吴淞滨水景观基础设施建设试点工程/SWA
Wusong Riverfront Landscape Infrastructure Pilot Project by SWA
2015-03-18 13:00:16    | keywords: 滨水  景观  生态  修复 
吴淞滨水景观基础设施建设试点工程/SWA
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Courtesy of SWA. Via ASLA. 90degree编译,未经许可,不得转载。
 
 
“这是2012年度最为优秀的项目之一,创意十足、施工性强,对相应需求的解析极为全面,还提出了具体的实施建议。”——2012专业奖评委会
“New and innovative. One of the best projects this year, from the constructability to the analysis that shows what you're thinking about and a hint of how you can do it.”
—2012 Professional Awards Jury
 
 
项目概述
水处理试点工程以地方性滨河区生态恢复愿景为导向,并在复垦的后工业取土坑及退化水系基础上进行建设。对项目设计及实施的监控和现场调整有助于跟进项目工作的进展。该项目将成为通过景观基础设施建设促进吴淞江廊道一带的野生动物栖息地建设、公共教育及经济发展的典范。
 
项目描述
以水系统为基础进行建设
吴淞江(即苏州河)是长江三角洲北部水路运输的主要干道。得益于其物流优势,各种工业设施遍布滨水区,取代了花桥镇曾经的渔村面貌。经过几十年无计划的功利发展以及工厂、农场以及附近开发工程的乱排乱放,吴淞江已成为一个环境恶化的排水沟。此外,临近的国际化大都市上海也为当地带来了前所未见的人口及商业发展。花桥市政府将不可避免的都市化趋势看作是重构滨水区用地及恢复其“水乡”美名的一次机遇。因此,当地规划局举办了一场针对当地第一期发展规划的竞赛,旨在支持该地区经济的稳健发展,创造公共开放空间,恢复和保护吴淞江一带的生态环境。

胜出的设计团队提出通过水治理景观基础设施的建设,解决当地显而易见的水污染问题。该项目优先考虑水质问题,认为水质的改善有助于吴淞江两岸的植被恢复、生境建设以及娱乐和社会项目的整合,并最终使原已退化的水网环境成为一个宜居环境。获得项目委托之后,设计团队的首席景观建筑师与水质科学家、湿地生物学家、水文工程师、建筑师及发展商等相关顾问携手合作,开展为期一年的综合分析研究。对吴淞江水体及其流域以及预期开发影响的详细研究,为原计划提供了信息来源,使其精益求精。随后,位于重点U型区、面积达95平方米(235英亩)的第一期项目在上游的治理试点区开工建设。
 
试点工程——综合设计与规划过程
通过实地研究发现,该区域曾有一家砖厂,遗留下许多基坑,且被附近地块未经处理的地表径流淹没,江水的状况也不适合大部分滨水项目的实施。因此,该计划确定了一个治理流速,可将五级水质(中国最低水质等级)改善至三级水质(适合娱乐休闲)。考虑到湿地的水治理能力有限,该计划还整合了被动(治理型湿地水处理)与主动(曝气池良好的空气扩散)的水治理技术,以实现水质目标。作为该项目独特分析与设计过程的一部分,滨水公园的一系列试点项目正在逐步建设中。试点项目的重要性在于,通过对已建区域进行定点监控所采集的信息有助于未来阶段设计的完善。此外,试点项目对决定水量预算、水泵控制、植物生根及预测各种季节性变化至关重要。将规划过程与设计和建设思路联系起来,有助于增强和完善最终建设的项目。
 
该试点项目位于未来开发区的上游地带,吸纳了江水及城市的雨水排放。该系统效仿了多种自然过程,成为吴淞江的“肾脏”,有助于清理排放到吴淞江上游的工业废料和废水,并扩大下游公园的受益范围。一系列池塘与水渠通过交替含氧与缺氧环境的沉淀、过滤、曝气及生物加工,清除了目标污染物。 这项以目标为导向的水利设计/工程进一步探索了以景观为基础实现治理目标的技术,包括估算阻滞时间及流速,利用分级法控制流速与流量,以及避免阻滞等。设计团队还提出了一个“改造”方案,使水治理单元的设计符合现有区域的等高线,从而有利于平衡土壤保持的挖填工作。例如,基坑得以保留,作曝气之用,而治理水渠则进行了分级,使水沿最长的路线通过湿地植物实现过滤。净化进程经过了精确的计算,而该系统的设计也有助于灵活应对洪涝干旱情况。植栽设计源自植物的空间质量以及暂时演替策略,水质得到改善时,需要高营养水的净化植物将为其他植物所取代。 
 
环境与发展的协同作用
新型水治理系统的设计也考虑到用户体验的问题,并强调公众教育。在建于最初试点项目区域的净水湿地公园内,池塘与水渠以功能性应用为基础,设计成一系列花园及开放空间。例如,沉积池兼具倒影池功能;治理水渠将成为一个石头花园及观鸟休息室;而曝气过程也将通过艺术手法,设计成涟漪池和气泡池。净水湿地公园内建设一条贯穿其中的散步道,将各种精心设计的空间及与众不同的景观串联起来,编织起一个净水之旅的故事。这样,该设计便成了一个教育性的体验,使社区居民得以了解水体净化过程,这是传统的封闭管道工程方案所无法提供的体验。

经过净水湿地公园的净化后,水会流入未来商业开发区:包括内湾园区,码头休闲娱乐区以及滨水步行购物区等。内湾区包括各种生境,使滨水享受最大化,为居民、游客及工人带来丰富多彩的滨水体验。该设计通过缩小水利基础设施的规模,减少了三分之一的项目用地,确保未来所有的建筑都能直接使用干净的水,极大地提高了社会、美学及娱乐效益等方面的总体开发价值。 水净化系统将成为吴淞江沿岸负责任的开发典范,以建成形态为该地区引入人工湿地技术,同时扩大了当前设计景观(从被动装饰到能够主动提供生态系统服务并作出改变的复杂系统)的认知。吴淞滨水商业区第二期工程以公园内已建景观基础设施为基础进行开发,已于2012年动工,计划10年内整体竣工。
 
客户评价
“该试点项目大大提高了周围开发区的土地价值,因为该区域内罕有货真价实的滨水物业。”——当地规划局局长负责人
“该设计团队的方案极富远见,为当地的水质问题提供了解决方案,引起了我们对吴淞江沿岸湿地的关注与建设。能为该项目贡献一份力量,我们感到由衷的自豪。——总工程师
 
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河流走廊沿线的散乱点污染源;开发区与保护区规划的用地调整计划
Scattered point pollution sources along the river corridor; Restructured landuse plan for planned development and conservation.
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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试点项目开工前的一期场地状况
Phase I site conditions before pilot project.
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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以水网为基础进行建设:景观基础设施的建设及此后水质的改善有利于植被恢复、生境建设以及休闲娱乐项目与社会项目的整合
Building Upon a Water Network: The landscape infrastructure and resulting water quality improvements will in turn make possible re-vegetation, habitat creation, and integration of recreational and social programs.
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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试点项目位于未来开发区的上游地带
The pilot project is sited upstream of future development phases.
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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试点项目及未来开发区的视觉效果图
A vision rendering of the pilot project and future development phases.
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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通过监测及反复试验,目标明确的水利设计/水利工程探索了实现治理目标的各种技术
Through monitoring and trial-and-error, the goal-oriented hydraulic design/engineering explores techniques for achieving treatment goals. 
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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根据治理顺序及场地状况对原型进行测试和改进
The prototypes were tested and retrofitted to the treatment sequences and site conditions.
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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新建的水治理系统考虑了用户体验问题,并强调了公众教育
The new water-treatment system considers user experience and emphasizes public education.
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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水处理单元的设计与现有地形相匹配,为土壤保持进行灵活的充填开采
The water treatment cells were designed to fit into the existing site contours, balancing cut and fill for soil conservation.
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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季节性水位变化控制包括河流水位及雨水径流
Water level control for seasonal changes includes both river level and stormwater runoffs.
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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进行中的试点项目:入口喷泉及沉降池
Pilot Project in progress: Intake Fountain and Sediment Pond
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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进行中的试点项目:水治理水渠及曝气池
Pilot Project in progress: Treatment Channel and Aeration Pool
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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进行中的试点项目:外河岸及内湾河岸边缘
Pilot Project in progress: Exterior River Banks and Inner Bay Riparian Edge
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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景观基础设施使人们得以重新与水亲密接触,提高未来发展价值,重塑花桥的水乡形象
The landscape infrastructure reconnects people to the water, increases future development values, and re-establishes Huaqiao's water-town identity.
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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未来发展试点景观基础设施
Pilot Landscape Infrastructure for Future Development
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
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未来生境试点景观基础设施
Pilot Landscape Infrastructure for Future Habitat
Image by: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian
 
Project Statement
Guided by a regional riverfront restoration vision, a water treatment pilot project is being implemented upon reclaimed post-industrial borrow pits and a degraded water network. Monitoring and in-field adjustments to the design and implementation will inform the future phases of work. The project will serve as a model for landscape infrastructure supporting wild-life habitat, public education, and economic growth along the Wusong River corridor.
 
Project Narrative
Building Upon a Water System
Wusong River is the major water transportation corridor of the Northern Yangtze River Delta. Due to this logistical advantage, scattered industrial uses have taken over the riverfront, replacing the fish-farm villages that were once the identity of Huaqiao Township. Over decades of unplanned utilitarian uses, and discharge from factories, farm land and adjacent development, the River has become an environmentally degraded drainage ditch. In addition, the proximity to metropolitan Shanghai has brought unprecedented population and business growth to the area. The Huaqiao municipality saw the inevitable urbanization trend as an opportunity to restructure its land use, and regain their water-town identity. The Planning Bureau hosted a competition for a regional and first phase development plan, with the goal of supporting the area's robust economy, creating public open space, and restoring/conserving the environment along the Wusong River.
 
The design team's winning proposal established a water treatment landscape infrastructure to address the obvious water pollution. The first step made water quality the primary focus, suggesting that improved water quality would in turn make possible re-vegetation, habitat creation along the banks, and integration of recreational and social programs and finally human habitation of a formerly degraded water network.After being awarded the commission, a year-long comprehensive analysis was undertaken by collaboration between the lead landscape architect and affiliated consultants, including water-quality scientists, wetland biologists, hydrology engineers, architects and developers. The detailed study of the water body, its watershed and impacts of anticipated development helped inform and refine the original plan. The 95-hectare (235-acre) first phase at the key oxbow portion then started its construction at the upstream treatment pilot area.
 
The Pilot Project — Integrated Design and Planning Process
The site study found that the site was riddled with excavation pits left by a former brick factory, inundated by untreated surface runoff from adjacent parcels, and the river water was unsuitable for most waterfront programs. The design established a treatment flow rate capable of treating Class V water (the lowest water quality classification in China) to Class III water (suitable for recreation). Recognizing the limits of wetlands alone for treatment, the design integrates passive (treatment wetland processing) and active (fine diffused air in aeration ponds) water treatment technologies to achieve the water quality goals.As part of the unique analysis and design process, the park is currently being constructed as a series of pilot projects. The importance of the pilot project approach is that information gathered from site specific monitoring of built portions informs the design refinement of future stages. This is especially critical in determining water budgets, pump controls, plant establishment and anticipating seasonal changes. Linking the planning process with design and construction thinking strengthens and enriches the eventual built project.
 
The pilot project is sited upstream of future development parcels, and intakes both river water and municipal stormwater outfalls. The system mimics a wide variety of natural processes and acts as the "kidney"for the river, cleaning sludge and industrial effluents discharged into the river upstream, extending the benefits of the park downstream to a larger region. A sequence of pools and channels remove targeted pollutants through settling, filtration, aeration, and bio-processing in alternating oxic and anoxic environments.The goal-oriented hydraulic design/engineering further explores landscape based techniques for achieving treatment objectives, including estimating residence time and flow rates, manipulating velocity and volume through grading, and avoiding stagnation. A'retrofitting'approach to design was proposed, in which the water treatment cells were designed to fit into the existing site contours, balancing cut and fill for soil conservation. For example, excavation pits were preserved and utilized for the aeration process, while treatment channels were graded to let water filter through wetland plants over the longest paths. While the purification process was precisely calculated, the system is designed to be flexible to accommodate flood and drought conditions. Planting design derived from the plants's patial qualities and a temporal succession strategy whereby cleansing plants, requiring high-nutrient water, would give way to other species once water quality had improved.
 
Synergy between Environment and Development
The design of the new water-treatment system also considers user experience and emphasizes public education. In the Treatment Wetland Park, built upon the initial pilot project sites, ponds and channels are conceived as a series of gardens and open spaces, based on functional uses. For example, a sediment pond is also a reflection pool; a treatment channel becomes a stone garden and bird blind lounge; and the aeration process is artistically expressed as ripple and bubble pools. A promenade runs the length of the Treatment Wetland Park, connecting the variety of programmed spaces and distinct landscapes, weaving together the story of the water-purification journey. In this way the design is an educational experience, where the community can witness the process of water cleansing, in a way not available with typical closed pipe engineering solutions.
 
After the water is purified in the Treatment Wetland Park, it flows into the future development areas of the business district: the inner bay campus, the marina recreational zone and canal walk shopping area. The inner bay includes diverse habitat types, maximizing enjoyment of the water's edge and integrating varied experiences of the water for residents, visitors and workers. By scaling the water infrastructure to occupy less than one-third of the site, the design ensures that all future buildings will have direct access to the cleaned water, greatly increasing the value of the overall development, for social, aesthetic and recreational benefits.The water cleansing system will serve as a model for responsible development along the river, introducing constructed wetland technology to the region in a built form and expanding current perceptions of designed landscapes from passive ornament to active, complex systems capable of providing ecosystem services and enacting change. The Wusong Riverfront Business District will begin its next-phase of construction in 2012, with a ten year overall build-out, developed upon the landscape infrastructure established in the park.
 
Client's Testimony
"The pilot project significantly increased the value of the surrounding development parcels in the area, where true accessible waterfront properties are hard to find."— Zeng Yuxiang, Director of Planning Bureau
"The deign team's visionary scheme showcased the solution for the regional issue, and triggered the awareness and action of wetland sites along Wusong River. We're proud to be part of the movement."
— Xu Ting, Chief Engineer
 
 
项目信息:
SWA项目设计总监:Hui-Li Lee,美国景观设计师协会会员
项目设计团队:Roy Imamura,美国景观设计师协会会员;Robert Jacob;Chih-Wei Chang,美国景观设计师协会会员;Minhui Li;Zachary Davis;Mandana Parvinian;Yoonjiu Chang
Herrera Environmental Consultants:Mark Merkelbach、Dylan Ahearn、Tian Liang、Arthur Fleming;Ojanen_Chiou:Marc Ojanen、Shen-I Chiou
 
Project Credits:
Lead Design: SWA Group Hui-Li Lee, ASLA
Design Team: Roy Imamura, ASLA; Robert Jacob; Chih-Wei Chang, ASLA; Minhui Li; Zachary Davis; Mandana Parvinian; and Yoonjiu Chang
Herrera Environmental Consultants: Mark Merkelbach; Dylan Ahearn; Tian Liang; and Arthur Fleming
Ojanen_Chiou Architects: Marc Ojanen and Shen-I Chiou
Suzhou Hezhan Landscaping Architecture & Consulting
 
 

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