密集的林肯公园居住区内,是一幢全新的独户住宅建筑。项目客户,即住宅主人,要求景观设计达到两个目标——为这一年轻的四口之家营造现代、时尚的家居环境,并在室内与户外空间之间形成和谐过渡,将二者融于一体。住宅主人热爱芝加哥这座城市,希望在自己市中心的这幢住宅中,打造属于他们的住宅花园。此外,他们对植物的生长过程乃至整个自然世界都充满着浓厚的兴趣,也想培养孩子们在这方面的兴趣。因而,设计整体需要充分体现住宅主人对城市和自然的热爱,进而证明城市与自然这二者之间并非不可共融于一体的。事实上,通过细致的并置式设计,城市元素与自然元素之间相互映衬、相得益彰,形成了十分融洽的住宅景观整体。
 
设计要求
该项目地块长125英尺、宽50英尺(占地约570平方米),宽度是普通城市独户住宅地块的两倍。然而,与其它许多城市住宅地块一样,在如此人口密集的城市居住区中创建私人户外空间,着实存在一定的难度。加之,项目场地围裹于林立的高层住宅楼中,其南面还正对着一所小学及其停车场设施。但这一停车场无形中在学校建筑与项目住宅间留出了宽达75英尺(约23米)的空地,这样就为在住宅南面创建私密户外空间提供了令人羡煞的理想地块,也是城市独户住宅中极为罕见的场地结构。
 
住宅建筑本身占地约项目场地总面积的50%,即给户外景观设计预留有3600平方英尺(约334平方米)的空间范围,而住宅主人要求在户外空间中设置就餐娱乐区、烧烤区以及若干多年生植物植栽区等活动场所。此外,1430平方英尺(约133平方米)的绿色屋顶为蔬菜种植提供了额外的理想场地,同时这里也为观赏周边城市景致提供了良好视角。包括绿色屋顶、地面植栽区和沙砾园空间在内,项目场地53%的区域都铺砌着透水性地砖材料,以减缓雨水径流,改善城市热岛效应,这也迎合了景观设计师与住宅主人对该项目的另一个期许。
 
项目设计通过入口庭园、花园步道、西面庭园和屋顶花园这四个特色景观空间的巧妙营造,既满足了住宅主人的相应需求,又使得项目场地上客观存在的一些疑难问题迎刃而解。四个景观空间都具备各自不同的功能与特性,各自的植栽多样性、丰富的植栽布局以及各具特色的景观元素组合成一个生机盎然的城市住宅花园,将同样多彩的建筑布局映衬得更加雅致与自然。
 
入口庭园
相较于周边住宅,该项目场地在各种公共建筑设施的围裹中显得尤为独特。这里并没有诸如栅栏或是大门一类的传统入口设施作为人们进入住宅主体的引导媒介,入口庭园直接与宅外的公共林荫道形成自然相连,林荫道两侧种植的宿根花卉和野草等地被植物,与宅内私人植栽区中种植着的各类野生植物形成自然的绿化延续,进而造就了色彩缤纷的绵长野生植物地带,与时尚的住宅建筑材料形成柔和、统一的视觉整体,为路人营造出别样的感官体验。
 
在面向公共林荫道的全开放式入口设计中,设计师还植入了弗兰克•劳埃德•赖特的怀旧设计手法。住宅建筑入口巧妙地隐匿于种植着桦树、杜鹃花和日式矮枫的挑高植栽区后面。通往住宅南面的紫杉树篱形成入口庭园的天然背景幕,将南面的停车场和学校公共设施遮挡于视觉之外,适当地维护了住宅的私密性。绣球花攀延于在住宅建筑外墙上,入口的混凝土长椅上长满了常春藤,整个住宅前庭沉浸于一片绿色海洋之中。
 
花园步道
花园步道沿住宅南面边缘铺砌,步道内侧是视觉清晰的玻璃与重蚁木组合式住宅外墙,外侧则是高达6英尺(约1.8米)的混凝土质户外花园围墙,整条步道连接着共公林荫道与宅内的西面庭园。这是住宅中第二处连接外界的过渡性空间,步道路面由大块粗糙的花岗岩小卵石混合铺砌而成,加之细辛、天竺葵、红升麻、淫羊藿、心叶牛舌草以及各类蕨类植物点缀其中,俨然形成一处静谧的冥想之所。混凝土围墙上优雅地攀附着凌霄花藤和绣球花藤,与粗糙的墙体形成鲜明的视觉对比。南面混凝土墙外,长势繁茂的成排榆树种植于学校停车场内,在炎炎夏日里为住宅南面外墙遮荫挡阳。花园步道空间光线充足,伴随着城市中零星的喧杂声和榆树树叶轻盈摇曳的沙沙声,住宅主人可以在此漫步冥思、舒缓心境。
 
西面庭园
住宅外围的三面围墙形成东方传统中的阴阳之势——南面为象征阴性的混凝土围墙,西面和北面则都是象征阳性的重蚁木围墙——住宅建筑主体的底层外墙大部分以玻璃材质为主,以便室内获取良好的采光。这样的内外墙体设计,产生出墙体移位的视觉错觉,形成室内空间向户外景观区的自然延伸。滑动门和青石地面铺砖的延续性应用更增强了内外一体的视觉效果。同时,这样的墙体布局也营造出舒缓、自然的视觉过渡。
 
若干墙体围合中的西面庭园,是住宅的户外就餐及娱乐区,地面以青石铺装为主。园中植栽丰富、错落有致,分别种植着紫荆、红山紫茎、欧洲盆栽山松、温柏、鹿角漆树、宿根花卉和装饰性草种。植栽的错落混搭与纵横有序的青石地面和色彩鲜亮的条状重蚁木墙体,再次形成鲜明的视觉对比。作为西面庭园中的硬质景观元素之一,混凝土坐椅矮墙成为孩子们良好的玩耍与互动设施。孩子们把它当作健身平衡木、过家家游戏中的商店柜台、阅读角以及捉迷藏游戏的躲藏地。由于花园中无需任何化学质剂维护,不存在潜在的毒素威胁,因此孩子们可以在这里充分发挥自己的想象力,无拘无束地玩耍。
 
屋顶花园
蔬菜园和屋顶花园位于住宅底层的延展空间屋顶上,恰好也形成了二层空间的户外延展平台,人们从公共街道上也可以欣赏到这处绿化屋顶,这样的设计再一次模糊了公共与私密、城市与绿化、市区与市郊之间的界线,使得这几对看似矛盾的个体和谐地隔于一体。从屋顶花园入口通往蔬菜植栽区的小径,由砾石以汀步形式铺砌而成,其间还种植着景天和百里香。穿过蔬菜园,屋顶花园便映入眼帘,绿意在这里得到延续,并显得更为醒目,园中种植着印度草、小须芒草、侧形燕麦、藿香、白紫锥菊等各色植物,而大花葱的种植更增添了几分本土草原风情。这方屋顶绿洲弱化了住宅建筑的现代外观,同时也减缓了城市热岛效应,为底层空间有效隔热,并减少屋顶雨水径流,吸引了许多野生小动物前来休憩。
 
入口庭园、花园步道、西面庭园和屋顶花园这四个景观空间,每个都具有自身的特色与功能性。然而,它们都拥有一个共通点:为住宅主人营造充满生机的多样化生活景观空间。在如此原生态的自然环境中,整个家庭都积极树立起保护花草绿植的意识,他们尽情享受着这些绿植给予的美妙体验,欣赏着小鸟和蝴蝶在专属于他们的私人天地里自由地飞来飞去,他们对于这座城市的热爱也在这里体现得淋漓尽致。
 
 
Project Statement
 
Chicago’s motto is “Urbs in Horto”. Fittingly, the client wanted a City House in a Garden. This juxtaposition of urban and verdant instigated a larger study in contrast: public and private, inside and outside, formal and informal, polished and raw. The result is a home of copper, ipe and concrete knit into a lush landscape. Disparate spatial and material elements are harmonized while the inherent qualities of each element are amplified through the juxtaposition.
 
Project Narrative
 
Located in the dense Chicago neighborhood of Lincoln Park, the client’s new construction single-family residence was designed with two goals in mind – to create a modern house for their young family of four and to establish an integral relationship between the inside and outside spaces. The clients love the city and plan to raise their family in the heart of it. At the same time, they have a strong interest in plant life and the natural world and want their children to develop this interest. Thus, the design needed to embrace both of these passions – the city and the natural world – proving that these loves are not incompatible. In fact, when juxtaposed thoughtfully, each framing the other, the city and natural world are at their best.
 
Programmatic Requirements
The site is 50’x125’, twice as wide as the average city lot. Yet like many urban sites, the density of the neighborhood can be a challenge when creating a private outside space. The site is surrounded by towering residences and an elementary school and parking lot are located directly to the south. On the other hand, because the school parking lot creates a 75’ gap between the school building and the residence, the site receives an enviable amount of southern exposure on the longer side of the building - an unusual asset in the city. 
 
The house covers 50% of the site, leaving 3600sf of outside space on the ground level for the clients’ programmatic requirements: a dining and entertainment space, a grilling area, and several areas for perennial gardening. A 1430sf green roof allows additional space for a desired vegetable gardening area. It also allows for views of the city skyline. Between the green roof, the ground level planting beds and gravel gardens, 53% of the total site is covered in permeable surface, reducing water run-off and mitigating the heat island effect, another programmatic goal of the landscape architect and the client. 
 
The design addressed the clients’ needs and the site’s challenges through the development of four distinct landscapes: The Entry Garden, The Garden Walk, The West Garden, and The Rooftop Garden. Each garden has a different function and a unique character. What unites them are their diverse, rich palettes and their ability to hold their own, acting as a foil to an equally rich architectural palette.
 
The Entry Garden
In contrast to the neighboring residences, this project is unique in its embrace of the public way. There are no fences or gates mediating one’s approach to the house. The entry garden reaches out to the parkway, featuring Boulevard lindens underplanted with perennials and wild grasses - a riot of color and wildness more typically found in a private setting. It creates a visual juxtaposition with the modern materials of the house and provides a sensory experience for all who pass by. 
 
While there is an air of openness at the parkway, the front entry was designed in a manner reminiscent of Frank Lloyd Wright. The entry is privately tucked away behind a raised garden planted with Royal Frost birches, rhododendron, and dwarf Japanese maples. A yew hedge to the south serves as a background for the Entry Garden and screens the parking lot and school to the south. Hydrangea climbs the building wall and Boston ivy covers the entry bench.
 
The Garden Walk
Along the southern edge of the house, positioned between a clean wall of glass and ipe and a 6 foot concrete wall, the Garden Walk links the very public parkway and the private West Garden. What is normally a secondary space used for transition is treated as a contemplative space with a distinctive character of its own. Large, rough, granite stones are embedded in pea gravel and interplanted with wild ginger, geranium, astilbe, epimedium, ferns, and brunnera. Trumpet vine and hydrangea climb the concrete wall, elegantly contrasting with the brutalist surface. Just south of the concrete wall, Triumph elm trees are planted in the school parking lot to create shade to the south face of the building and to mitigate solar gain in the summer. This area is bright and almost like a walking meditation garden, with the sounds of the city and the rustling of the Elms providing the sound track.
 
The West Garden
A Yin and Yang of walls at the edges of the property – a board formed concrete wall to the south and an ipe board fence to the west and north - allow much of the first floor to be enclosed in glass. It is as if the exterior walls of the house were moved to the property limits, and the outside space is an extension of the inside. This idea is reinforced by sliding doors and a continuous bluestone ground plane. At the same time, the walls provide a peaceful limit for the eye.
 
Nested within the walls, the West Garden features a bluestone surface for dining and entertaining. The garden is richly textured and layered with katsura, fernleaf beech, Japanese stewartia, mugo pine, quince, tiger eye sumac, perennials and ornamental grasses. The coarseness of the foliage contrasts with the orderly joint lines of the bluestone, and the crisp horizontal lines of the ipe walls. A low concrete seat wall is integrated into the West Garden as a sculptural and interactive element to engage the children. They use it as a balance beam, a store counter, a reading nook, and a hiding place. Because the garden requires no chemicals to maintain it, the children are limited only by their imagination.
 
The Roof Garden
A vegetable garden and green roof are accessible from the second floor and visible from the street, again blurring the bounds of public and private, city and verdant, urban and rural. The path leading from the door to the vegetable planters is made of stepping stones embedded in gravel and interplanted with sedum and thyme, grounding this elevated space. This feeling is reinforced by the view of the intensive green roof planted with indian grass, little bluestem, side oats gramma, agastache, pale coneflower, and Summer Beauty allium, evoking native prairies endemic to the area. This rooftop oasis softens the modern façade of the building while mitigating the heat island effect, adding insulation to the space below, reducing roof runoff and attracting wildlife.
 
Each area - The Entry Garden, The Garden Walk, The West Garden, and The Rooftop Garden - has its own purpose and character. Yet they share a common purpose of providing a diverse, lively frame through which the family experiences their modern home. The family actively engages in the care of the gardens, enjoying the sensory experience it provides, the birds and butterflies the gardens attract, and the privacy it affords them - right in the heart of the city they love.
 
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住宅建筑入口巧妙地隐匿于种植着桦树、杜鹃花和日式矮枫的植栽区后面。紫杉树篱形成入口庭园的天然背景幕,将南面的停车场和学校公共设施遮挡于视觉之外,适当地维护了住宅的私密性
The entry is privately tucked away behind a garden planted with Royal Frost birches, rhododendron, and dwarf Japanese maples. A yew hedge serves as a background for the Entry Garden and screens the school parking lot to the south.
Image by: Linda Oyama Bryan
 
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左图:植栽绿化景观与铜质、重蚁木和混凝土等材料混合建造的住宅建筑和谐相融。迥然不同的空间设计元素及材料元素协调地融于一体,同时每一个元素的自身内在价值在融合的补互中得以有效提升
An urban home of copper, ipe and concrete knit into a lush landscape. Disparate spatial and material elements are harmonized while the inherent qualities of each element are amplified through juxtaposition.
右图:木板支撑起的混凝土围墙上优雅地攀附着凌霄花藤,呈横向生长的藤叶映衬出墙体的横条纹路
Trumpet vines climb the board formed concrete wall, their horizontal foliage mirroring the wall’s crease lines.
Image by: Linda Oyama Bryan
 
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住宅入口挑高式车行道两侧种植的宿根花卉和装饰草种等地被植物,与宅内私人植栽区中种植着的各类野生植物形成自然的绿化延续,进而造就了色彩缤纷的绵长野生植物地带,与时尚的住宅建筑材料形成柔和、统一的视觉整体
The raised parkway planters feature Boulevard lindens underplanted with perennials and ornamental grasses, a riot of color and wildness more typically found in a private setting, contrasting with the clean materials of the house.
Image by: Linda Oyama Bryan
 
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总平面图    Site Plan
Image by: Linda Oyama Bryan
 
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木板支撑起的混凝土庭园围墙,加之住宅底层采光良好的玻璃外墙,这样的内外墙体搭衬设计,形成室内空间向户外景观区的自然延伸,滑动门和青石地面铺砖的延续性应用更增强了内外一体的视觉效果
A board formed concrete wall allows much of the first floor to be enclosed in glass. Outside space is seemingly inside, an idea reinforced by sliding doors and a continuous bluestone ground plane.
Image by: Linda Oyama Bryan
 
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左图:花园步道沿住宅南面边缘铺砌,步道内侧是视觉清晰的玻璃与重蚁木组合式住宅外墙,外侧则是混凝土质户外花园围墙,这条充满着冥想氛围的步道连接着共公林荫道与宅内的西面庭园
Along the southern edge of the house, positioned between a clean wall of glass and ipe and a concrete wall, the contemplative Garden Walk links the public entry and the private West Garden.
中图:花园步道路面由大块花岗岩与小卵石混合铺砌而成,其间点缀着天竺葵、细辛、淫羊藿以及各类蕨类植物
Large stones are embedded in pea gravel and interplanted with geranium, wild ginger, epimedium and ferns.
右图:西南后园视角中的住宅景观,呈现出层次分明的绿化空间:底层是较为私密的西面绿化庭园,上方是植栽丰富的屋顶花园,这两处绿化空间都沐浴在南面充足的自然光照中
A view from the back of the property reveals a layered approach to green space: the West Garden held privately below, and the Roof Garden above, bathed in the long southern exposure.
Image by: Linda Oyama Bryan
 
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西面庭园中植栽丰富,分别种植着白夹竹、鹿角漆树、宿根花卉和装饰性草种。植栽的错落混搭与纵横有序的青石地面和色彩鲜亮的条状重蚁木墙体形成鲜明的视觉对比
The West Garden is richly textured, featuring Bissetii bamboo, Tiger Eye sumac, perennials and ornamental grasses. The coarseness of the foliage contrasts with the orderly joint lines of the bluestone, and the crisp horizontal lines of the ipe walls.
Image by: Linda Oyama Bryan
 
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西面庭园的空间布局适合举办大型的家庭娱乐活动,同时也为家庭聚会营造出亲切、温馨的空间氛围
The West Garden has been designed to accommodate the entertainment of large groups while maintaining a sense of intimacy appropriate for a gathering of the immediate family.
Image by: Linda Oyama Bryan
 
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西面庭园中的混凝土坐椅矮墙成为孩子们的玩耍设施。他们把它当作健身平衡木、过家家游戏中的商店柜台,以及捉迷藏游戏的躲藏地。园中无需任何化学质剂维护,不存在潜在的毒素威胁,孩子们可以在这里充分发挥想象力,无拘无束地玩耍
A low concrete wall was integrated into the West Garden. The children use it as a balance beam, a store counter, or a hiding place. Because no chemicals are needed for maintenance, they are limited only by their imagination.
Image by: Linda Oyama Bryan
 
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屋顶花园弱化了住宅建筑的现代外观,同时也减缓了热岛效应,为底层空间有效隔热,并减少屋顶雨水径流。蔬菜种植槽为家长们提供了理想的教学场所,他们可以在这里教授孩子们蔬菜生长的相关常识,培养孩子们的乡土艺术认知
The roof garden softens the modern façade of the building while mitigating the heat island effect, insulating the space below, and reducing roof runoff. Vegetable planters enable the family to teach their children the rural art of vegetable growing.
Image by: Linda Oyama Bryan
 
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谷歌图片搜索中呈现的住宅周边环境鸟瞰图:人口密集的城市居住区一目了然,项目场地围裹于林立的住宅楼中,正南面是一所小学及其停车场设施
Google Image for context, depicting the dense, urban location of the home. The site is surrounded by towering residences. An elementary school and parking lot are located directly to the south.
Image by: Linda Oyama Bryan
 
 
项目信息:
设计与施工团队
首席设计师:米歇尔·麦凯,美国景观设计师协会会员
建筑设计:惠勒·卡恩斯建筑设计事务所
总承包商:Norcon , Inc.
景观承包商:Mariani Landscapes
绿色屋顶承包商:Intrinsic Landscaping, Inc.
树艺设计:Nels J. Johnson Tree Experts, Inc.
石工承包商:Lake Forest Masonry, Inc.
灌溉承包商:Advanced Irrigation, Inc.
特色材料
鸟眼小卵石与汀步铺石:Lurvey Landscape Supply
冰川蓝泥盆砂岩青石:Devonian Stone of New York
蒙特哥式景观家具:Room and Board
抛光坐椅:Knoll
照明材料:Teka Illumination and B-K Lighting
走廊金属蔬菜种植槽:Plantcontainers.com
 
Project Resources: 
Design & Construction Team
Lead Designer: Michele McKay, ASLA
Architect: Wheeler Kearns Architects
General Contractor: Norcon , Inc.
Landscape Contractor: Mariani Landscapes
Green Roof Contractor: Intrinsic Landscaping, Inc.
Arborist: Nels J. Johnson Tree Experts, Inc.
Masonry Contractor: Lake Forest Masonry, Inc.
Irrigation Contractor: Advanced Irrigation, Inc.
Featured Products
Birdseye Pea Gravel & Stepping Stones: Lurvey Landscape Supply
Glacier Blue Devonian Sandstone Bluestone: Devonian Stone of New York
Montego Collection Furniture: Room and Board
Spark Chair: Knoll
Lighting: Teka Illumination and B-K Lighting
Gallery metal vegetable planter boxes: Plantcontainers.com
 
 
Via ASLA  90degree编译,本文未经许可,不得转载。

 

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