上海崇明岛北湖地区新地形规划/SWA Group
New Terrain for the North Lake Region of Chongming Island, Shanghai, China by SWA Group
2015-03-03 15:47:36    | keywords: 滨水  林地  生态  水文  规划 
上海崇明岛北湖地区新地形规划/SWA Group
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Courtesy of SWA Group. 感谢SWA Group的投稿,90degree版权所有,不得转载。
 
 
崇明岛毗邻上海,现有面积约1 042平方公里。旨在为上海居民及游客创建世界公认的可持续开发区总体规划将崇明岛北湖地区纳入了规划范围。长江三角洲入海口地区的大面积生境退化、湿地破坏及水污染的严重程度,已使三角洲的总体生态系统岌岌可危。上海市将北湖地区划为生态旅游区、生态敏感农业区及战略开放空间保护区。
 
SWA为该区域的景观恢复制定了多项创新策略,可达到或超过现有农业实践所产生的经济收益。这些策略在许多碳补偿项目及研发合作中经受住了考验。在规划过程中,如何将都市与自然融为一体的问题促成了“文化生态/生态文化”这一共生理念的诞生,使之成为最终总体规划的前提概念。
 
项目分析
恢复北湖地区的生态完整性取决于对整个区域的景观体系是否有一个清楚的认识。SWA与当地的科学家及享誉国际的环境工程师合作,对当地的地域文脉、水文、自然沉降、史上意义重大的造陆活动、植被及农业用途等进行了全面分析。该研究有助于在大面积规划场地之前,了解该地的前期开发情况。
 
在数据收集阶段,有利于区域水文的规划与当前农民的土地使用方式出现了明显的根本性冲突。打造湿地生境需要移拆除防洪堤,而这样便会对农民的传统耕作方式产生严重影响。因此,有必要进一步开展植树造林及碳补偿项目的可行性研究,以补偿农民因改造传统稻田而产生的经济损失。
 
规划设计
北湖地区的规划设计目标与实施战略及总体规划的物理布局均息息相关。在设计该项目时,SWA力求实现以下五大目标:
1.打造有利于恢复生态功能的景观结构,同时为受影响的农民提供合理的经济方案。
2.完成上海市的计划,为市民及游客的福祉提供天然庇护。
3.将土地与崇明岛现有及拟定的区域系统联系起来。
4.打造有利于环境恢复的开放空间项目,以消除大型防洪堤历史建筑的影响。
5.开发开放空间系统,以支持国际上不间断开展的有关湿地建设及社区环境解译的研究活动。
 
总体规划所涉扩建包括以下重点项目及组成部分:
1.农庄度假村及农业研究设施——为上海居民提供一个追忆农耕历史的好去处,同时为专注有机烹饪艺术的烹饪学院提供支持。小型的农业研究设施也为试验农业的监控提供了可能。
2.有机农业及可持续水产养殖——有助于满足项目区域及大崇明岛地区的人类粮食需求。
3.污水生物处理设施及相关湿地处理区——从该项目及邻近村庄收集并回收污水和雨水,作湖滨度假区的冲厕及景观灌溉之用,同时增强地下水的渗透能力。
4.2 000万千瓦时的风力农场——采用1.5兆瓦的风力发电机,其设计旨在为该场地所有能源需求提供电力并将多余电力输出到大崇明岛电网中。
5.精心设计的盐水湖——有助于冬季水源流入,其高盐度和低沉积百分比可使湖水变蓝并提高水质。
6.为到访上海的游客打造的13万平方米的湖滨度假村——包括酒店、会议中心、健身设施、餐饮服务、商店、动态景观空间、一系列水上花园、码头、圆形露天剧场及停车场等。
7.养生温泉——主要交通工具为船只,对土生土长的有机草药进行了充分利用。
8.“西湿地解译区”及“研发区”,用于华东师范大学与美国研究所在制定城市湿地恢复策略方面的专业合作。该合作项目旨在研究多种湿地建设方法,场地租金将从双方的联邦机构或部门下拨的研究与教育津贴中支付。
 
实施管理
SWA制定了促进总体规划所涉项目实施的四大策略:
1.策略一:“重塑公私合作关系”,对应项目所涉土地所有权。土地个人所有权转让有助于将地势较高的旱地改造为地势较低的湿地,从而实现上海规划局制定的合理发展目标并扩大湿地建设。
2.策略二:“新增生态土地合作”,聚焦固有环境及社会效益之外的可持续经济林栽培效益。植树造林项目的基础为碳补偿项目的经济模式。作为经济作物,区域内的同类森林年种植收益为每公顷120美元,而养护收益为每公顷45美元。以此类推到“新地形”中的丘陵区域,保守估计总体规划中的森林区年造林收益约为5万美元。
3.策略三:“农作物生长过程”,调动国际研究界与当地农业土地所有者合作。值得一提的是,美国麻省理工大学的波士顿海洋研究中心已将该场地认定为湿地建设研究的重要景观,并指出将该土地用于实验所付的租金将远高于当期的水稻产值,即每月每公顷40美元。
4。策略四:利用长江丰富的沉积物及上海市以人群为基础的规划创新项目。该项目引入了通过沉积物填筑及高地建设实现的场地密化措施。上海市规划局将土地利用率定为每人0.65公顷。“增加土地——增加项目”策略是根据以人群为基础的规划项目与高地总面积息息相关这一认识作出的。通过阻截沉积物建设高地的同时,可实施更多的项目,以创造更多的经济收益。这些项目有助于降低车辆里程数及相关碳排放量。
 
项目总结
“北湖地区新地形”规划为改善退化的生态系统制定了所需的恢复计划及一系列实施策略,以解决大规模景观改造所产生的经济问题。该项目侧重收集关键环境数据,了解当前及过去的社会经济条件并提出解决生态和经济可持续发展相关问题的规划理念。该框架为开发商、市政官员、设计师及规划师提供了一个打造开放空间并解决全人类共同面临的关键环境问题的愿景。

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崇明岛北湖地区因毗邻人口急剧增长的上海而被视为全球最具价值的房地产开发地之一
The North Lake region of Chongming Island is considered one of the most valuable pieces of real estate in the world, given its vicinity to the burgeoning population of Shanghai, China.
 
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长江三角洲的季节性水循环构成了世界上绝无仅有的生态系统,依靠历史悠久的防洪堤,该系统的建设得以良好保护
Seasonal hydrological cycles in the Yangtze River delta create a globally-unique ecology that is artificially protected through the development of historic levees. 
 
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沉积数据显示了历史上重大的围海造陆活动及过去一百年以来上升了8米多的海床情况
Sedimentation data describes historic land accretion and sea-bed rise of over 8 meters over the last century. 
 
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总体规划将客户的方案嵌入到为开放空间系统的实施提供经济框架的景观构造中
The Master Plan embeds the Client's program into a landscape structure that provides an economic framework for the open space system implementation. 
 
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崇明岛边缘战略分区的重新划定方案再次引入了对全球而言意义非凡的滨海湿地元素
The proposed redefinition of strategic zones along the edge of the island reintroduces globally-important coastal wetlands. 
 
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滨海湿地及各类山地生境建设侧重于边缘地带全新生态环境的建设,打造出诸多极具教育性及记述性的景观元素
The creation of coastal wetlands and various upland habitats captures a series of new ecologies at the edge, creating educational and interpretive landscapes. 
 
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新增的潮水引流与改造后的防洪堤条件相结合,使场地中的山地更为稳固, 从而形成一个充满生机的生态系统
A combination of new tidal inflows and reinvented levee conditions secures the site's uplands while generating a dynamic ecological system. 
 
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综合水文系统包含污水回用、潮水引流及雨水管理,有助于营造丰富多元的健康生态环境
A complex hydrological system that includes wastewater recycling, tidal inflows and stormwater management promotes a rich, diverse, and health ecological condition. 
 
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丰富多彩的景观环境有利于已建项目的发展及该片土地的总体生态健康
A rich landscape condition provides benefits to the built program as well as the overall ecological health of the land. 
 
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崇明岛固有的生态特性与已建项目融为一体,成为上海都市生活的休憩空间
The inherent ecological character of Chongming Island coalesces with the built program, serving as an urban respite for the city of Shanghai. 
 
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广阔的森林及滨海湿地构成了开放空间项目及大规模景观开发的经济框架
Extensive forests and coastal wetlands define the open space program and the economic framework for large-scale landscape development. 
 
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重塑公私合作关系:干旱的高地转让给了开发商,而低地则作为生态用地,仍为公共所有
Redefining Public-Private Partnerships: High, dry land is transferred to the developer while lowland is placed in public ownership as ecological lands. 
 
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新增生态用地合作:打造合理的合作关系成为促进经济发展的引擎,使开放空间建设迸发生机
Partnerships for Growing Ecological Lands: Creating the right partnership opens the opportunity for open space as an economic generator. 
 
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农作物生长过程比较:从长远的角度看,规划的生态用地价值将远超水稻种植价值
Comparing Evolving Crops: On a long-term basis, the value of proposed ecological lands will far exceed the value of growing rice. 
 
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新增用地——新增项目:基于人口增长的开发项目引入了通过沉积物填筑和高地建设实现的场地密化措施
Adding Land-Adding Program: This population-based program introduces site densification through the accretion of sediment and the creation of high land.
 
Chongming Island has an area of 1,042 square kilometers and is close to Shanghai.  The North Lake Region of Chongming Island sits within a master plan that seeks to create a world-recognized sustainable development for Shanghai's residents and visitors. Located at the mouth of the Yangtze River Delta, substantial habitat degradation, wetland destruction and water pollution have reached a point of critical concern to the Delta's overall ecosystem. The North Lake Region is zoned by the City of Shanghai for eco-tourism, ecologically sensitive agriculture, and a strategic open space reserve.
 
SWA proposed innovative strategies for landscape restoration that met or exceeded the current economic income of existing agricultural practices. These strategies manifest themselves in carbon offsetting programs as well as research and development partnerships. Throughout the planning process, questions of how to blend urbanity with nature resulted in the symbiotic idea of"Cultured Ecology/Ecological Culture,"the conceptual premise to the final master plan.
 
Analysis
Reclaiming the ecological integrity of the North Lake Region is dependent on a clear understanding of the landscape systems throughout the site. In collaboration with a local scientist and an international environmental engineer, SWA identified the regional context, hydrology, sedimentation, historic land creation, vegetation, and agricultural uses. These studies assisted in understanding the pre-development conditions of the largely engineered site.
 
During the data collection phase, it became clear that there was a fundamental conflict between what was best from a regional hydrologic perspective and how farmers were currently using the land. The creation of wetland habitat called for the removal of levees, something that would severely impact farmers' traditional farming methods. This required further research into the feasibility of using afforestation and carbon offsetting programs to economically compensate farmers for the replacement of traditional rice fields.
 
Planning and Design Initiative
The goals for the planning and design of the North Lake Region were as much tied to the implementation strategy as they were to the physical layout of the plan. Five prevailing goals assisted SWA in addressing the City of Shanghai's program:
1. Create a landscape structure that restores ecological function while adequately providing economic alternatives to impacted farmers.
2. Achieve City of Shanghai's program of having a nature-based refuge for the benefit of citizens and tourists.
3. Connect the land to existing and proposed regional systems throughout Chongming Island.
4. Create an open space program of environmental restoration that will eliminate the impact of the historical building of large-scale levees.
5. Develop an open space system that will also support ongoing international research regarding wetland creation and community-scale environmental interpretation.
 
The build-out of the master plan includes the following critical programs and elements: 
1. Farm resort and agricultural research facilities that allow Shanghai urbanites a destination to reconnect to their agrarian history while supporting a culinary institute focused on organic culinary arts. The small agricultural research facility provides an opportunity to monitor experimental agriculture.
2. An organic agriculture and sustainable aquiculture operation that helps to meet human food needs of the project area as well as the larger Chongming Island.
3. A biological wastewater treatment facility and associated wetland treatment zone that collects wastewater and stormwater from the project and adjacent villages to recycle water for toilet flushing and landscape irrigation at the lake resort and to promote groundwater infiltration.
4. A 20-million kWh wind farm using 1.5 megawatt wind turbines designed to provide power for all site energy needs and a surplus for the larger Chongming Island grid.
5. An engineered salt water lake to allow inflow during the winter months where high saline and low sediment percentages create a blue lake to improve water quality.
6. A 130,000 square meter lake resort for Shanghai's visitors which includes a hotel and conference center,  fitness facility, food services and shops, active landscape spaces, a series of floating gardens, marina, amphitheater, and a parking structure.
7. A health spa that is primarily accessed via boat transport and capitalizes on the organic herbs and medicines grown on the site.
8. An"East Wetlands Interpretive Zone"and"Research and Development Area"that is dedicated to a professional collaboration between East China Normal University and an American research institute to develop restoration strategies for urban wetlands.  The partnership will establish various methods of wetland creation and pay rent with research and educational grants from their respective federal agencies and ministries.
 
Implementation and Administration
SWA identified four implementation strategies that will help to promote the initiatives within the master plan.
1. The initial strategy,"Redefining Public-Private Partnerships,"responds to the ownership of lands within the project.  A land transfer of individual ownerships will allow high and dry land to be exchanged for low wetlands in order to achieve the appropriate development as well as proliferate the creation of wetlands throughout the site by the Shanghai Planning Bureau, (SPB).
2. The second strategy,"Partnerships for Growing Ecological Lands,"is focused on the benefits of planting and maintaining forests for economic sustainability purposes, beyond intrinsic environmental and social benefits.  The afforestation program is based on the economic model of a carbon offsetting program. As an economic crop, regionally similar forests have yielded $120(US) per hectare/year for planting and $45(US) per hectare/year for health maintenance. Extending this to the upland areas of the"New Terrain,"a conservative estimate for afforestation is approximately $50,000 (US)/year for the area dedicated to forest in the master plan.
3. The third strategy,"Evolving Crops,"sets in motion a partnership between the international research community and local agricultural landowners. Specifically, the University of Massachusetts' Marine Research Center in Boston has identified the site as an important landscape for wetland creation research. The University has indicated that the rent paid to use this land for experimentation would far exceed the current yield of rice production, $40(US) per hectare/month.
4. The final strategy capitalizes on the abundance of sediments in the Yangtze River and the innovation of population-based programming by the City of Shanghai.  This program introduces site densification through the accretion of sediment and the creation of high land. The City of Shanghai Planning Bureau has identified a land use ratio of one person for every 0.65 hectares. The strategy called"Adding Land – Adding Program"is based on the understanding that population-based programming is related to the total area of high land. It creates high land, through sedimentation catches, where more program can be built to provide for more economic income. These programs would reduce the vehicle miles traveled and its associated carbon emissions. 
 
Summary
"New Terrain for the North Lake Region"is a plan that provides restoration initiatives needed to improve a degraded ecosystem while setting in motion a set of implementation strategies that address the economic issues surrounding large-scale improvements to the landscape. The project focused on gathering critical environmental data, understanding current and historic socioeconomic conditions, and providing planning concepts that solve problems of ecological and economic sustainability. This framework provides a vision for developers, city officials, designers, and planners to create open space and address critical environmental issues that we collectively face at a global scale.
 
 

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