洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates
2015-01-14 10:59:30    | keywords: 滨水  景观  河道复兴  城市更新 
洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
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Courtesy of Mia Lehrer + Associates. Via ASLA. 90degree编译,未经许可,不得转载。
 
 
“这是一个具有地标意义的城市改造工程,其改造意图简单、工程规模庞大,且相应举措大胆而显突破性。设计理念富于创意,将创造出一处可与曼哈顿景致相媲美的河道景观带。”——ASLA分析与规划专业奖评语
“Iconic. A simple, big, bold move. And it’s a cool idea to have a promontory overlooking Manhattan.”—ASLA Professional Awards Jury
 
 
项目概述
该项目旨在将洛杉矶一处占地125英亩(约51公顷)的铁路站场改造成为全新的滨水生境,并为民众营造一系列宜人的滨水公共空间,同时也可在城市中央河道洪峰来临时,确保其常规水力性能。为使项目场地能够更加顺利地完成从了无生趣的工业景观向充满生机的滨水景观带的华美蜕变,项目研究报告中概括性地阐述了地块开发与水文工程相关举措,力求打造出规模宏大且具革新意义的河岸景致,为洛杉矶河河道的整体治理奠定良好基础,并带动城市重建的全面启动。
 
项目描述
对城市中心工业用地进行改造,是21世纪现代城市变革的一种必然手段,有助于注入更多的城市活力,适应大都市不断发展的需求。城市核心区及其所发挥的作用,对于一座城市的发展具有重大意义,土地修复与历史性工业区的有效改造,也有利于缓解市区人口负担。在对工业区进行适当改造的同时,洛杉矶市政部门清醒地意识到,废弃荒地的有效利用十分重要。该市力图通过诸如城市河道清理等技术手段,有效修复工业区景观,进而形成环境清新、经济繁荣的全新宜居景观带,以迎合城市居住人口日益增长的相应需求,也为当地的科学技术发展和可持续性再生能源的研发提供更为良好的客观环境。
 
该项目的施行标志着固有城市规划思维模式的一种转变,象征着该区域自此摒弃20世纪以短期利益为优先考虑的腐朽城市规划理念,同时也展示了城市基础设施建设大规模变革的重要性,这样的变革将有利于社会环境与生态环境长远的良好发展。该项目的可行性研究,其目的在于对项目的发展潜质做更为深入的前期了解,以便项目概念性总体规划的顺利开展。研究活动着重围绕“水文环境对于项目场地和河流的影响,以及项目场地现阶段市场价值与其收购策略”这两方面的调研展开,以协助项目团队更好地理解整个项目规划的相关愿景。
 
可行性研究遵循项目概念性总体规划布局,渐进式开展,以为洛杉矶河河道修复工程与洛杉矶市区景观改造工程征得最大力度的资金投入。作为大规模城市改造的典范,该项目对城市的未来发展起到了积极的推动作用,以绿色基础设施各分支系统建设为主体改造方式,力求将绿化生态环境植入到城市的每一个角落,最大程度地让民众在如此规模的城市改造中获益。针对城市化对自然环境带来的诸多不利影响,该可行性研究中提出了多元化的解决方案,并详尽阐释了这一多元化方案在河道修复工程中的具体体现及其与城市未来发展之间的密切关系。
 
该项目概念性规划以四大原则为基础:对位于市区中心的洛杉矶河进行治理和改造;创建对城市发展具有深远意义的一系列公共开放空间;实现各邻近住区间的相互连通;为市民营造适于居住、工作、学习和游乐的多样化宜居城市环境。铁路站场项目场地的合理改造有助于加强洛杉矶城市东部地区与市中心的连接与沟通,为东部发展创造了良好的机遇。项目场地周边完善的街道设施系统建设,为行人与骑自行车人群提供了相应便利,弥补了河道间桥梁连接设施匮乏的缺憾。随着项目场地与河流的有效改造,在河岸边缘地带及对岸相应区域也将建立起全新的连接设施。作为一个综合性城市改造工程,该项目规划具有着举足轻重的意义,将显著增强城市人口的流动性,并将为城市区域的导向性发展创造许多机会。
 
可行性研究的主体还在于区域开发和相应的水文研究,进而将项目场地从毫无生趣的工业景观,向以洛杉矶河为主导且充满生机的滨水景观成功转型。就其地块规模与地理位置而言,洛杉矶河沿岸这处工业场地的合理改造可为河流的自然生态系统修复创造难得的机遇,同时亦可增强各城市区域间的相互连通,并通过城市的再发展带动经济的全面繁荣发展。
 
项目场地的潜在改造十分有利于洛杉矶河市区河段的生态修复,进而带动整条河流的生态系统恢复。因而,对于流经项目场地的相应河段,其修复性设计理念应适当权衡水文、生态、文化、经济等各方面的利弊。该项目的相关水文规划方案中还增设了合理的蓄洪设施,以有效确保城市洪泛区域及其周边民众的人生财产安全。水文规划方案包括水质改善系列措施:例如,建立雨水径流及水处理设施系统、创建环境良好的动植物生境、适当增加滨水植被量、改善软土土质等。蓄洪设施加强、水体质量提升以及动植物栖息生境改善等措施有利于增强项目场地与洛杉矶河之间的相互连通,进而提升河流生态性能,同时减少项目场地的环境隐患,为沿河民众营造可供居住、工作和游乐的全新宜居空间。
 
可行性研究中的土地收购及开发相关内容主要涉及两大关键性问题:首先,应对该项目的长期性规划效应保持清醒认识,准确评估当前的相应市场状况,并寻求合理的支撑点;其次,寻求有效收购策略,以掌控土地资产。通过咨询房地产开发商专家组,得出科学、合理的市场分析,以便项目团队对项目场地概念性规划中所预期的收购与开发可行性有更为深入的了解。可开发区域环绕于项目场地北部、东部及南部的边缘地带,需最大限度挖掘场地滨河区域的开发潜力,同时,确保场地内大部分区域内大型滨水多功能开放空间的系列功用。此外,该项目还需对洛杉矶运输中心(LATC)的相应地产进行并购,其中包括项目场地本身,以及场地主体地块东南角与西南角中的其他七座额外建筑。
 
以规划开发多功能型地块为主,该项目将开发出诸如南加州大学健康科学院、啤酒艺术区等一系列校园式环境设施,并对它们的功用进行进一步提升,其中的轻净科技廊道,将会时常吸引各类新兴企业前往举办各种创业宣传活动,以鼓励大学生自主创业。项目场地距离联合车站近1英里(约1.6公里),交通便利,适宜鼓励人们多采用步行与公交等出行方式,以创造更为健康、舒适的生活环境。全新的高速铁路站点将拟建于原铁路站场轨道区与滨河带之间,这里将成为整个项目场地中开发力度最大、未来最为繁华的区域,因此,相关项目开发团队还将在这里兴建一座高层综合商贸大楼,以带动区域性经济发展。全新的“滨河公园景观区”标志着洛杉矶创新经济时代的到来,同时,绿化及休闲公共空间的建造也有力地改善了河岸的生态环境。
 
为推进该项目可行性研究及收购策略的进一步施行,联合太平洋铁路公司所属的洛杉矶运输中心(LATC)需要进行相应迁移。然而,铁路设施的迁移势必对整个铁路系统及联合太平洋铁路公司的日常物流运输活动造成巨大影响。因此,经由相关部门推荐,一名交通及物流运输专家参与到该项目中,专门针对该项目的实际情况,制定了一份补充性综合策略方案。除了洛杉矶运输中心迁移的策略性方案,项目场地的环境评估报告也显得尤为重要,在场地重新开发乃至投入使用之前,项目团队需要根据这份报告,对项目整体进行大规模的修复与治理。此外,项目后期还需要一名土地顾问的介入,以便在项目场地重新开发及洛杉矶运输中心迁移过程中,协助项目团队对区域划分及相关权益的进行专业分析。
 
综上所述,该项目为诸如城市基础设施建设、城市地块开发以及开放空间建设等类似项目树立了典范,提供了良好的借鉴,也为未来的城市重建起到了有力的推动作用。
 

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铁路站场与洛杉矶河
总平面图
Piggyback and the Los Angeles River
Site Plan 
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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铁路站场与洛杉矶河
就其地块规模与地理位置而言,洛杉矶河沿岸这处工业场地的合理改造可为河流的自然生态系统修复创造难得的机遇,同时亦可增强各城市区域间的相互连通,并通过城市的再发展带动经济的全面繁荣发展
Piggyback and the Los Angeles River
The size and location of the Piggyback Yard site along the Los Angeles River offers a unique opportunity to allow the river to regain some of its natural character, create neighborhood enhancement opportunities and increase economic prosperity through redevelopment. 
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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铁路站场改造
项目场地总面积为177英亩(约72公顷),其中包括占地125英亩(约51公顷)的铁路站场主体,就学术定义而言,还包含洛杉矶运输中心(LATC)和主要位于项目场地边缘地带上一些零星小型轻工业用地
Transforming a Railyard
The project area includes the 125-acre Piggyback Rail Yard, technically referred to as the Los Angeles Transportation Center (LATC) and an assortment of adjoining smaller parcels of predominantly marginalized light industrial uses, comprising a total of 177 acres. 
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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沿河休闲区
营造一处适合于各类不同人群休闲、观光的独特城市滨河景观带,同时为洛杉矶的东部与西部地区建立起有效连接,并进行相应的湿地修复、绿地创建、滞洪设施建设以及住区开发等措施,以呈现洛杉矶河两岸的宜居景象
A River Destination
Offering genuine access and connectivity to a unique urban riparian landscape for a diverse population, bridging a gap between east and west L.A, combining wetlands restoration, parkland creation, flood detention and community development that supports a livable Los Angeles River. 
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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设计理念研究
项目团队创建了“河流搁浅法”与“河道拓宽法”这两种不同的水文策略以达到缓解洪泛灾害、创建滨水生境的目的,然而,通过对这两种策略的概念性总体规划方案进行初步评估与对比分析,项目团队又拟定了第三种策略——“岛屿溢流法”,也制定出相应的概念性总体规划方案,对前两个方案进行了整合与优化
Exploring Design Concepts
After an initial assessment of two conceptual master plans – River Strand and Broadened River – each employing different approaches to managing flood attenuation and creating areas for habitat, third strategy Island Overflow was developed maximizing benefits from the two previous plans.
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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开放空间开发策略
相应的开放空间开发研究策略旨在建立起全新开放空间与现有街道及毗邻城市设施之间的最大化连接
Open Space Development Balance
Studying strategies for maximizing connections and adjacencies to existing streets and neighboring uses.
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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多元化解决方案
该项目在城市河道改造的可行性研究中,提出了一个多元化解决方案,以解决城市化对自然环境所形成的种种不良影响,并有力推动整体城市改造的进程
A Multibenefit Solution
Presenting a multi-benefit solution to resolve the compounding effects of urbanization on the environment, this river revitalization project acts as catalyst for future urban regeneration. 
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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城市活力与复苏
项目团队意识到洛杉矶河流经众多城市区域、住区及自然自然保护区,沿岸景致各具特色,而该项目的滨水景观带中拥有独特的洛杉矶工业廊道景观,于是,项目团队便以此作为该河段沿岸的特色景致进行规划与开发
Urban Vitality and Resilience
Recognizing that the LA River navigates through many conditions of urban places, neighborhoods, and naturalized areas, the Piggyback vision embraces the industrial corridor of Los Angeles a as unique to itself. 
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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暴雨天气应对
充分利用占地125英亩(约51公顷)的铁路站场地块,进行大范围的河道改造,以有效确保洪峰来临时的水力性能,进而创建出一处有利于滨河自然生境健康发展的全新公共空间地带
Storm Event Management
Utilizing the full extent of the rail yard property, the 125-acre parcel allows for the unique opportunity to significantly alter the river channel creating a new terrain that supports riparian habitat and provides public access while maintaining hydraulic performance during peak flows. 
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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水质的提高
该项目的场地设计,通过土地使用性质转变、洛杉矶河生态功能提升,以及雨水处理技术应用等一系列的改进措施,将有效提高河流水质
Improved Water Quality
The design of the Piggyback Yard site will improve water quality through a number of enhancements, including land use conversion of the site, improved ecological functioning of the LA River, and stormwater treatment technologies. 
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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连接与沟通
铁路站场项目场地的合理改造有助于加强洛杉矶城市东部地区与市中心的连接与沟通,为东部发展创造了良好的机遇,同时也弥补了河道间桥梁连接设施匮乏的缺憾
Connectivity
With respect to the lack of connections across the river, the Piggyback Yard site is an incredible opportunity to improve connectivity mending the neighborhoods of East LA together with downtown
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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场地规划
项目场地以地势与河流的高差和距离进行相应规划:利用率较低的建筑设施规划于地势较低区域,建筑密度将随地势的升高和人口密度的增加而增加,确保自然生境的健康发展,并最大限度地降低项目场地的养护成本,大力兴建公众活动空间,促进场地与河流相互间的积极影响
Site Programming
Organized by elevation and proximity to the river; passive uses are located in the lower plateaus increasing in intensity as the elevation increases orienting people, ensuring the sanctity of habitat areas, minimizing maintenance, providing access, and heightening awareness of the sites relationship to the river.
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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洛杉矶河河道改造
城市基础设施系统必须进行合理、有效的改造,以应对20世纪以来因城市化而愈加频繁的暴风雨极端天气
Recalibrating the Los Angeles River
Our cities must plan to recalibrate its infrastructural systems to handle the compounding effects of 20th Century urbanization combined with more frequent and severe storms as a result climate change.
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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促进城市互动
洛杉矶的城市改造,有利于城市住区与生态环境的同步改善,为人类与自然界和谐互动创造了良机
Supporting Interactions
Transforming Los Angeles for the symbiotic betterment of its community and its ecology, creating a significant opportunity for meaningful interaction between people and nature.
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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建立全新工业景观
洛杉矶市正在有效修复其工业区景观,进而形成系列环境清新、经济繁荣的全新宜居景观带,以迎合城市居住人口日益增长的相应需求,也为当地的科学技术发展和可持续性再生能源的研发提供更为良好的客观环境
A New Industrial Landscape
The city is in process of fostering a new industrial landscape compatible for urban residential growth and fosters an industrial sector that is cleaner, non-harmful, denser and more economically robust; sponsoring centers for technological advancement and sustainable/regenerative research. 
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
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思维模式转变
该项目的成功施行标志着固有城市规划思维模式的一种转变,象征着该区域自此摒弃20世纪腐朽的城市规划理念,同时也展示了城市基础设施建设大规模变革的重要性,这样的变革将有利于社会环境与生态环境长远的良好发展
Shifting the Paradigm
The Piggyback Yard represents the paradigm shift, signaling a departure from the region’s 20th Century process of development and signals the importance of large infrastructural change that provide long-lasting benefits for both the community and environment. 
Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates
 
 
Project Statement
This project examines converting a 125-acre rail yard into a new terrain supporting riparian habitat and providing public access while maintaining hydraulic performance during peak flows within the central corridor of Los Angeles. Outlining the development and hydrological programs that will transform Piggyback Yard from a concrete industrial landscape to a “River Destination”, an ambitious, transformative vision forms the cornerstone of the revitalization of the LA River corridor acting as a catalyst for urban regeneration.
 
Project Narrative
As a means to make our urban centers more vital, the transformation of central city industrial lands to accommodate metropolitan growth is simply a process of 21st century change. The significance of the nucleus of city’s central space and ability to host significant populations within our cities urban centers will outweigh the burden of remediation of land and processes for unlocking historically controlled industrial properties. Los Angeles is actively recognizing the importance of the ability to accommodate for higher and better uses of derelict lands while preserving the industrial zoning. Through efforts like the Clean-tech corridor the city is in process of fostering a new industrial landscape compatible for urban residential growth and fosters an industrial sector that is cleaner, non-harmful, denser and more economically robust; sponsoring centers for technological advancement and sustainable/regenerative research.
 
The Piggyback Yard represents the paradigm shift, signaling a departure from the region’s 20th Century process of development (compromising land for the sake of ease of implementation and short-sighted planning) and signals the importance of large infrastructural change that provide long-lasting benefits for both the community and environment. The purpose of the Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study is to further understand the project’s scope and extent based upon the extensive work developed from the pro-bono Piggyback Yard Conceptual Master Plan. The study focuses on two topics critical to understanding the project’s aspirations: 1) the effects of hydrology on the site and river, and 2) understanding the site’s current market value and strategy for acquisition.
 
The vision for the Feasibility Study follows the path laid out by the Piggyback Conceptual Master Plan – one that seeks to maximize investment for the revitalization of the LA River and creation of a new place within the landscape of Downtown Los Angeles. The Piggyback Yard exemplifies the notion of urban regeneration, serving as a catalytic type of project that employs a systems-based form of green infrastructure that maximizes the benefits of ecology for people and place. Presenting a multi-benefit solution to resolve the compounding effects of urbanization on the environment, the Feasibility Study provides a description of the layering of benefits as a river revitalization project and its relevance to the city’s future.
 
The conceptual plan for the Piggyback Yard is founded on four key principles – to revitalize the Los Angeles River at the heart of the city; create significant public open space; connect adjacent neighborhoods; and build a diverse, vibrant community where people live, work, learn and play. The Piggyback Yard site is an incredible opportunity to improve connectivity mending the neighborhoods of East LA together with downtown. With respect to the lack of connections across the river, the streets that surround the site will serve a more vital role to connect pedestrians and cyclists. The site and river will afford new connections along and across the river’s banks. As a combined vision the plan plays a significant role in continued improvements for mobility and opportunities for community-oriented development.
 
Outlined in the Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study, is the development and hydrological programs that will transform Piggyback Yard from a concrete industrial landscape to a “River Destination” with the LA River featured as its primary asset. The size and location of the Piggyback Yard site along the Los Angeles River offers a unique opportunity to allow the river to regain some of its natural character, create neighborhood enhancement opportunities and increase economic prosperity through redevelopment.
 
The Piggyback Yard’s potential redevelopment will allow the LA River to become revitalized in a way that is unique to the downtown stretch of the river. To this end, design concepts were developed that allow for the river flows to access the Piggyback Yard in a manner that balances hydrologic, ecological, cultural and economic benefits. The hydrological program of the project provides additional flood storage to offset the risks of adjacent properties that are currently within the limits of the floodplain. The hydrological program includes water quality improvement elements, such as runoff and water treatment, and habitat creation, such as enhanced vegetation along the River and soft-bottom conversion. The flood storage, water quality and habitat enhancement components would establish a strong connection between Piggyback Yard and the LA River that enhances the ecological performance of the river, mitigates the site’s environmental risks, and creates a new destination on the LA River for people to live, work, and play.
 
The land acquisition and development portion of the Feasibility Study focused on two key analyses: firstly, assessing the current market, what can be reasonably supported today, recognizing that this is a long term planning effort; and secondly, what is the acquisition strategy for controlling the property. A market analysis was conducted along with consultation from wan expert panel of real estate developers to understand the feasibility of acquiring and developing the Piggyback Yard site as envisioned in the Conceptual Master Plan. The developable area rings the site’s northern, eastern and southern edges maximizing the site’s potential for riverfront edge development while maintaining most of the site as a multipurpose open space that engages the river. The project would require acquisition of the Los Angeles Transportation Center (LATC), also known as the Piggyback Yard, as well as seven additional properties at the southwest and southeast corners of the main parcel.
 
The development program envisions mixed-use development, a series of campus-like settings that further promote adjoining uses that include the USC Health Sciences Campus and the Brewery Arts District, as well as spur on the entrepreneurial activity emanating from start-ups within the Cleantech Corridor. Situated within a mile from Union Station, the Piggyback Yard is positioned to foster a walkable, transit served community prompting a more active population on the river. With the potential for the new High Speed Rail Station to be located somewhere between the existing tracks and the river, the eventual transformation of the area could spark a dramatic development transformation bringing on a 24-7 level of activity. This new “River Park Campus” will signal the arrival of Los Angeles’ innovation economy, while simultaneously providing green and recreational space to support the River’s environmental revitalization efforts.
 
To move forward with the Feasibility Analysis and Acquisition Strategy of the Piggyback Yard, a relocation strategy for Union Pacific’s LATC must be developed. The potential relocation of the rail facilities will have dramatic effects on the rail network and goods movement activities of Union Pacific. It is recommended that a Transportation and Goods Movement Expert would make an integral addition to the project. In addition to the relocation strategy of the LATC, an environmental assessment of the Piggy- back Yard site is recommended as it is likely that it will require significant remediation before it can be redeveloped and made ready for public use. At a later phase, it is recommended that a Land Consultant be hired to assist in the zoning and entitlements analysis required for the redevelopment of the Piggyback Yard site and for the relocation of the LATC.
 
Ultimately, the Piggyback Yard as described in this report offers the most significant opportunity to spur on similar projects that approach infrastructure, development and open space holistically and act as catalyst for future urban regeneration.
 
 
项目信息:
项目首席设计及景观设计:Mia Lehrer + Associates
其余项目团队:Friends of the Los Angeles River, LA River Revitalization Corporation, Geosyntec Consultants, ELP Advisors LLC and Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy
项目总体规划团队:Friends of the Los Angeles River, Chee Salette Architecture Office, Michael Maltzan Architecture and Perkins+Will
 
Project Credits:
Lead Designer and Landscape Architect: Mia Lehrer + Associates
Additional Teams: Friends of the Los Angeles River, LA River Revitalization Corporation, Geosyntec Consultants, ELP Advisors LLC and Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy
Piggyback Master Plan Group: Friends of the Los Angeles River, Chee Salette Architecture Office, Michael Maltzan Architecture and Perkins+Will
 

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