统一的地面:联合广场——美国国家广场竞赛
Unified Ground: Union Square - National Mall Competition by Gustafson Guthrie Nichol
2014-12-04 10:03:04    | keywords: 美国  联合广场  景观  规划  分析  ASLA  2014 
统一的地面:联合广场——美国国家广场竞赛
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“项目出众,突显聪明的设计手法。”
“项目寻求为这个时代做二次设计。”
—2014ASLA分析与规划专业奖评语
"This is a noteworthy project featuring a clever design"
"It seeks to redesign for the times"
- 2014 Awards Jury

 
项目概述
 
联合广场坐落在美国国家广场和国会大厦地面的交汇处,是华盛顿纪念碑城市规划以及美国有着最深层次集体记忆的环境的重心。这个具有地标性质的公共空间为数以百万计的游客提供活动场地。竞标胜出的方案重新排列了联合广场目前的肌理构造,强化了空间体验,加深了该场所在国民潜意识里的印象。
 
项目描述
 
这个竞赛方案被美国国家广场的信托机构挑选出来成为联合广场的二次远景设计,融合了丰富的体验和复杂的解决方案,比如如何处理现在的我们。联合广场是美国国会大厦“孩子计划”的重心。设计团队以此为基础收集了美国发生危机和庆祝的时代信息。作为国家和个人,这是设计团队所要表达的统一。联合广场坐落在国家广场和国会大厦之间,既是本体又是喻体地表征了这样一个问题的解答——作为国民的我们是谁以及我们该如何处理与国家领导人的关系。尽管具有这样一层重要意义,这个场地在现今还是一片宽广的不可调节的水平面和草地,干扰了国家广场和国会大厦以及关于孩子计划里更大规模的都市计划。
 
该项目不仅重新连接并重新演绎了孩子计划的远景,使其条缕清晰,还赋予广场更多的非正式活动的场所;其特色与肌理呼应了场地潜在的自然地形;日复一日的穿城布局;有着不同需求和期待的全年游客。竞赛设计强调两个方面,即纪念活动和日常生活体验,这些都是健康的具有参与感的公共空间所必须具备的元素。
 
设计团队将流程扎根于历史分析,进而将设计和陈述报告的基础放在场所传承上。这为规划与这个具有国家意义的高精度场地的无缝相融奠定了信心基础。多学科组成的团队对现有条件和运营需求进行了深入调研,形成的设计方案解决了各方股东的顾虑和优先事项。设计竞赛的构成将一个技术股东团体贯穿进整个设计流程里。该团体的成员有历史保护主义者、美国国家公园局、美国国会警察局、美国史密森学会以及其他利益相关方,这些人的支持对项目的未来阶段具有至关重要的作用。竞赛期间,股东对设计团队所展现的一系列策略和方案以及场地改进做出评论,并非只是对特定的草拟方案做评价,这是为了在关键问题和策略上达成一致,并不针对设计细节。这样的方法得到了重要的反馈和支持,为规划的进一步发展奠定了基石。
 
传达分析的广度成为竞赛组委的关键部分。还有技术股东团体的强烈支持,竞赛评委对于设计整合这些重要观点的评语,以及场地和规划流程在基于讨论、辩论和共同点的论坛方面所具有的潜力。
 
设计将国家广场规整的轴线延伸到联合广场,整合了水池、广场和一些步道。这个中央集体空间融合了一系列户外空间,用于日常探索和休闲。层次的微妙变化表现在台阶和低矮的挡土墙,为中央广场提供座椅设施,同时也是一道风景线。具有文化意义的本土植物和路面铺装进一步丰富了场所的多样性和基调,对现有成龄树木和场地的历史雕塑产生影响,同时又与周边城市景观的材料和空间语言相连。
 
与其象征国家身份的场所地位一致的是联合广场能够承载特殊活动的大型集会,比如首次宪法修正案的使用、节日、音乐会、总统就职等。设计营造了一系列不同尺度的日常使用空间,将其整合进更大尺度的灵活空间里,用于集会。对于最大规模的事件,倒影池的次级凹地的不同地方都能进行排水处理,根据活动规模和定位而做调整。
 
联合广场的永久性设计是建立在可持续的原则之上。为了调整大型倒影池对环境的影响,设计团队给出了场地水能的高效使用方法。分层处理用于增加暴雨雨水的滞留,进而实现对城市雨水渠道系统的零排水。标志性的新水池建立在全方面的策略构思之上,涵盖了节水、能源利用、视觉表征、编程式功能。通过切实可行的工程计算得出最浅的水深,新水池的水量将比先前的少10%,并通过雨水的收集、过滤和贮存进行供给。
 
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联合广场的入口,从第三大街横跨至国家广场
Entry into Union Square, crossing Third Street from the National Mall.
Photo Credit: Gustafson Guthrie Nichol
 
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国家广场的植物模块从国家广场延伸至第三大街,直至框出整个场地,并渐渐转变为水池两边的台阶。从主轴线出发,景观变得更加丰富,同时涵盖了各个休息和游憩区域
The tree-planted panels of the Mall extend across Third Street to frame the site and gradually transform into stepped terraces flanking the pool. Moving away from the main axis, the landscape becomes more varied, with opportunities for rest and relaxation.
Photo Credit: Gustafson Guthrie Nichol
 
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方案远超出原始场地和设计竞赛所在的575广场地块,将各种变化整合进现有的美国植物园以及周边的街景里,同时衔接了国家广场和美国国会大厦前的空地
The proposed plan expands beyond the Primary Site and Square 575 parcels of the design competition to incorporate changes to the existing United States Botanic Garden, the surrounding streetscapes, and connections to the National Mall and United States Capitol Grounds.
Photo Credit: Gustafson Guthrie Nichol
 
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竞赛设计不仅强化了广场与国会大厦地面的关系,还尊重并重新演绎了孩子计划的重要部分以及针对国会大厦地面的麦克米伦计划和奥姆施特德的设计
The competition design strengthens the relationship between the Mall and the Capitol grounds while respecting and re-integrating key aspects of the L'Enfant Plan, the McMillian Plan and Olmsted's design for the Capitol grounds.
Photo Credit: Gustafson Guthrie Nichol
 
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场地正缺少定义,设计方案清晰地界定了空间的独特性并强化了与周边景观的相连
The site currently suffers from a lack of definition. The proposed plan clarifies unique spaces and strengthens connections to adjacent landscapes.
Photo Credit: Gustafson Guthrie Nichol
 
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设计方案里,空间与走道的至上而下使联合广场成为场地关键背景之间的衔接肌理,即国会大厦地面、国家广场、美国植物园、宾夕法尼亚大街、马里兰大街、路易斯安那大街、参议院公园
The hierarchy of spaces and walkways in the proposed design makes Union Square the connective tissue between the site's key contextual influences: the Capitol grounds, the National Mall, U.S. Botanic Garden, Pennsylvania Avenue, Maryland Avenue, Louisiana Avenue, and Senate Parks.
Photo Credit: Gustafson Guthrie Nichol
 
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故意为之的分层处理、雨水园、过滤走廊和地下储水池,增强了水体的滞留,实现了暴雨雨水的净零排放。场地的大型区域仍保留不受干扰,对现存重要树种进行保护,获得了几乎相等的土方率
Purposeful grading, rain gardens, infiltration galleries and underground cisterns increase water retention achieving a net-zero discharge of storm water. Large areas of the site remain undisturbed, protecting existing significant trees and attaining an almost equal cut-fill ratio.
Photo Credit: Gustafson Guthrie Nichol
 
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倒影池的水浅浅一层,不同部位可以排水,为不同规模的集会空间腾出空间。水池两边的台阶可以承载中等规模的聚会活动
The reflecting pool is a shallow sheet of water over paved surface that can be drained in sections to create a range of differently-sized assembly spaces. The stepped terraces flanking the pool allow for medium-sized assemblies to gather.
Photo Credit: Gustafson Guthrie Nichol
 
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从众议院议长的阳台望向远方
View from the balcony of the Speaker of the House
Photo Credit: Gustafson Guthrie Nichol
 
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联合广场坐落在美国国家广场和国会大厦地面的交汇处,是华盛顿纪念碑城市规划的重心。设计最大的动作在于重新调整了倒影池并将其朝向沿着国家广场的轴线
Located at the meeting of the National Mall and the Capitol grounds, Union Square is a focal point in Washington's monumental urban plan. The key design move rescales the reflecting pool and orients it along the Mall's axis.
Photo Credit: Gustafson Guthrie Nichol
 
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从北面的台阶望向倒影池和远方的格瑞特纪念碑
North terraces looking across the reflecting pool to Grant Memorial
Photo Credit: Gustafson Guthrie Nicho
 
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从东南方向穿过场地望向新兴声音的地面
Looking southeast across the site from the gardens at the Grounds for Emerging Voices
Photo Credit: Gustafson Guthrie Nichol
 
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夜晚,在格瑞特纪念碑举行音乐会,朝西望向华盛顿纪念碑
Evening concert at Grant Memorial looking west to the Washington Monument
Photo Credit: Gustafson Guthrie Nichol
 
 
 Project Statement
 
Located at the meeting of the National Mall and the Capitol grounds, Union Square is a focal point in Washington's monumental urban plan and the setting for some of our nation's most powerful shared memories. As an iconic public space, it has been a place of engagement for hundreds of thousands of visitors. Our competition-winning proposal re-imagines Union Square's current configuration to enhance the experiences it offers and its place in our national consciousness.
 
Project Narrative
 
This competition-winning plan selected by the Trust for the National Mall re-envisions Union Square with a complexity and richness of experience and potential that addresses who we are today. Union Square is a focal point in L'Enfant's plan for the United States Capitol. It is the ground on which we gather during moments of national crisis and celebration. As a nation and as individuals, this is where we express our unity. Situated between the Mall and the Capitol, Union Square both literally and symbolically presents an opportunity to question who we are as a nation and how we relate to our leaders. Despite this significance, the site today is a broad and un-modulated plane of water and lawn that disrupts the Mall and the Capitol as well as L'Enfant's larger urban plan.
 
This project presents an opportunity not only to reconnect and reinterpret the vision of L'Enfant and the clarity of his plan, but also to overlay and enrich this plaza with spaces for informal activities; features and textures that respond to the underlying natural landform of the site; the day-to-day patterns of movement through the city; and the diverse needs and desires of the people who visit this place throughout the year. The competition design emphasized two aspects—the monumental and the daily lived experience—which are essential components of a healthy and engaged public.
 
The design team rooted its process in historical analysis to ground the design and the presentation in the legacy of the place. This was essential to build confidence that the plan was a seamless fit for such a highly-scrutinized and nationally-significant site. In-depth investigation of existing conditions and operational requirements by the multi-disciplinary team also shaped a design that addresses the concerns and priorities of the diverse stakeholders. The structure of the design competition engaged a group of technical stakeholders throughout the design process. This group included historic preservationists, the National Parks Service, the Capitol Police, the Smithsonian Institute, and others interests whose support will be critical in future stages of the project. At the mid-competition stakeholder review the team presented a series of strategies and scenarios for program and site modifications rather than a specific draft design in order to reach consensus on key issues and strategies rather than design specifics. This approach provided critical feedback and support that played a central role during further development of the plan.
 
Communicating this breadth of analysis was a key part of the competition boards and jury presentation. The strong support of the technical stakeholder group and the competition jury speaks to the design's incorporation of these important opinions and the potential for the site and the planning process to provide a forum for discussion, debate and common ground.
 
The design extends the formal axis of the Mall into Union Square as a pool, plaza and additional pathways. This collective central space is framed by a series of outdoor rooms designed for daily exploration and relaxation. Subtle changes in grade are used to form terraces and low retaining walls that provide seating and views into the central plaza. Native and culturally significant planting and paving establish further variety and definition to the spaces within, leveraging the existing mature trees and historic sculptures on the site and connecting to the material and spatial language of the surrounding civic landscape.
 
Key to its role as a place of national identity is the ability of Union Square to accommodate large gatherings for special events such as first amendment uses, festivals, concerts, and inauguration of the President. The design creates a series of comfortably-scaled every day spaces that combine to create larger flexible spaces for assembly. For the largest events, sub-basins of the reflecting pool can be drained in a variety of configurations depending on the scale and orientation of the activity.
 
The timeless design for Union Square is founded on principles of sustainability. To mediate the environmental impact of the large reflecting pool, we explored efficient uses of water and energy for the site. Grading is designed to increase storm water retention and achieve zero discharge into the city sewer system. The iconic new pool was conceived with a holistic strategy with regard to water conservation, energy use, visual appearance and programmatic function. Due to the minimal water depth, achievable by precise engineering, the new pool's water volume will be less than 10% of existing, and will be supplied by harvesting, filtration and storage of rain water.
 
 
Project Resources
设计和施工团队Design & Construction Team
Davis Brody Bond, Architect
Magnusson Klemencic Associates, Civil Engineer
Robinson & Associates, Historical Resources Management
Space Syntax, Pedestrian Movement Consultants
Tillotson Design Associates, Lighting Designers
CMS Collaborative, Fountain Consultants
WSP Flack + Kurtz, MEP and Sustainability
Robert Silman Associates, Structural Engineers
Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers, Geotechnical Engineers
Poulin + Morris, Environmenral Graphics
Gorove/Slade Associates, Traffic Consultants
Faithful + Gould, Cost Estimators
 
Via ASLA 90degree编译,本文未经许可,不得转载。
 

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