帕洛玛医疗中心康复花园——自然与疗愈的完美结合/CO Architects
Palomar Medical Center Healing Gardens - Re-Connecting Nature with Healing by CO Architects
2015-01-19 09:53:54    | keywords: 医疗  治愈  景观  建筑  康复 
帕洛玛医疗中心康复花园——自然与疗愈的完美结合/CO Architects
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Courtesy of CO Architects. 感谢CO Architects的投稿,90degree版权所有,不得转载。
 
 
帕洛玛医疗中心占地736 000平方英尺(约6.84公顷),坐落于圣地亚哥郡北部。项目伊始,该诊疗机构便十分重视,希望能为患者营造出花园式的理想疗愈环境和舒适、静谧的绿化康复场所。据相关调查表明,接触自然景观,可有效减缓患者因诊疗而产生的心理压力,且对病体康复具有着积极的影响。因此,帕洛玛医疗中心便决定启动该项目,在中心大楼建筑周边创建一系列康复性花园景观设施,以便病患、医护人员及外来访客都能接触自然、感受自然。
 
系列康复花园的设计与规划以自我修复功能较强的植栽景观为主,既便于养护,又令人赏心悦目,为整个医疗中心都带来了自然生机。项目过程中,景观设计团队与建筑设计团队取得通力协作,栽植许多加州本土植物,打造出柔美、宁静的可持续性疗愈景观环境。
 
医疗中心大楼的1.5英亩(约0.6公顷)大型“绿色屋顶”是系列康复花园的核心部分,各花园布局合理,形成系统化的有序景观空间,患者在这样的景观氛围中散步、休养、畅谈,可有力促进他们的康复治疗。医疗中心内各绿化带以系列康复花园为中轴,有序向外延伸,并将所有康复设施以景观的形式巧妙、柔和地连于一体。诊疗主楼各楼层的电梯前廊中都设有花园露台,而诊疗辅楼的前庭地块中也设有相应的绿化庭园,二者相互映衬间形成个性化的延续性景观空间,增强了两座建筑间的沟通与互动,同时也为人们清晰指明行进的方向。此外,位于项目场地边缘地带上的漫步小路和雨水处理设施在自然绿化景致的装点中形成宁谧的边缘环境,弱化了已建成的医疗中心地块与毗邻的尚待开发区域之间的视觉界线。
 
为更好地实现“康复”与“自然”这两大主题的和谐相融,设计团队将医疗中心的各机动车道置于建筑前庭景观区内,并在诊疗区与急救区入口都设置了相应的机动车下客区,使得患者和外来访客抵达时,便能感受到轻松、愉悦的景观环境。同时,建筑间与楼层间的各连接性步行通道也都环绕这些康复花园而建,怡人的景观元素随处可见。在玻璃建筑外墙的作用下,诊疗辅楼的主入口、导诊大厅、候诊区以及屋顶露台都以一系列的绿化空间为背景,视野开阔,可远眺周边的小山丘自然景致。
 
系列花园空间中各不相同的康复作用:
 
• 诊疗主楼系列花园空间始于入口迎宾庭园,进而以各楼层露台为媒介向上延伸,使得花园景观元素贯穿整座建筑。在其中的一个高层咖啡吧花园中可俯瞰主楼北侧的绿化停车场景观。
 
• 从主楼高层向下望去,两层楼高的诊疗辅楼上约1.5英亩(0.6公顷)的大型绿色屋顶景致清晰可见。绿色屋顶上种植着成片的鲜花和绿草,起伏连绵的植栽景观与周边的自然山景形成和谐、柔美的视觉整体,为主楼高层病房和露台营造出极佳的观景环境。花草绿植在6英寸(约15厘米)厚的土壤层滋养中长势良好,整个绿色屋顶在自然山景的掩映中,俨然成了附近鸟群的又一理想栖息地;同时,再生水灌溉技术的有效应用也确保了绿色屋顶水源的自我供给。屋顶空间内由北至南的起伏式坡地植栽区造就了独特的微气候环境,有利于小树苗等植物的健康生长。此外,屋顶起伏微地形的创建也为整座建筑大型通风管道系统的铺设提供了充足的空间。诊疗辅楼建筑中庭采用全玻璃幕墙式外墙结构,阳光可透过玻璃幕墙直接照射楼内空间,整座建筑的采光效果极佳,甚至在术前准备室、术后恢复区以及手术室内都可享受到温暖的阳光,欣赏到室外怡人的自然景致。绿色屋顶是整个医疗中心建筑体可持续发展重要组成部分,它能够有效减缓地热与眩光对诊疗辅楼的负面影响,进而降低建筑室内对于机械制冷系统的依赖度。毗邻的露台上还设有自助式餐饮坐歇区,可供人们就餐、赏景。
 
• 沿诊疗主楼北侧绿化停车场边缘地带而建的漫步花园,实质上是一系列的专业性康复景观空间,虽邻近繁华喧闹、交通便捷且社交空间较为集中的市政主干道,内部环境却十分安静、舒适,在各式植栽的装点中,彰显出远离喧嚣的冥想氛围。园中各个景观空间都具有各自不同的康复疗效,为病患们的身心放松和彼此交流创造出专业化的治愈空间体验。漫步花园系列空间的起点处位于项目场地东部停车场与迎宾大厅之间主步行道的象征性入口处,这里还设有低矮的景观墙和趣味十足的气泡水景,不禁让病患将各种烦恼的琐事隔绝在外,来此安心静养。
 
• 横贯整个医疗中心景观区的环形步道是林荫花园的景观主体,此外还包含机动车到达区、入口景观空间以及远处的小型庭园空间等。尽管环形步道是该园的主体,但花园的主要作用则是借助周边的各种景观元素,为外来访客和医护人员,甚至匆匆路人辟出一处能够坐歇片刻的区域,营造出舒适、宁静的户外公共休憩场所。
 
系列景观的康复效果
 
在这样花园式的医疗工作环境中,医护人员受益颇多:闲暇时,他们可以选择适当的景观区休憩、放松身心、吃午餐,亦或是在愉快的氛围中开个工作小会,以缓解工作的疲惫。私密空间与公共空间兼而有之的诊疗主楼花园更是为医护人员营造出一系列便捷的工作间或休憩空间,而漫步花园则可供人们较长时间的休息,静赏沿边景致。
 
同样,医生也可以很好地利用这些康复性景观进行自我放松,为自己寻一处私密性景观空间,从繁忙、紧张的医疗工作中解脱出来,适当地休缓片刻。为此,在包括高层咖啡吧花园露台在内的每处景观区中都设有适当的私密空间,以便个人休憩之用。清新的空气、怡人的自然环境、远处连绵的山景、鸟儿栖居的绿色屋顶、闲适而安静的漫步花园,共同组成了帕洛玛医疗中心合理、完善的疗愈景观系统,使患者们能够在如此理想的景观氛围中安心、愉快地疗养、康复。而随着医疗范围的不断扩展,该中心还将增设更多的专业治愈性景观空间。患者家属与医院的其他外来访客也是这些疗愈景观空间的主体享用人群。露台花园和漫步花园则是这两类人群的必经之所,此外,在自助餐露台上用餐时,他们也可欣赏到诊疗辅楼上的绿色屋顶景致。
 
该医疗中心的特色景观系统建设,让人们不禁联想到传统的乡村医院,但随着医疗技术的不断发展、城市化进程的日益加剧以及医疗水平的不断提高,如今的医疗中心似乎大都倾向于医护人才较为集中的闹市区,因此,乡村医院模式在近50年间,也就渐渐淡出了人们的视线。然而,大量相关学术及医疗专业性研究表明:良好的自然景观环境可对患者起到有效的辅助性治疗作用,同时也可提升病患对于医疗服务的满意度。尽管大多数现代医疗机构可能更为注重的是医疗技术的突破性发展,但帕洛玛医疗中心依然用事实证明了病患对于花园式医院环境的渴求,同时也展示了良好的辅助治疗效果。相较于冷冰冰的荧光灯,患者和医护人员自然更为青睐自然阳光沐浴中的疗养环境与工作环境,同样,面对不存在任何生命力的窗帘和围墙,放眼望去,满目充满生机的树植,总是更加能够愉悦身心的,天然、舒适的治疗氛围比现代化的高科技医疗设施更为重要。

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From the inception of Palomar Medical Center (PMC), a 736,000-square-foot hospital in northern San Diego County, Palomar Health had a strong desire to create a healing and green environment, building a garden hospital. Evidence shows that access to nature reduces stress associated with the typical clinical environment and has a positive healing effect on patients. Findings such as these drove the integration of healing gardens into all areas of the medical center’s campus—re-connecting patients, workers, and visitors with nature. 
 
The design and master planning of PMC’s healing gardens restore visitors while also restoring the site through self-sustaining features. Collaborating with Los Angeles-based CO Architects, San Diego-based Spurlock Poirier Landscape Architects included many native California plants in the sustainable landscape, which is intended to create a beautiful, restful, and restorative setting for visitors, staff, and patients. 
 
The expansive 1.5-acre living “green roof” acts as a central piece of the healing gardens, which are designed as a sequence of spaces, creating a journey through which healing can occur and small groups can congregate for relaxation or informal gatherings. The medical center’s green spaces act as an organizing structure, with a central spine of gardens connecting all facilities. The garden terrace at each elevator lobby in the tower, as well as the courtyard gardens in the diagnostic-and-treatment wing individualize spaces, creating wayfinding elements and easing circulation. Easing the boundary between the developed medical center site and undeveloped sightlines beyond, naturalized landscape along the site edges provides trails, treatment of storm water, and a serene setting.  
 
To reinforce the healing connection to nature from the beginning, automobile driveways bring visitors and patients into pleasant courtyards that provide drop-off at the entrance and emergency care. Likewise, pedestrian circulation between (and even into) facilities is organized around gardens. By using green spaces as a directional path, the main entry, lobby, waiting areas, and roof terraces of the Nursing Tower are each related to views of the landscape from PMC’s hilltop site. 
 
Each area within these gardens addresses healing in different ways: 
 
The Tower Gardens begin at the arrival court and extend up through the central tower by way of a series of terraces at each floor. There is also a café garden overlooking a park-like space to the north of the tower. 
 
The approximately 1.5-acre Green Roof above the two-story diagnostic-and-treatment wing offers calming views from the tower rooms above. Part flower garden and part naturalized meadow, this planted rooftop’s undulating form mimics the surrounding hills, providing a seamless visual foreground for mountain views from patient rooms and tower terraces. The six inches of soil and the planting heal the site by connecting and extending the bird habitat with the adjacent landscape, and also becomes self-sustainable with reclaimed water irrigation. The undulating topography—north and south facing slopes—creates unique microclimates and plant associations with the sage scrub. The roof pattern also creates housing space for large mechanical ductwork underneath the rolling hills. Skylights punch through in select places to bring light into floor plates, and a three-story glass atrium allow views of nature and daylight into surgery prep and recovery areas, as well as into operating rooms. The planted roof is also a critical element in the building’s sustainability program, lessening reflected heat and glare into the overlooking patient wing, thus reducing the need for mechanical cooling. An adjacent terrace contains cafeteria seating. 
 
The Stroll Gardens are specialized healing spaces that surround the park-like area north of the tower, providing experiences from more highly developed, convenient, and social spaces near major circulation, to quieter, natural, private, and contemplative spaces farther away from activity. Each addresses different aspects of healing and provides a specialized character and experience for individual relaxation or socializing. The journey begins at a symbolic entry from the main walkway between the east parking area and the arrival lobby. Here, visitors enter through a low wall and traverse a bubbling water feature as a threshold, thereby leaving behind the stresses of the outside world.  
 
The Mall Gardens comprise the primary pedestrian circulation through the campus and engage the arrival court for automobiles, entrance lobby, and garden beyond. Although primarily a circulation corridor, its intention is to provide an opportunity for visitors and staff—even while hurrying from one place to another—to enjoy the gardens and outdoors, and perhaps sit for a moment in a pleasant, relaxing environment. 
 
Healing Effects for Hospital Users 
 
Staff members may benefit greatly from the gardens as places to take breaks, relieve stress, have lunch, or hold informal meetings. Boasting private spaces and gathering areas, the Tower Garden offers convenient break areas, while the Stroll Gardens offer opportunities for longer term relaxation. Doctors can use the gardens’ healing and relaxation opportunities as much as, or more than, other potential users, but have particular concerns for privacy, so as to not always be available in public areas for review of treatment and care. As a result, each part of the site and gardens is designed to include private spaces that allow individual space—even in the more social spaces, such as the café garden terrace. 
 
With fresh air, exposure to nature, views of the distant landscape and hills, as well as an overview of the Green Roof and Stroll Gardens, the Tower Gardens offer the primary opportunity for patients to enjoy the benefits of nature. As treatment programs develop for care, specific therapeutic gardens may be added to the site. Families and visitors to patients may be one of the major user groups for both the Tower Gardens and Stroll Gardens. Visitors can explore the terrace gardens or walk through the stroll gardens when arriving or departing PMC. The green roof will be enjoyed by visitors as they use the cafeteria terrace. 
 
Re-connecting people to nature harks back to the traditional country hospital, which has faded from view in the past 50 years, squeezed nearly out of existence by the increasing power of medical technologies and pharmaceuticals, urbanization, and the need for medical centers to locate near large pools of doctors. Yet numerous academic and industry studies have shown improved patient outcomes and satisfaction when natural settings can be accessed. Though the modern hospital has properly evolved into a technological wonder, the gardens of PMC are still highly desirable for medical outcomes. Patients and staff benefit when daylight replaces fluorescent flickering, and when sightlines to trees and gardens replace curtains and walls without compromising the high-tech wonders of modern healthcare. 
 
 
公司简介:
CO Architects一贯专注于医疗保健、学术机构以及科技类建筑的规划与设计,是美国知名建筑设计企业之一。在医疗设施的建设方面,该企业拥有着丰富而全面的项目经验,从现有设施评估到全新综合性医疗园区创建,均有不俗的业绩。其医疗设施业务范围囊括医院、门诊设施、专科诊所、医疗办公大楼以及医药性制造厂的扩建和改造等,此外,还包括医学院和综合医疗保健教育机构的设计与建造。
 
Company Profile:
CO Architects is a nationally recognized architecture firm specializing in healthcare, academic, and science and technology architectural planning, programming, and design. The firm’s healthcare experience ranges from existing facility evaluations to new, comprehensive medical campuses including, hospitals, outpatient facilities, specialty clinics, medical office buildings, and facility expansion and renovation. CO Architects’ work on academic medical campuses includes new schools of medicine and allied health. 

 

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