全美最大规模零能耗住区——加州大学戴维斯分校西部校区/SWA Group
UC Davis West Village - Largest Zero Net Energy Community in the US by SWA Group
2014-12-24 14:56:23    | keywords: 零能耗  加州大学  SWA  Group  校园  景观 
全美最大规模零能耗住区——加州大学戴维斯分校西部校区/SWA Group
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Courtesy of SWA Group. 感谢SWA Group的投稿,90degree版权所有,不得转载。
 
 
该项目的启动主要针对因大学校园人数不断增加而引发的校区住宿成本的迅速攀升,进而导致学生和教职员工纷纷寻求校外住所等系列连锁问题。为了改善这一现况,避免成为走读校园而造成相关的社会压力,校方决定在主校区西部一处尚待进一步开发的地块中设计建造一系列可持续性住宿区,并确保最终回馈各项节能环保设计的相应投资。西部校区目前已建成大型零能耗校园住区,也是同类校园项目中的首个零能耗住区,进而成为了全球大型零能耗住区的一个典范。
 
随着人们对全球变暖意识的逐步提高,如今的大学校园建设也面临着全新的挑战,开发商和校方都十分注重在资金压力和环境管理之间寻求到理想的平衡点。加州大学戴维斯分校西部校区的开发与建设过程充分展现了校方与私营开发商之间所取得的通力协作。项目伊始,景观设计团队便拟定了整个项目的总体规划方案和全套的景观设计方案,并以2008年项目推行计划中的“住房支付能力、环境响应能力、场地质量保障”三大核心原则作为项目的主体构想,实施项目的全面推行。为有效实现这一系列项目目标,整个设计开发过程谨慎遵循校园各住区单元的经济性、实用性以及综合可持续性设计元素与相应材料在住区整体基础设施建设方面的综合应用,并确保加州大学戴维斯分校独有的校园风貌得以完好保留。
 
可持续性及环境特性
 
零能耗住区是指能够充分利用可再生能源实现自我能源供给的住区。其中,一些关键的成果性元素包含:将雨水合理蓄存于澄清池内,以供日常用水;广泛建立自行车道路系统、建造环境敏感性建筑,以有效获取并控制太阳能及其应用;此外,还包括透水性地面铺装、太阳能光伏面板及太阳能集热器的安装使用、建筑物和人行道自然冷却系统的建立,以及大面积树荫区的建立以鼓励更多人进行户外活动,减少人们在夏季对空调的依赖。就项目整体而言,总体规划将雨水排泄设施和长达5英里(约8公里)的骑行步道设施建设有效纳入到公园、林荫道、池塘、花园和体育设施等一系列开放空间系统的营建之中,使得所有这些建设元素都能充分发挥其综合作用。
 
尽管整个西部校区的规划建造由私营开发商负责相关的项目运营,但该项目的土地所有权依然归属于加州大学戴维斯分校。项目场地横跨113高速公路,毗邻主校区,三至四层楼高的学生公寓建筑科学、合理地分布在这一地块中。校区商铺和教学建筑沿萨克拉门托城市学院边缘地带而建,两侧绿树成荫,景致宁谧。其北部绿化区内将拟建含343套家庭住宅的系列住宅建筑,以供戴维斯分校有关学者及教职员工日常居住。配合西部校区内各公寓楼、家庭住宅、零售商店、康乐中心和教学场所等建筑设施,景观设计师设计并营建了完整的连续性景观步道及相应完备的绿化系统。
 
特别气候倡议
 
为了有效应对当地的具体气候情况,位于西部校区东面边缘的住宅,采用了特殊的建筑结构设计,在建筑的底层和顶层屋檐上分别铺覆着大型波纹金属片,以达到驱散建筑体表热量,降低室内温度的良好效果。由于该项目中所有建筑外墙夹层都是由0.5英寸(约1.3厘米)厚的隔热保温材料制成,因此,建筑外墙采用灰泥粉刷,以充分发挥隔热保温效果。设计评论家约翰·金曾在《旧金山大门》一书中解说道:“零能耗概念乍听显得新鲜而独特,然而这一概念作为减少社会建设对环境产生负面影响的一种重要手段,正日渐深入人心……”而该项目中的另一微妙之处在于:SWA科学的场地总体规划布局,造就了松散分置的建筑群落,形成合理的建筑间距,以利于整个项目场地内的自然空气流通。这样的场地空间布局对于当地夏季的酷热、高温气候而言,显得至关重要。尽管资源优化是一个日积月累的过程,该项目中各单元住宅的相应指标还是能够有效迎合项目开发商们的市场预算率。
 
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一期新建工程鸟瞰模型,其左侧是主校区及戴维斯镇相关区域
Aerial showing Phase 1 new construction. The University and town of Davis are to the left of the photo.
Image by: Ken Cantrell, Viewpoint Aerial Photography, on behalf of Carmel Partners, Inc.
 
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一期新建工程近景及主校区远景鸟瞰
Aerial showing Phase 1 new construction in the foreground with the University beyond.
Image by: Ken Cantrell, Viewpoint Aerial Photography, on behalf of Carmel Partners, Inc.
 
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西部校区综合建筑楼区绿化广场上设有相应的生态草沟,以便实现有效的雨水管理
The Village Square with mixed-use buildings has swales providing stormwater management.
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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绿化广场上用于收集、净化雨水的生态草沟
Water retention/detention vegetated swale at Village Square
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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绿化广场下沉式花园雨水蓄存空间
Sunken garden water retention area at Village Square
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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惬意的咖啡屋林荫步道将校内商店和公寓建筑与绿化景观区和谐地连于一体
Shaded, café-friendly walkways connect the retail/apartment buildings to the landscape.
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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绿化广场上的综合建筑楼群与太阳能电池板高层升降梯设施
Mixed-use buildings on the square with a tower elevator faced with solar panels
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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绿化广场上的租赁及康乐中心大楼
The Leasing/Recreation Center building on the Village Square
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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位于租赁及康乐中心大楼后部的泳池区
Pool area at the back of the Leasing/Recreation Center
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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场地规划的相应道路格局使自行车成为校区内的主要交通工具
Site planning makes bicycles the primary mode of transportation.
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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住宅建筑的合理布局形成了这处理想的户外社交场所
Careful siting of residential buildings creates courtyards for social gathering.
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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巧妙的设计将自行车停放点自然融于建筑立面和绿化景观之中
The design integrates bicycle parking into building facades and landscape.
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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高效功能性绿化景观区将雨水管理设施、双车位机动车停车篷和太阳能电池板设施有机地整合于一体
The high-functioning landscape integrates stormwater management, tandem parking and solar arrays.
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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暮色中的绿化广场露天剧场舞台景致
The Village Square amphitheater stage in the evening.
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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项目设计充分体现“环境响应能力、住房支付能力、场地质量保障”三大核心原则
The design expresses principles of environmental responsiveness, affordable housing and quality of place
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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可容纳3 000名学生及500户教职员工家庭居住的加州大学戴维斯分校西部校区总平面图
Illustrative plan for housing 3,000 students and 500 faculty/staff families.
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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项目场地日照朝向、风向、排水系统、生态栖息地、康乐设施及道路系统分布等方面可持续性分析图
Sustainability analyses addressed solar/wind patterns, drainage, habitat, recreation and connectivity.
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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土地使用规划图
Land Use Plan
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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场地道路系统规划图
Site Circulation Plan
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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开放空间规划图
Open Space Plan
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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泳池康乐规划区
Recreation area with pools
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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一期工程总体规划
Phase I Plan
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
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一期工程各建筑区
Construction areas for Phase 1
Image by: Jonnu Singleton, SWA Group
 
The project was initiated as a response to rapidly escalating housing costs (correlating with University population growth) that would have forced students, faculty, and staff to seek housing outside of Davis. In order to avoid becoming a commuter campus, the University decided to pursue development on a relatively undeveloped parcel located west of the main campus, and also to pursue a sustainable design that would ultimately result on a return on investment in energy savings. West Village's recently completed Zero Net Energy (ZNE) residences are the first of their kind on a college campus and serve as a model for large-scale ZNE communities worldwide. 
 
Heightened awareness of global warming poses a new challenge for both developers and universities and the need to balance financial pressures with environmental stewardship is increasingly present in projects on college campuses. The development and implementation of UC Davis West Village represents a collaborative effort between the University and a private developer. With involvement from the earliest phases of the project, the landscape architect provided master planning and full landscape services, beginning with formulation of a 2008 Implementation Plan based on three core principles: housing affordability, environmental responsiveness, and quality of place. Answering that mandate, the design development process carefully guided the project to keep units affordable, implement and integrate sustainable features and materials into the infrastructure of the community, and retain the character that makes UC Davis so unique.
 
Sustainability and Environmental Features
 
The Zero Net Energy classification defines a region that is able to supply its own power from renewable energy sources. Some of the elements that resulted include careful use of storm water detention and retention ponds, creation of an extensive bike network, environmentally responsive architecture able to control solar gain and loss in a passive manner, permeable paving, photovoltaic panels, solar thermal collectors, passive cooling of building and pavements, and extensive tree-shaded areas to encourage outdoor gatherings and less dependence on air conditioning in the summer months. Overall, the master plan integrates storm drainage and five miles of bicycle-pedestrian paths into an extensive open-space system of parks, greenways, ponds, gardens, and sports facilities.
 
Though the"Village"is the work of private developers, it occupies land owned by UC Davis. The site, across Highway 113, is conceived as a neighborhood unto itself, with three- and four-story student apartment buildings radiating out from the village green. The green is flanked by ground-floor space reserved for shops and university offices, along with an outpost of Sacramento City College. Land north of the green is being readied for what will be 343 houses reserved for UC Davis academics and employees. Landscape provided the connective framework/tissue for work by a variety of architects contributing to the Village's apartments, family homes, retail, a recreation center, and educational spaces.
 
Special Climate Initiatives
 
Specifically responding to the Davis climate is a residential structure on the east edge of the Village which is cloaked in loose-fitting corrugated metal that's open at the base and roofline, allowing surface heat to rise up and out rather than be absorbed by the units inside. Other surfaces are stucco, yet they have a more substantial presence than the infill norm and there's a reason: The building's plywood-clad form is wrapped in an extra half inch of insulation before the outer skin is applied. Design critic John King, writing in SF Gate, explains:"As exotic as zero net energy might sound, the concept is taking hold as a tool to lessen development's impact on the environment..."Another subtle touch: SWA's master plan arranges buildings in loose clusters so as to allow afternoon breezes from the delta to filter through the site. Moves such as these are keyed to the Davis climate, where summer days often are accompanied by triple-digit temperatures…And while the cumulative effect is to conserve resources, the units fit within the market-rate budget of developers Carmel Partners and Urban Villages.
 
 
项目信息:
项目位置:美国 加利福尼亚州 戴维斯镇
设计团队:SWA Group
项目客户:加州大学戴维斯分校西部校区建设服务有限公司
建筑团队:Studio E, Mixed-Use Architects; MVE Institutional, Student Housing Architects; Lim Chang Rohling & Associates, Residential Architects
SWA首席设计师:约翰·L·黄,美国景观设计师协会理事,美国铁路协会理事,项目监理, 项目总负责人;森达·吉利兰,美国景观设计师协会会员,项目负责人;伊丽莎白·史瑞夫,美国心理学协会会员,高等院校规划协会会员,项目负责人
SWA其余团队成员:阿尔·德威特、凯特·孙、卡罗琳·坦普尔顿、玛丽·古尔利
项目占地:200英亩(约81公顷)
项目竣工:项目一期于2011年竣工
全面竣工:预计于2015年全面竣工
 
Project Credits:
Project Location: Davis, California
Design Agency: SWA Group
Client: West Village Community Partnership, LLC (West Village Community Partnership LLC is a joint venture between Carmel Partners of San Francisco and Urban Villages of Denver)
Architects: Studio E, Mixed-Use Architects; MVE Institutional, Student Housing Architects; Lim Chang Rohling & Associates, Residential Architects
SWA Team Principal Designers: John L. Wong, FASLA, FAAR, Managing Principal, Chairman; Cinda Gilliland, ASLA, Principal; Elizabeth Shreeve, APA, SCUP, Principal
Additional SWA Team: Al Dewitt, Kat Sun, Caroline Templeton, Mary Gourlay
Area: 200 acres / 81 hectares
Completion: Phase I – 2011
Full Construction: Estimated at 2015
 

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