创意廊道:小岩城主干道的复兴
The Creative Corridor: A Main Street Revitalization for Little Rock
2014-12-03 16:14:38    | keywords: ASLA  2014  街道  改造  创意  景观  规划  分析 
创意廊道:小岩城主干道的复兴
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By University of Arkansas Community Design Center and Marlon Blackwell Architect

 
“主干道的设计对于二十一世纪的城市街区而言是个巨大的挑战,需要营造灵活而美观的可持续公共空间。此项目突显了精心的设计在场所营造方面所做的贡献,采用简洁优雅的公共空间设计,摒弃过分的修饰和扩张。注重入口、节点和集会空间的设计,这也正是城市设计需要表达的。”—2014ASLA分析与规划专业奖评语
 
"Main street design is a grand challenge of the 21st century as urban neighborhoods seek to create sustainable, resilient, and beautiful public spaces. This project highlights what careful design can contribute to the making of place, not a lot of jewels or distractions, but simple, clear, and elegant design of public space. The emphasis on thresholds, nodes, and shared spaces is exactly what urban design needs to engage"- 2014 Awards Jury

 
项目概述
 
创意廊道翻新了一条濒危的历史市区主干道的一部分,囊括了四个街区,整合了文化艺术品而非传统零售店铺。创意廊道的目标建立在以艺术品为中心的商住两用环境里。设计采用都市主义的街景元素将廊道重组为节点,比如景观设计、生态工程、公共空间肌理构造、建筑空地系统以及其他城市景观元素。
 
项目描述
 
从商业到文化和住宅使用的目标
遍布大都会区域的各个文化组织的整合,催生了曾经被遗忘的主干道的改造,提出了异于传统零售店铺的土地混合使用策略。这一公民规划为美国阿肯色州小岩城提供了前所未有的经济适用市区住宅,融合了住宅、办公和文化等元素。后者囊括了交响乐、芭蕾、艺术中心、视觉艺术、剧院、舞池等排练与生产空间,还包括一个三角厨艺经济——餐厅、公共展览、教育。为了确保不同发展阶段定位的连续性,设计的解决方案依靠都市主义的街景元素——景观设计、生态工程、公共空间肌理构造、建筑空地系统以及其他城市景观元素。
 
完整的街道
项目强调路权范围内的非交通社会功能,以此在混合使用的居住环境里支撑新型的文化艺术中心化。完整的街道能够安全地容纳各种使用者,比如行人、自行车骑行者、摩托车骑行者以及各个年龄段和不同行为能力的公交使用者,这是成功营造混合使用环境所必须的构成元素。规划分阶段引入异于先前城市大众工作的各个公共空间,比如低影响发展(LID)暴雨雨水处理网络、共有街道肌理构造、自行车林荫大道、配有演艺设施的轨道换乘广场。共有街道肌理构造连同全新的城市景观系统衔接了公共和私人空间,进而框出能够支撑创意经济并提供人行道功能的全新层次。
 
低影响发展(LID)街景
街景设计体现了生态服务以及社会城市服务。建立在美国环境保护署的绿化美国都市研究成果之上,延伸出LID处理网络提案——以生态为基础的暴雨雨水径流处理。树木成排的漫步道和共有街道景观相融合,形成十七个可识别生态系统服务的绝大部分——大气法规、干扰(洪水)法规、水规、沉积物控制、营养循环、废弃物处理、授粉、生境等。漫步道像是巨大的过滤树箱,栽满本土节水园艺植物的过滤系统十分抢眼,这儿囊括了户外用餐和聚会空间。街道变成生态资产,在径流通过雨水沟渠流向附近阿肯色河之前就代谢了水污染物。
 
环境/社会数据和分析方法
小岩城的城市复兴策略在一片废弃的肌理里成为自给自足的节点。20世纪50年代早期,城市里洋溢着确保联邦城市复兴资金的狂热,其所带来的影响使主干道渐趋没落。中央小岩城城市复兴项目最终成为城市住区清理的国家典范——580英亩的市中心推倒重建,囊括了471栋商业建筑(在一座拥有193 000栋建筑物的城市里涵盖了超过1 600栋的建筑物),人口密度从每英亩18人降到20世纪70年代的5人。在一些市中心的住区里,人口下降了75%。生态工程师采用水流软件模拟支撑街道绿化的暴雨雨水措施,设计的配套设施能够抵御两年一遇的自然事件。这些配套设施种满了耐旱植物,这些草木能够深深扎根,既能抵御水体的滞留又能抗旱。
 
设计的角色和选项的考虑
从附近中央商务区延伸来的大企业发展是普遍的现象。项目展现了远超过历史规范和街道美容的翻新案例,同时又与那些破坏历史主干道结构的企业产权业主一起合作,合理地再利用,十分经济可行。区域根深蒂固的产权文化迫使遗产保护规范变得不可执行。相反地,灵活的城市景观平台调节了相互对立的建筑传统——新与旧之间、砖石与玻璃之间、大与小之间,通过小路、拱廊、城市走廊、剧院的开发来重新营造主干道的场所感。
 
公众参与和项目实施
项目规划的资金来自美国环境保护署和国家能源署的拨款,促进六年一个时期的公私合作以及三十多个组织之间的合作。城市主干道专案小组和产权业主连同区域主要的文化艺术组织共同参与设计工作室,后者同意迁入主干道。超过1.6亿美元的建筑合同或者翻新合同正在私人领域达成(超过200个住宅单元),包括文化组织的地面承租空间。
 
项目管理
市长办公室在市规划员工和顾问的协助下着手执行此方案。公共领域的改善涵盖了LID景观的落地,这将得到美国环境保护署和阿肯色自然资源委员会的资助。地铁规划(中央阿肯色区域交通署)将与创意廊道相关的轨道换乘设施的改善纳入日程。
 
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道路能够高效地将交通从一点导向另一点,而街道却不一样,它是捕捉价值的平台。设计良好的街道能够提供非交通的社会功能,比如聚会、集会、娱乐、生态、美学
Unlike roads, which efficiently move traffic from one point to another, streets are platforms for capturing value. A well-designed street provides non-traffic social functions related to gathering, assembly, recreation, ecology, and aesthetics.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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总平面图:创意廊道的节点营造分为三个阶段
节点为社交生活提供中心感,与廊道的移动属性形成对比。依据政治意志许可,每个阶段依次完成
Site Plan: The Creative Corridor employs three phases to create a node.
Nodes provide a sense of centrality and opportunity for social life, countering the dominance of mobility in corridors. Each phase can be accomplished in succession or all at once as political will permits.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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建筑指导方针在政治方面不可执行。诸如拱廊、大帐篷、暴雨雨水处理景观之类的城市景观元素衔接了街道和建筑室内
城市景观在建筑传统元素之间起协调作用,比如历史和现代之间,并非依赖以历史为灵感的指导方针
Architectural guidelines aren’t politically feasible. Townscaping elements like arcades, marquees, and stormwater management landscapes bridge street and building interiors.
Townscaping negotiates conflicting building traditions—historic and contemporary—rather than rely on historically-inspired guidelines.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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首先做的是营造入口
采用步行工作台建造两个城市空间。这些共有街道策略以步行环境支撑非交通功能为优先,比如户外用餐区和剧场聚会区
The first thing we do is create gateways.
Establish two urban rooms using pedestrian tables. These kinds of shared street strategies privilege a pedestrian environment supportive of non-traffic functions like outdoor dining and theater gathering.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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带有街具、建筑路面铺装和景观的城市空间仿佛一座城市口袋公园,里面的植物修剪整齐,同时充满乡野气息
工作台采用模块式悬挂路面铺装系统,可以支持过滤和树木的生长
Urban rooms with street furniture, architectural pavement, and landscapes are made of rustic and manicured plant palettes akin to an urban pocket park.
Tables are made from a modular suspended pavement system to support infiltration and tree growth.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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入口空间与原有的廊道截然不同,具有支持非交通的社会功能
Gateway rooms sponsor non-traffic social functions unlikely in the existing corridor.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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设计师采用回收的街道照明设施制作成公共艺术,形成入口标识
灯光园的材料来自小岩城住区原有的街道灯具,它们共同描绘了一幅城市历史图景,否则这些都将被人忽略
We recycled street lighting and made it public art that marks entry.
Light gardens consisting of street lights recycled from Little Rock neighborhoods portray an urban history otherwise left unnoticed.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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其次,设计师标记出此区最重要的路口
将国会大街和主干道的交叉口转变为广场,它同时还是西边国会综合体的入口
Second, we mark the most important intersection in the state.
Turn the intersection of Capitol Avenue and Main Street into a plaza that also serves as a gateway to the state capitol complex to the west.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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国会大街广场庆祝了这一重要的十字路口
这一节点囊括了被抬升的草坪剧场、公共换乘站、出入庭院的通道、灯光园、公共艺术,进而营造了具有标志性和可追忆的集会空间
The Capitol Avenue Plaza celebrates this important crossroads.
This node houses an elevated lawn/amphitheater, public transit stop, porte cochere, light garden, and public art, to create an iconic and memorable room for assembly.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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街道的能量通过建筑释放出来
广场空间成为新旧结构和大小尺度之间的过渡
The energy of the street is pulled up through the architecture.
The plaza as a room mediates between new and old structures, as well as big and small scales.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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第三,我们采用步道扩充了西边的范围
漫步道将一期和二期相连接,具有低影响发展(LID)基础设施的功能,突显以生态为基础的暴雨雨水处理的特色
Third, we thicken the western edge using a pedestrian allee.
Link phases one and two with a Pedestrian Promenade that functions as a Low Impact Development (LID) infrastructure featuring ecologically-based stormwater management.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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美国环境保护署出资落实这一规划
LID形成健康的生态系统里十七个可识别生态系统服务的绝大部分——大气法规、干扰(洪水)法规、侵蚀控制和沉积物滞留、营养循环、废弃物处理、授粉、生境等
The US EPA gave us money to do this!
LID delivers many of the 17 recognized ecological services found in healthy ecosystems—atmospheric regulation, disturbance (flooding) regulation, erosion control and sediment retention, nutrient cycling, recreation, pollination, habitat, etc.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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LID处理的景观成为室内空间的延伸
漫步道是极富创造力的水处理景观,具有文化和居住的功能,支持公众活动和聚会
The LID treatment landscape is designed as an extension of the indoor spaces.
The Pedestrian Promenade is a highly-productive water management landscape that accommodates public activities and gatherings in support of cultural and residential functions.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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漫步道像是巨大的过滤树箱,在径流通过雨水沟渠流向附近阿肯色河之前就过滤并处理了城市暴雨雨水
Like a supersized tree box filter, the Promenade infiltrates and treats urban stormwater runoff before it is discharged through storm sewers into the Arkansas River.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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漫步道里的木板道元素将公共艺术网络整合进创意廊道里
Boardwalk components in the Promenade integrate a public art network for The Creative Corridor.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
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事实证明,一个简单而与众不同的环境能够带给人们安全感,同时还升华了用户体验,使其更具深度与内涵
Indeed, a distinctive and legible environment not only offers security but also heightens the potential depth and intensity of human experience.
Photo Credit: University of Arkansas Community Design Center + Marlon Blackwell Architects
 
 
Project Statement
 
The Creative Corridor retrofits a four-block segment of an endangered historic downtown Main Street through aggregation of the cultural arts rather than Main Street’s traditional retail base. The goal is to structure an identity for the Creative Corridor based upon a mixed-use working and living environment anchored by the arts. The design approach restructures the corridor into a node utilizing the urbanism of streetscapes—landscape architecture, ecological engineering, public space configurations, frontage systems and other townscaping elements.
 
Project Narrative
 
Goals and Objectives From Commercial to Cultural and Residential Uses
Catalyzed by the aggregation of cultural organizations now scattered throughout the metropolitan area, this reclamation of a neglected historic Main Street proposes a land-use mix different from Main Street’s traditional retail base. This publicly-commissioned plan provides an affordable downtown living option presently unavailable in Little Rock combining residential, work and culture. The latter includes instruction/production space for the symphony, ballet, arts center, visual artists, theater, and dance, as well as a culinary arts economy that triangulates restaurants, public demonstration, and education. To ensure a coherent identity among different eras of development, design solutions rely on the urbanism of streetscapes—landscape architecture, ecological engineering, public space configurations, frontage systems and other townscaping elements.
 
Complete Streets
The project intensifies non-traffic social functions within the right-of-way to support a new cultural arts concentration within a mixed-use living environment. Complete Streets, designed to safely accommodate all users—pedestrians, bicyclists, motorists, and public transit users of all ages and abilities—are necessary components in the creation of successful mixed-use environments. The plan phases introduction of public spaces unfamiliar to the city’s public works—an integrated Low Impact Development (LID) stormwater treatment network, shared street configurations, bicycle boulevards, and an intermodal rail transit plaza with performance facilities. Shared street configurations with novel townscaping systems connect public and private spaces to frame a new layer of pedestrian functions supportive of a new creative economy.
 
Low Impact Development (LID) Streetscapes
Streetscapes are designed to deliver ecological services in addition to social and urban services. The proposed LID treatment network—ecologically-based stormwater runoff management—expands upon recommendations from US EPA’s Greening America’s Capitals study for Main Street. A tree-lined Promenade and shared street landscapes combine to deliver many of the 17 recognized ecosystem services—atmospheric regulation, disturbance (flooding) regulation, water regulation, sediment control, nutrient cycling, waste treatment, pollination, habitat, etc. Like a giant tree box filter, the Promenade feature an infiltration system planted with native xeriscapes that also house outdoor dining and gathering spaces. The street becomes an ecological asset, metabolizing water pollutants on site before runoff is discharged through storm sewers to the nearby Arkansas River.
 
Environmental/Social Data and Methods of Analysis
Urban revitalization strategies in Little Rock occur as self-sufficient nodes within a fabric of abandonment. Main Street’s decline was a victim of the City’s zealousness in securing federal urban renewal funds beginning in the 1950s. The Central Little Rock Urban Renewal Project eventually became a national model for urban neighborhood clearance: 580 acres of the downtown were demolished, including 471 commercial buildings (more than 1600 buildings total in a city of 193,000); and population density dropped from 18 people per acre to five in 1970. In some downtown neighborhoods the population dropped 75 percent. Stormwater loading to support green street design was modeled by ecological engineers using Hydraflow software with facilities designed to support two-year events. Facilities are staffed with drought-tolerant plant guilds and trees that grow taproots, which can withstand water retention as well as drought.
 
Role of Design and Consideration of Options
Large corporate development from the adjacent CBD is an invasive species. The project offers a retrofit program beyond historical codes and street beautification responsive to the economics of adaptive reuse with corporate property owners who have recently demolished historic Main Street structures. The region’s entrenched property rights culture makes codes for legacy protection unfeasible. Rather, a flexible townscaping platform negotiates conflicting architectural traditions—between new and old, masonry and glass, and large and small—through the development of allees, arcades, urban porches, and amphitheaters that reclaim Main Street’s sense of place.
 
Public Participation and Project Implementation
Project planning was funded through grants from the US EPA and NEA, enabling public-private partnerships and collaboration from more than 30 organizations over a six-year period. The City’s Main Street Task Force and property owners participated in design workshops with the region’s principal cultural arts groups who have agreed to relocate to Main Street. More than $160 million in building contracts or renovations are underway (more than 200 dwelling units) by the private sector, including ground floor tenant space for cultural groups. 
 
Project Administration
The Mayor’s office assisted by city planning staff and consultants are executing the proposal. Public sector improvements involve implementation of LID landscapes, which will be funded by the US EPA and the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission. MetroPlan (Central Arkansas’ regional transportation authority) is scheduling rail transit improvements for The Creative Corridor.
 
Project Resources
 
设计和施工团队Design & Construction Team
UACDC
Stephen Luoni, Director, Assoc. AIA
Jeffrey Huber, Assistant Director, AIA, LEED AP, NCARB
Allison Lee Thurmond Quinlan, Project Designer, AIA, Associate ASLA
Cory Amos, Project Designer, Assoc. AIA
Benjamin Curtin, Project Designer
Akihiro Moriya, Project Designer
Linda Komlos, Administrative Analyst
 
MBA
Marlon Blackwell, Principal, FAIA
Meryati Blackwell, Principal, Assoc. AIA, NCIDQ, ASID, LEED AP
Jonathan Boelkins, Studio Director, AIA
William Burks, Project Designer and Technical Manager, Assoc. AIA
Justin Hershberger, Project Designer, Assoc. AIA
Bradford Payne, Project Designer, Assoc. AIA
Stephen Reyenga, Project Designer, Assoc. AIA
Heather McArthur, Project Designer
 
Sponsors
National Endowment for the Arts
Arkansas Natural Resources Commission
 
Via ASLA 90degree编译,本文未经许可,不得转载。
 

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