葡萄园度假住宅庭园
Vineyard Retreat
2014-11-17 14:26:29    | keywords: 葡萄园  庭园  住宅  度假  景观 
葡萄园度假住宅庭园
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“当这一住宅庭园映入眼帘,不禁令人在脑海中立刻浮现出‘阳光明媚的午后,悠闲地坐在园中,品一杯冰爽白葡萄酒’的那份惬意。项目设计将当地的风土元素融于庭园之中,使葡萄园原有景致得以自然升华。设计师们十分注重风向掌控、节约用水、透水铺装以及适当草甸植物应用等方面的细节设计,最终呈现出科学与艺术完美结合的恬静住宅景观。”——2014ASLA专业奖评语
“This garden immediately brings to mind sunny afternoons over a glass of chilled white wine. It evokes a sense of terroir in the landscape, so appropriate given its vineyards beyond. The attention to siting for winds, reducing water use, pervious paving, and appropriate meadow plants came together to create the ultimate synthesis of science and art.”
- 2014 Awards Jury
 
 
项目概述
 
这处乡村住宅地块经过精心而科学的景观设计,面貌焕然一新,自由、开放的绿化形式使其与周边极具特色的乡间自然风光形成和谐统一的景观整体。依偎于葡萄园中的这处住宅庭园,原先的设计显得杂乱无章,只是惯例性地种植着一些多年生植物,景观材料的搭配稍显突兀而不雅观,地面铺装材料也不具备透水性。而如今,经过精心改造设计后的全新住宅庭园,呈现出优雅、现代的景观环境。通过大量细长草种和各色景观植栽的种植,庭园中悄然地更替着季节的色彩,加之相应策略性循环措施的应用,葡萄园与周边连绵的山丘融于一体,形成自然、静谧的乡间住宅景致。
 
项目描述
 
场地及环境调研
项目场地位于美国加利福尼亚州北部中心葡萄酒之乡的一片葡萄园内,占地1英亩(约0.4公顷),建筑主体是一独幢住宅及其附属小型家庭旅馆。该项目就是针对这一住宅的户外庭园进行景观改造,并对住宅及旅馆进行适当修缮。庭园以草坪和黄杨树林为主要植栽,属于密集灌溉空间,然而,包括网球场、高尔夫球拨球场以及集料外露水泥路面在内的大部分户外空间,原先的地面铺装都不具备透水性。大量树篱的构筑阻碍了庭园内外的景观连接。整个项目场地被近乎泛滥的棚屋、围栏、乔木和高大的树篱围裹着,严重妨碍了人们对周边自然景致的观赏视角,视野狭小而局促。
 
夏日里的住宅庭园更是燥热无比。经过反复的实地考察,景观设计师发现夏日午后盛行西风,来自西面山丘的徐徐微风迎面拂过,因而适合在住宅庭园的西面建造一座户外凉亭,便于夏日午后纳凉。此外,除原有长势繁茂的若干橄榄树得以保留,其余所有原先户外设计全部进行彻底改造。住宅主人要求营造一处宁静而富现代感的庭园景观,并与住宅建筑主体和周边自然景观形成和谐统一的整体。
 
设计方案及目标
1.项目设计的主要目的在于营造一处宁静而富现代感的住宅庭园景观环境,庭园空间需在布局齐整的基础上增添一定的视觉趣味感,并通过树丛、林荫小径、树篱的合理设计,与园中主要道路形成有效连接,将整个庭园科学划分成若干区块。在各庭园区块中都种植上大面积的地被绿植,以扩大其空间视野,为到此旅游的住客们创造出广阔的观景视角,赋予开放、自由的视觉体验。项目规划方案力求鼓励人们通过漫步全园以欣赏更多美景。色彩搭配与空间布局相互融合,和谐而充满特有的乡间淡雅气息。传统的浅色调石灰水池中映衬出天空的颜色,为庭园平添了一抹宁谧的幽蓝。沙滨草的种植更加衬托出景观空间的整体色彩与协调格局。
 
2.运用适当设计将葡萄酒之乡的本土特色融入庭园景观中,并在园中各个不同方位创建相应的观景视角,以便游客们更为直观地欣赏周边葡萄园的美景。此外,设计师们还保留和拓宽了原先可眺望远处山丘自然风光的理想视角,让游客们对当地的乡土文化有更为深入的了解。棚屋、围栏和亲水树种的有效移除,以及园中全新步道与林荫小径的合理布局,也大大增强了庭园的远景观赏视角。户外凉亭屋顶的特色轮廓线与远处山谷的山脊线相互映衬,形成和谐统一的视觉整体。
 
呈三长排种植的葡萄树勾勒出住宅庭园的东部边缘,站立于此,可瞥见入口迎宾步道。户外凉亭的建造为欣赏成片的仙粉黛葡萄和赤霞珠葡萄提供了理想的观景视角。郁郁葱葱的草坪地块让人联想到农田景致,草儿随风摇摆着,展示着季节的更替。每当秋色降临这处山谷地带,毗邻的葡萄园在树林和草坪的映衬中,更显本土特色风情。
 
3.庭园设计需要和住宅主体建筑形成高度融合。同时,随着全新景观设计元素的加入,住宅及其及旅馆建筑也进行了大规模的整修,以简化建筑外观的色彩与抛光,去除多余的装饰,增强自然采光,与户外景观空间形成更好的连接。
 
在该项目的设计与施工过程中,项目客户(即住宅主人)与景观设计师和建筑师之间保持着紧密合作,最终呈现出和谐统一且充满美感的景观空间。设计团队的通力协作,确保了室内与户外空间的无缝视觉连接和自然过渡。依据住宅主人的色彩偏好,建筑外墙色彩以内敛、低调的银灰色、烟灰色和紫水晶色为主,并配以暖灰色的本土石灰石地面铺装,加之观赏性草种四季更替的色彩和经过翻修后的湛蓝色水池,整个庭园空间的色彩布局低调而不失优雅。
 
庭园中的主要道路布局以住宅主体建筑为中心线向外延展。宽大醒目的中央步道分别向南北延伸至住宅大厅处。此外,景观设计师与建筑师共同协手为住宅主体设计建造了全新的悬臂式草地花园遮阳藤架,这样便无需额外种植植物用以遮阳。同时,户外凉亭的设计与施工选址也是整个设计团队通力合作的成果,为住宅庭园营造出一处简约、凉爽的户外休憩空间。
 
环境营造
地面铺装:原先不透水的地面铺装中,近70%得以移除和改造。如今的户外庭园地表以透水砾石路面和低维护的耐旱植栽区为主。
 
水源应用:节约水源是该项目设计的一个驱动性因素。经过合理、科学的改造,在总体植栽区面积扩增22%的情况下,整个庭园的灌溉水使用量却比原先减少了25%。其中,原有草皮式草坪的移除以及观赏性草种和地中海植物的大量种植,是灌溉水量明显减少主要原因。
 
雨水治理:全新的雨水管理系统设计,通过将雨水径流导入渗透性地面铺装区,以取代原先的管道排水系统,有效提高了雨水的蓄存量。该项目场地属于平坦地形,排水存在客观困难,但经过景观设计师的巧妙设计与当地石匠的精心施工,为项目场地创造出自然、美观的层阶地形,将雨水从地面铺装区引入到指定的各阶式分流区中。
 
景观植栽:景观设计师在对庭园草种植栽进行选择时,专门咨询了一位国家级的草种专家,进而精选出适宜当地气候、土质,且耐旱性强的九种观赏性草种进行植栽,并与大面积的细长草种形成交错式绿化景观。也许是由于观赏性草种和树林绿化面积的大幅增长,引来了大量鸣禽,整个住宅庭园沉浸于一片鸟语花香之中。
 
光照控制:草地花园藤架的建造有效改善了主体住宅夏日的燥热状态,落叶树的大量种植更是为整个项目场地营造出荫蔽、凉爽的户外景观环境。景观设计师新建的户外凉亭为庭园空间提供了一处欣赏落日的理想纳凉场所。
 
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室内与户外景致的自然过渡成为庭园景观规划的重点之一。在主体住宅户外空间中,景观设计师建议拓宽户外露台,增设涂漆钢质草地花园藤架,以改善遮荫环境
Easy transitions from indoors to outdoors were a priority in the plan. At the main home, the landscape architect recommended widening the deck and adding painted steel arbors to improve protection from the sun.
Image by: Matthew Millman Photography

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住宅前庭中,成片的格兰马草地取代了原先耗水量较大的草皮式草坪
At the front approach, a meadow of Bouteloua gracilis “Blonde Ambition” replaced a water-intensive turf lawn.
Image by: Matthew Millman Photography

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若干简约、雅致的密集植栽景观区块将住宅主体围裹其中。每当秋天降临如此宁谧的环境,整个葡萄园都沉浸于一片金色的海洋中
The house is set within a framework of simple blocks of massed plantings. In the background, the autumn hues of the property’s vineyard rows echo the surrounding landscape.
Image by: Matthew Millman Photography
 
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左图:总平面图  Site Plan.
右图:前院围栏、入口步道和迎宾草地共同组成简洁、自然的住宅入口景观,成为葡萄园中的一抹亮色
The simplicity of the front fence, pathway and meadow lets the surrounding vineyards dominate the view.
Image by: Matthew Millman Photography
 
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左图:植栽与硬景材料的淡雅色调与周边山丘的自然色彩相互映衬
The colorations of plantings and hardscape materials were selected to mesh with the surrounding hills and terrain.
右图:新建的户外凉亭是住宅庭园中地势最高的构筑物,这样的地势条件能够提供更为理想的夏夜纳凉条件。凉亭的屋顶轮廓线与远处山谷的山脊线相互映衬,形成和谐统一的视觉整体
A pavilion was strategically placed on the highest part of the property in order to pick up evening breezes. The roofline was carefully adjusted to preserve views of the ridgeline.
Image by: Matthew Millman Photography
 
 
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秋天里,环绕户外凉亭栽植的鸡爪枫灌木丛呈现出一派金灿灿的景象
A bosque of Acer palmatum "Hogyoku" frames the pavilion and provides autumn color.
Image by: Matthew Millman Photography
 
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左图:户外凉亭毗邻庭园空间的西面边缘,近处的藤蔓、树林和远处的山丘都尽收眼底,形成层次分明的美丽景致。凉亭外低矮的围栏设置为观赏藤蔓植栽提供了良好的视角
The pavilion is placed near the property’s edge to maximize views of the layers of surrounding vines, forest and distant hills. The fence is kept low to promote the immediacy of the vines.
右图:庭园中,秋酸沼草、羊茅、狼尾草、疏花针茅、柳枝稷等各式草种层次分明、错落有致,放眼望去,草木丛生,生机盎然
Massed grasses including Sesleria autumnalis, Festuca mairei, Pennisetum "Red Bunny Tails", P. "Fairy Tails" and Panicum virgatum "Heavy Metal" complement the layered, forested ridgelines.
Image by: Matthew Millman Photography
 
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左图:宽敞的露台与荫蔽的藤架共同营造出惬意的户外休闲空间
The wide deck and arbor keep the deck shaded for outdoor entertaining.
右图:本土石灰石地面铺装与园中各景观元素的精心搭衬,为炎炎酷暑带来丝丝凉意。定制灰泥砌筑而成的温泉水池在蓝色池沿瓷砖的点缀中,更显清幽、闲适
Domestic limestone paving, carefully integrated with site elements, was selected as it stays cool underfoot in the intense summer heat. The custom plaster color and waterline tile in the spa create an azure blue accent.
Image by: Matthew Millman Photography

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合理、科学的场地布局以中央步道为中轴钱,将前院入口步道、住宅前庭、水池以及后园橄榄树林有序地连于一体
The site design establishes a strong central axis, which joins the front entrance walkway, the home’s main foyer, the pool and grove of olive trees at rear of property.
Image by: Matthew Millman Photography
 
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改造前的旅馆附属建筑门前景观区,设计显得杂乱无章,地表以不透水的集料外露水泥路面铺装为主
Existing conditions before construction: The garden, seen here by the guesthouse, was a mixed jumble of elements with extensive use of exposed aggregate concrete paving.
Image by: Matthew Millman Photography
 
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改造前的住宅庭园西面绿化区:以人工草皮为主要地被绿化材料,在周边树篱的遮挡中,远处的山景模糊不清
Existing conditions before construction: A synthetic turf putting green dominated the west side of the garden. Views of the valley and hills were obscured.
Image by: Matthew Millman Photography
 
 
Project Statement
 
This country residence experienced a dramatic shift in character, a liberating change that harmonized the property with its distinctive surrounding landscape. Nestled among vineyards, the previous design was a cluttered traditional perennial garden, with mismatched materials and impervious surfaces. Now, the tailored garden projects a contemporary and refined tone. Its connection to the adjacent agrarian environment is reinforced through swaths of grasses, seasonal color and strategic circulation that offer views of vines and rolling hills.
 
Project Narrative
 
Site and Context Investigation
The project involved the creation of a one-acre garden in conjunction with the renovation of a single-family residence and guesthouse in the heart of the Northern California wine country. Vineyards surround the site. Impervious surfaces, including a tennis court, putting green and exposed-aggregate paving covered a majority of the site. The garden was irrigation-intensive, primarily turf grass and boxwood. Numerous hedges prevented easy circulation around the site. Views were blocked from all parts of the property with sheds, fencing, arbors and tall hedges.
 
Summer heat is intense at the site. Through repeated site visits, the landscape architect discovered the prevalence of afternoon breezes coming off the western hills. This site factor influenced the creation and location of an outdoor pavilion. The previous exterior design was entirely replaced, with the exception of existing mature olive trees. The client required a garden that would be restful and modern, with a strong relationship to the architecture and the surrounding landscape.
 
Design Program and Intent
1. The design was intended to create a serene and contemporary environment. The garden needed to have visual interest but remain uncluttered. Tree bosques, allees and hedges, combined with clear axial circulation, divide the garden space into large blocks. Massed plantings within these sections create a sense of scale that visually enlarges the space. Visitors are aware of the expansiveness of the site, but the layout insures that not all of the garden can be seen at once. The plan encourages visitors to discover more by walking out into the property. Colors and textures are harmonious, not clashing. The color palette is subdued and avoids bright colors. The custom plaster tint of the pool creates a restful deep blue azure color. Accents include plant color and texture such as Blue Lyme Grass. 
 
2. The design needed to incorporate the wine country characteristics into the garden. Views to the immediate surrounding vineyards were developed in all directions. Also, farther views to the hillsides were preserved and opened up, so that visitors are constantly aware of the significance of place. Vistas were enhanced by removing sheds, fencing and water-loving trees; and by the positioning of new paths and tree bosques. The roofline of the pavilion was field-adjusted to harmonize with the valley’s ridgeline in the distance.
 
Three long rows of vines outline the eastern edge of the garden and are glimpsed at arrival. The outdoor pavilion frames a vista of acres of Zinfandel and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. The blocks of grasses are reminiscent of agrarian fields, moving in the wind and showing seasonal variations. When fall comes to the valley, the color of the adjacent vineyards is echoed in the trees and grasses on site.
 
3. The design required a strong integration with the architecture. Concurrent with the new landscape design, the main house and guesthouse underwent extensive renovations to simplify colors and finishes, remove excess ornamentation, increase natural light and provide better access to the outdoors.
 
The strong partnership between the client, landscape architect and architect resulted in a unified aesthetic. The team collaborated to insure a seamless visual and physical transition from the interior to the exterior. The clients’ restrained color palette of silver, smoky gray and amethyst accents inspired the paving selection of a warm gray domestic limestone, the seasonal colors of the ornamental grasses and the deep azure hue of the renovated pool.
 
The garden plan’s main paths were based on the architectural centerlines. For instance, the property’s strong central axis extends north-south from the home’s main foyer. The landscape architect and architect worked together on the design of new solar shading at the main house, resulting in clean-lined cantilevered arbors that did not require plants for shading. The team also collaborated on the design and siting of the outdoor pavilion, producing a simple, airy structure that sits unobtrusively in the garden.
 
Environmental Aspects
Surfaces: The site’s impervious surfaces were reduced by almost 70%. Permeable gravel paths and low-maintenance, drought-tolerant plantings now cover most of the outdoor area.
 
Water: Reducing water use was a driving factor in the design. The water used by irrigation decreased by 25%, despite the total planted area increasing in size by 22%. Irrigation use was reduced with the elimination of the previous turf lawns and the use of ornamental grasses and Mediterranean plants.
 
Storm water: The new design increased the amount of storm water retained on site by directing run off to infiltration areas instead of to a piped drainage system. The flat site was a challenge to drain properly, but careful grading by the landscape architect, assisted in the field with the stonemason, conducted storm water from paving to designated dispersal areas.
 
Plantings: The landscape architect consulted with a nationally recognized meadow specialist when selecting grasses most compatible with the climate, soil, drought tolerance goals and aesthetic direction. Nine different grass species were used in the meadow and interwoven in large swaths. The site’s songbird population has noticeably increased, likely due to the attraction of ornamental grass seeds and increased tree cover.
 
Solar control: Summer conditions were improved by the addition of an arbor at the main residence and the use of deciduous trees to provide shade at the site’s structures. The landscape architect sited the new pavilion to take advantage of late-afternoon cooling breezes.
 
 
项目信息:
设计与施工团队
附加项目信息:斯科特·路易斯景观设计团队:斯科特·R·路易斯,项目总负责人;赖安·斯蒂尔,项目经理
建筑设计:安德鲁·曼建筑设计事务所
景观承包商:布莱克利园林绿化服务有限公司
灯光设计:安娜·肯多尔夫照明设计
总承包商:Thollander Construction
石匠工艺:Berlin Masonry
草甸顾问:Greenlee & Associates
特色材料
橄榄树供应商:Swan Hill Nurseries, LLC
植栽材料:Devil Mountain Nursery and San Marcos Growers
石材铺砖:Halquist石材供应公司
碎石铺装:Wheeler-Zamaroni
水池瓷砖:麦金太尔瓷砖
栅栏与铁闸:Straight Line Fence
户外家具:卡拉·曼设计
 
Project Resources:
Design & Construction Team
Additional Project Credits: Scott Lewis Landscape Architecture Design Team: Scott R. Lewis, Principal; Ryan Steer, Project Manager
Architect: Andrew Mann Architecture
Landscape Contractor: Blakeley Landscaping Services, Inc.
Lighting Design: Anna Kondolf Lighting Design
General Contractor: Thollander Construction
Stonemason: Berlin Masonry
Meadow Consultant: Greenlee & Associates
Featured Products
Olive Trees: Swan Hill Nurseries, LLC
Plant Material: Devil Mountain Nursery and San Marcos Growers
Stone Paving and Veneer: Halquist Stone Company
Gravel Paving: Wheeler-Zamaroni
Pool Tile: McIntyre Tile
Fences and Gates: Straight Line Fence
Outdoor Furniture: Kara Mann Design
 

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