日本保土谷横滨太阳城老年公寓/SWA
Sun City Yokohama, Hodogaya, Japan by SWA
2015-01-27 10:06:06    | keywords: 养老  景观  步道  水景  绿化 
日本保土谷横滨太阳城老年公寓/SWA
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Courtesy of SWA. 感谢SWA的投稿,90degree版权所有,不得转载。
 
 
在过去的20年间,日本的退休养老机制发生了很大的改变,因而对于高品质老年住宅社区的需求也随之日渐增长。许多先前在大家庭环境中安度退休生活的老年人,如今也大都愿意选择养老院的生活方式。横滨太阳城老年公寓工程项目,分两期建成,于2013年全面竣工,拥有700套独立式生活公寓和120间单人专业护理室,为入住的老年人提供优质的居住环境和专业的护理服务。
 
项目客户方和设计团队都十分注重对项目场地自然特性的维护:项目设计打破传统的养老院空间格局,呈现自由、闲静的自然景观环境,为老年人营造“村庄”式的生活化居住氛围。愉悦、舒适的户外景致为居住于此的老人们、外来观光者以及周边住区民众打造出一系列心旷神怡的公共景观空间,加之项目场地所特有的自然风光和毗邻横滨的地理优势,使得这座老年公寓成为日本众多同类养老住区设施的典范之一。
 
独特的自然环境
 
该项目场地位于一处树木繁茂的坡地之上,视野开阔,可俯瞰横滨东部市区,坐拥独特的天然地貌,且除公寓楼主体建筑外,场地其余三面均保留自然开放空间原貌,为景观设计奠定了良好的基础。人性化的建筑布局与精心设计的景观地形,成就了该项目家庭式的温馨居所环境。
 
场地内,一系列日式漫步花园传统景观风格犹如浑然天成。经过巧妙的道路景观设计,漫步花园中形成系统化的宁谧赏景步道,悠闲踱步间,既可遍游全园,也可细细品味各具特色的小型花园空间。蜿蜒贯穿于园中的这些步道上都适当设有相应的水景汀步与景观石阶,既丰富了漫步的乐趣,又为腿脚相对稳健的老人们提供了锻炼身体的机会;设计师们还为腿脚不太灵便的老人们专门设置了轮椅通道,以便他们坐着轮椅享受户外自然美景。同时,这些汀步与石阶也造就了层次分明的景观空间,创建出层次分明的观景视角与景观体验。此外,由该项目客户承建的另一大型市政社区公园,恰与该项目毗邻,深受入住老人孙辈们的喜爱,老人可与孩子们在公园中一同玩耍,享受天伦之乐。
 
可持续性及环境特性
 
在场地规划的初始阶段,景观设计团队便强调应谨慎划定公寓楼建筑主体的建设位置与范围,以尽量减少对自然地貌造成的不利影响。经过科学、合理的建筑位置测定,项目场地上原有的绿化植被得以完好保留,树林依旧繁茂,且进一步确保了周边自然林地地形的完整性。适当的绿化密度也是设计团队考量的主要因素之一,大规模的多层次景观空间设计理念是设计团队在项目竞标中击败竞争对手的有力法宝,它最大程度地降低了对自然环境的不利影响,并完好地保留住更多天然林地、绿化植被等敏感性环境资源。
 
就地形角度而言,一处东南倾向的峡谷将项目场地一分为二,这一天然分界为整个场地的自然排水提供了有利条件:雨水可经由两个较大“公寓村庄”间的主要景观空间实现层阶式缓流排水后,再通过相应的战略性净化、回流留处理,实现水资源的有效循环利用。设计团队将较大的防洪及滞洪区建于峡谷底部,以有效应对整个项目场地的暴雨径流。此外,为实现均衡挖填,设计团队还做了精确的地势层级与坡度设置分析。
 
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总平面图    Site Plan
 
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项目场地视角俯瞰横滨东部市区及东京湾景致
Site context looking east to Yokohama City and Tokyo Bay beyond
Image by: Tom Fox, SWA Group
 
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公共建筑设施围合中的老年公寓南部“村庄”特色水景
Feature waterscape at the South Village is framed by communal building program. 
Image by: Tom Fox, SWA Group
 
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建筑式桥体横跨排水河道,连接东、西“村庄”
Architectural bridge connecting east and west villages spans watercourse. 
Image by: Tom Fox, SWA Group
 
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宁谧、惬意的步道景致总能唤起老人们来到花园散步的兴致
Shady, gentle pathways invite residents into the gardens for a stroll. 
Image by: Tom Fox, SWA Group
 
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水景汀步与景观石阶为老人们适当锻炼腿脚创造了良好的环境条件
Stairs and stepping stones allow challenging pathway alternatives to the accessible routes.
Image by: Tom Fox, SWA Group
 
 
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错落有致的层阶式绿化景观在宜人水景的映衬中,营造出理想的私密冥想空间氛围
Layered landscape and water feature provide a space for private reflection.
Image by: Tom Fox, SWA Group
 
 
The nature of retirement in Japan has changed over the last two decade sand increased demand for high-quality residential communities for seniors is growing. Many of those who traditionally spent their retirement living in extended family units are opting for alternative living arrangements. The Sun City Yokohama project, built in two phases and completed in 2013, provides 700 independent living apartments and 120 skilled nursing private rooms allowing for more care when residents require it. 
 
Preserving the site’s natural character was important to both the client and the design team. It was very important also that the “villages” feel residential, not institutional, and the careful attention to the landscape helped achieve this goal. Enjoyable and comfortable outdoor areas for residents, visitors, and the surrounding community create appealing spaces to gather, while the natural beauty and proximity to neighboring Yokohama makes Sun City Yokohama one of the most unique and desired senior residential communities in Japan. 
 
Special Factors
 
The Sun City Yokohama site, with preserved open space on three sides, boasts truly unique topography, on a wooded hillside overlooking Yokohama City to the east. Sensitive building layout and carefully sculpted terrain make it a destination landscape for residents and families alike.
 
The Japanese stroll garden tradition inspired the garden design itself. Stroll gardens offer processional paths through a thoughtfully designed landscape, including both an overall experience and carefully articulated small spaces. The paths at Sun City Yokohama offer routes for the more sure-footed elders with stepping stones and stairways, as well as a fully wheelchair-accessible path. Precise grading makes possible this circulation plan through multiple elevations and garden experiences. Additionally, a large neighborhood park, built by the Client and deeded to the City, has become very popular with the grandchildren of Sun City Yokohama residents.
 
Sustainability and Environmental Features
 
Initial site planning included the landscape architects, who argued for careful insertion of building footprints into the natural topography to minimize impact. Great pains were taken to preserve existing trees and wooded groves to further retain the character of the surrounding forest. Density was also carefully considered; the design team bested a competitor with a sprawling multi-level proposal with a design that minimized impact and preserved more of the forest. Protecting the existing views, plantings, and context demanded restraint and sensitivity. 
 
Topographically, the site is bisected by a southeast sloping valley. This watershed offered an opportunity to feature the natural drainage as a gently cascading watercourse through the primary garden space between the larger two “villages”. Stormwater is carefully channeled into the watercourse and strategically detained for recirculation. Additionally, a larger flood control detention basin was built at the bottom of the valley to accommodate storm runoff from the entire site. Precise grading and slope analysis for balanced cut and fill was also carefully considered.
 

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