西雅图滨水区/James Corner Field Operations
Waterfront Seattle by James Corner Field Operations
2015-04-08 11:49:35    | keywords: 西雅图  滨水  景观 
西雅图滨水区/James Corner Field Operations
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Courtesy of James Corner Field Operations. Via ASLA. 90degree编译,未经许可,不得转载。
 
 
“该项目规模庞大,凝聚了惊人的社会力量。当然,这个庞大的项目也不失柔和质感,它的分析极为精彩,沟通也行之有效。该项目必将一举成功,因为西雅图人对滨水区情有独钟。”——2013专业奖评委会
"The scale of this project is huge and involved amazing community effort. Despite its scale, it still feels soft. It is a great analysis and it well communicated. It is very likely to succeed because Seattle likes its waterfront."—2013 Professional Awards Jury
 
 
项目概述
西雅图市政府认为,其势在必行的大型基建项目为重新规划逐渐老化的中心滨水区并打造一个“全民共享的滨水区”创造了机会。本研究借此机遇,打造了一个针对基建项目覆盖区域的概念计划以及所有毗邻区域的框架计划,从而形成了一个改造中心滨水区并重连西雅图与艾略特湾的完整愿景。
 
项目描述
西雅图市向项目团队展示了其目的和意图,并总结出如下指导方针:
· 打造全民共享的滨水区
· 将海岸线及可持续创新设计放在第一位
· 使该市与滨水区重新连接起来
· 融合西雅图的过去、现在和未来
· 提升通达度与流动性
· 打造与时俱进的大胆愿景
· 建立从理念到施工再到运作等环节始终保持一致的领导机制

西雅图市政府及普通民众均通过典型的民主程序参与了项目分析及规划的每个环节,甚至包括设计团队的选择。为了让广大的社区居民以创新的方式积极参与项目工作,设计团队采取了众多策略,包括举办大型公众会议、专题简报、建立合作关系以及与50多家组织机构开展圆桌会议。除了重视各方资源的高投入外,设计团队还重视对设计成果具有重大影响的特定投入。外联团队的工作重心则放在为滨水区吸引新游客、将项目影响范围扩展到更广大的社区中以及与社区组织及领导建立合作关系。该项目还专门创建了waterfrontseattle.org网站,方便民众持续获取项目信息并参与项目规划。
 
西雅图滨水区是一项综合愿景,涵盖了中心滨水区不同维度的规划与设计:市级维度、城市维度及滨水区维度,其中城市维度占主导地位。景观设计师带领工程师、生态学家、艺术家、艺术顾问、平面及项目定位设计师、建筑师及交通顾问等一众团队与西雅图市的众多投资方一起倾力打造这一愿景。西雅图滨水区的历史是工业、航运及交通的发展史。延续先锋广场南北走向且保持原住宅布局的城市网络沿着海岸线继续向北延伸。滨水区水岸与原有自然海岸线相距数英尺,其建造旨在满足湾区的工业、海运及铁路运输需求。建在深水区的码头影响了三文鱼原来的迁徙路线,该路线原是沿着湾区海岸浅水区行进的。该区域从南向北的地势更加陡峭,并以85'派克市场及水族馆为分界线。
 
从当地地势最低且最平坦的先锋广场到丹尼山上的贝尔镇;从丹尼山的派克公共市场及其附属设施到位于当地中心区公共码头内的西雅图水族馆;从北端的奥林匹克雕塑公园到南端的体育馆;从服务成千上万往返艾略特湾及西雅图港的乘客的科尔曼码头到南端的大型起重机和商船以及北端的船坞和游艇;从全年无休为游客服务的零售码头到贯穿该场地的BSNF铁路线,以及阿拉斯加高架桥的繁忙交通,这一切均使中心滨水区成为一个极度繁忙且错综复杂的地带。
 
项目设计
该项目采用了大量城市设计策略以组织和开展滨水区的各项活动与工作,凝固设计愿景并将设计融入城市肌理中,从而成就一个与其独特身份相匹配的滨水区。此外,该项目还制定了可持续发展策略,使滨水区的都市系统得以从生态、环保、经济及社会层面上得到改善。滨水区由不同规划分区组成,包括先锋广场及贝尔镇等特定的临近区域、历史悠久的码头零售区、科尔曼码头周围的交通枢纽以及大型的中心公共开放空间,该空间由两个大型公共码头及一个拟建的观景步道组成,而观景步道建成后将连接山上的派克市场及码头的水族馆,为人们呈现美轮美奂的海湾美景。
 
新滨水区中心地带设有城市大道及人行道。作为滨水区的脊梁,城市大道及人行道将使现有购物、餐饮、船运及文化活动区与新建滨水区及该市更远的地带连接起来。阿拉斯加高架桥拆除后,会在桥底新建一条街道,而目前位于高架桥东面的街道将拆除,为滨海步道的建设留出空间。新滨海步道将连接先锋广场及奥林匹克雕塑公园,供人们就座、散步、慢跑、骑行及欣赏湾区风景。通达度及流动性策略分析了汽车、火车、自行车、渡轮及步行等各种交通模式并通过平衡各方需求设计出令人满意的安全公共区。东西交通的改善及滨水区通达度的提高将使西雅图中心滨水区的视线延伸至西雅图市的中心地带,使西雅图在艾略特湾拥有一个真正意义的新门廊。
 
核心工程及后续元素的设计、水岸、海堤、街道及城市临街面建成后,将为西雅图市政府及私人土地所有者指明未来的发展方向——确保滨水区综合愿景在未来仍然切实可行。滨水区艺术规划制定了多样化方法,使西雅图中心滨水区更具艺术性。该场地曾作为滨水作业区的历史、该项目在艾略特湾沿岸所处位置的物理现状及其作为西雅图日益演变的城市及文化景观组成部分的作用均纳入考虑范围,使滨水艺术规划融入框架计划中并与之共同诠释和塑造项目场地的独特个性。艺术规划的制定有利于艺术家及公众参与到恢复西雅图与艾略特湾文化联系的工作中。西雅图滨水区的规划及设计文件体现了前21个月围绕西雅图市指导方针开展的概念工作进入了高潮阶段。该规划共含五卷,总结了迄今为止西雅图滨水区规划和设计团队在详细的场地规划分析及针对民间团体、房地产业主、股东及相关市、州和联邦机构所开展的外联工作中形成的所有思路。
 
项目实施
西雅图滨水区长期愿景的实施策略确定了滨水区再开发项目初期的“核心工程”。这些工程所在场地隶属西雅图市所有,有固定资金来源,且与阿拉斯加高架桥的拆除及艾略特湾海堤的重建直接相关,因此可加快进度,预计在未来5至8年内便可竣工。此外,合作项目的确立使该市得以与项目场地附近的房地产业主合作,继续在未来几年内努力实现西雅图滨水区的愿景。由于基层民众的支持,该项目得以创建非营利组织“西雅图滨水区之友”,负责项目的外联、教育、宣传及融资工作,以推动西雅图滨水区的管理工作。
 
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总平面图
Site Plan
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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公众参与+外联
为了让广大的社区居民以创新的方式积极参与项目工作,设计团队采取了众多策略,包括举办大型公众会议、专题简报、建立合作关系以及与50多家组织机构开展圆桌会议
Public Engagement + Outreach
Committed to innovative and energetic public engagement reaching broad and diverse communities, the design team used strategies that included large public meetings, targeted briefings, partnerships, and roundtable discussions with more than 50 organizations. 
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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品牌+认同
该项目还专门创建了waterfrontseattle.org网站,方便民众持续获取项目信息并参与项目规划
Branding + Identity
A specific identity and website were created for the project at waterfrontseattle.org to allow continuous access to information about the project and offer ways for the public to engage with the planning process. 
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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三种维度下的三种概念
西雅图滨水区是一项综合愿景,涵盖了中心滨水区不同维度的规划与设计:市级维度、城市维度及滨水区维度
3 Concepts at 3 Scales
Waterfront Seattle is a comprehensive vision which considers the planning and design of the central waterfront across a range of scales: the city scale, the urban scale, and the waterfront scale. 
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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滨水维度
滨水区由不同规划分区组成
The Waterfront Scale
The waterfront was organized by zones of programmatic focus. 
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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城市大道
新建滨水区中心地带设有城市大道及人行道
A Great Urban Street
At the heart of the new waterfront are a great urban street and pedestrian promenade. 
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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城市大道
作为滨水区的脊梁,城市大道及人行道将使现有购物、餐饮、船运及文化活动区与新建滨水区及该市更远的地带连接起来
A Great Urban Street
As the spine of the waterfront, they connect existing shopping, dining, boating and cultural activities to each other, to new waterfront destinations and to the city beyond. 
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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滨水区沿线地带
该地带包括先锋广场及贝尔镇等特定的临近区域、历史悠久的码头零售区、科尔曼码头周围的交通枢纽以及大型的中心公共开放空间,该空间由两个大型公共码头及一个拟建的观景步道组成,而观景步道建成后将连接山上的派克市场及码头的水族馆,为人们呈现美轮美奂的海湾美景
Places along the Waterfront
Those include specific neighborhoods such as Pioneer Square and Belltown, a retail area at the historic piers, a transportation hub around Colman Dock and a large central public open space including two large public piers and a proposed Overlook Walk to link Pike Place Market on the hill with the Aquarium on the pier and provide an extraordinary outlook on the Bay.
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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西雅图中心滨水区鸟瞰图
西雅图公共码头使人们得以乘坐小船或游艇欣赏美轮美奂的海湾美景或在此聚会、开展节假日及日常活动
Aerial View of Seattle Central Waterfront
Seattle's public piers offer a engaging venue for dramatic views across the bay, boat and ship watching, gathering and festivals as well was daily activities. 
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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观景步道
观景步道将成为新中心滨水区的一大亮点——一系列以人为本的交通方式将滨水区及水族馆的人们吸引至派克市场,同时为人们提供引人入胜的海湾美景,使滨水区成为人们日常生活中的核心地带
Overlook Walk
A highlight of the new central waterfront will be the Overlook Walk—a series of human-scaled connections that will invite people to Pike Place Market from the waterfront and Aquarium, provide dramatic and elevated views of the bay, and create a focal point for public life on the waterfront. 
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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62/63码头
62/63码头将成为滨水区的主要公共场所。码头的设计开放灵活,方便各种活动的开展,同时还设有旱冰场、南面朝向码头和海湾的看台及皮船码头等
Piers 62/63
Pier 62/63 will be a primary public space on the waterfront. The Pier's design remains open and flexible to allow for a wide variety of activities and events to take place but also includes amenities for active recreation on the waterfront, such as a roller-skating rink, grandstand seating with south-facing views of the port and bay, and a kayak launch. 
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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历史悠久的码头步道
人行道将建在古老码头的前面,与附近的商业区形成互补,使人们得以到此散步、休憩和聚会
Historic Pier Walk
The promenade will front the Historic Piers and encourage strolling, sitting, and informal gathering to complement the nearby commercial uses.
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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联合街码头
联合街码头将是一个灵活开放、充满活力且可饱览海湾美景的区域,可供儿童游玩,亦可作为活动和表演的场地
Union Street Pier
Union Street Pier will be a flexible, open and vibrant space with unobstructed views of the bay, used for a variety of activities from kids play to programmed events and performances.
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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可持续性
滨水区位于两大生态区域内——滨水区及潮间带之间。西雅图滨水区的设计凸显了这一生态特征并增强了两大区域的联系
Sustainability
The waterfront is located between two ecological communities - riparian and intertidal. The Seattle Waterfront design enhances this ecotone, and improves the connection between them. 
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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滨水区艺术
滨水区艺术规划制定了多样化方法,使西雅图中心滨水区更具艺术性。该场地曾作为滨水作业区的历史、该项目在艾略特湾沿岸所处位置的物理现状及其作为西雅图日益演变的城市及文化景观组成部分的作用均纳入考虑范围
Art on the Waterfront
The Waterfront Art Plan develops a multipronged approach for art on the Central Seattle Waterfront. It considers the history of the site as a working waterfront, the physical conditions of its location along the shores of Elliott Bay and its role as part of Seattle's evolving urban and cultural landscape.
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
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西雅图中心滨水区鸟瞰图
Aerial View of Seattle Central Waterfront
Image by: James Corner Field Operations
 
 
Project Statement
The City of Seattle acknowledged that the large infrastructural works they had to undertake created an opportunity to re-imagine their aging central waterfront and create a new "waterfront for all”. This study responds to the opportunity with a Concept Plan for the areas affected by the infrastructural work as well as a Framework Plan for all adjacent areas, thus creating a complete vision to transform the central waterfront and reconnect Seattle to Elliott Bay.
 
Project Narrative
The City of Seattle presented the team with their goals and objectives summarized as Guiding Principles:
• Create a Waterfront for All
• Put the shoreline and innovative, sustainable design at the forefront
• Reconnect the City to its Waterfront
• Embrace and celebrate Seattle's past, present and future
• Improve access and mobility
• Create a bold vision that is adaptable over time
• Develop consistent leadership –from concept to construction to operations

Both the City of Seattle and the general public were involved in every step of analysis and planning, including the selection of the design team, in an exemplary democratic process. Committed to innovative and energetic public engagement reaching broad and diverse communities, the design team used strategies that included large public meetings, targeted briefings, partnerships, and roundtable discussions with more than 50 organizations. The focus has been not only on a high volume of input from diverse sources, but on meaningful, specific input to shape the future of the design. Outreach focused on drawing new audiences to the waterfront, bringing program out into the broader community and leveraging partnerships with community organizations and leaders. A specific identity and website were created for the project at waterfrontseattle.org to allow continuous access to information about the project and offer ways for the public to engage with the planning process.
 
Waterfront Seattle is a comprehensive vision which considers the planning and design of the central waterfront across a range of scales: the city scale, the urban scale, and the waterfront scale. As such it places urban design in a leadership position. The landscape architect led a complex team of engineers, ecologists, artists and art consultants, graphic and identity designers, architects, and transportation consultants to work with the city's many stakeholders in creating this vision.The history of Seattle's waterfront is one of industry, shipping and transportation. The city grid, which obeys the traditional North South orientation in Pioneer Square and keeps the original settlement's layout, shifts further north to follow the curve of the Bay. The water's edge was constructed several feet out from the original natural shoreline, and was built to accommodate industrial uses, shipping and railroads along the Bay. Piers were built close together over deep water disrupting the original salmon migration path which needs to follow shallow waters along the Bay's edge. Topography gets steeper from south to north, with an 85' separating Pike Place Market and the Aquarium.
 
From old Pioneer Square occupying the lowest and flattest portion of the site, to Belltown on the remains of Denny Hill; from the Pike Place Public Market on Denny Hill with all its constituencies to the Seattle Aquarium perched on a public pier in the center of the site; from Olympic Sculpture Park at the north end to the Stadiums at the South end; from Colman Dock serving thousands of commuters ferrying back and forth across Elliott Bay to the Port of Seattle, its large cranes and commercial ships on the south end and its marina and cruise ships on the north end; from retail piers serving tourists all years round to the BSNF railroad cutting through the site; together with the Alaskan Way Viaduct's heavy traffic, all make the central waterfront an extremely busy and complex place. Over the years all parts of the central waterfront have grown more divided and conflicted. Neighborhoods along the waterfront are fragmented and the city is cut off from the Bay by the Alaskan Way Viaduct.
 
Design
A number of urban design strategies were used to organize and accommodate all waterfront activities and uses, solidify the vision and anchor the design into the urban fabric and make one coherent place with its own distinct identity. Sustainable strategies were developed to include opportunities for improving urban systems on the waterfront ecologically, environmentally, economically and socially.The waterfront was organized by zones of programmatic focus. Those include specific neighborhoods such as Pioneer Square and Belltown, a retail area at the historic piers, a transportation hub around Colman Dock and a large central public open space including two large public piers and a proposed Overlook Walk to link Pike Place Market on the hill with the Aquarium on the pier and provide an extraordinary outlook on the Bay.
 
At the heart of the new waterfront are a great urban street and pedestrian promenade. As the spine of the waterfront, they connect existing shopping, dining, boating and cultural activities to each other, to new waterfront destinations and to the city beyond. Once the Alaskan Way Viaduct is demolished, the new surface street will be built in its footprint. The current surface street, east of the Viaduct, will be removed to open up space for the new waterfront promenade. The new waterfront promenade will link Pioneer Square to Olympic Sculpture Park and provide opportunities for sitting, strolling, jogging, bicycling, and viewing the bay. The access and mobility strategy analyzed the patterns of each mode of transportation, including vehicles, freight, bicycles, ferries and pedestrians, and balanced their needs to prioritize a pleasant and safe public realm. Improved East-West connections and enhanced access to the waterfront will allow the vision for Seattle's Central Waterfront to extend into the heart of the city and for the City of Seattle to claim a new and authentic front porch on Elliott Bay.

The design of the core projects and continuous elements, the materiality of the water's edge and the seawall, streets and urban frontages will all guide the future developments both by the city of Seattle and private land owners – guaranteeing that the vision of the waterfront for all is feasible and executable over time.The Waterfront Art Plan develops a multipronged approach for art on the Central Seattle Waterfront. It considers the history of the site as a working waterfront, the physical conditions of its location along the shores of Elliott Bay and its role as part of Seattle's evolving urban and cultural landscape. It anchors the waterfront art program in the overall Framework Plan and works with it to reveal and develop the unique character and identity of the site. The art plan develops a program that will engage artists and the public in reconnecting Seattle to Elliott Bay culturally.The planning and design document - Waterfront Seattle – represents the culmination of the first 21 months of conceptual work initiated by the City of Seattle's Guiding Principles. It comprises five volumes summarizing the ideas developed to date by the Waterfront Seattle planning and design team, based on a detailed planning-level analysis of the site, as well as on an extensive outreach effort that engaged civic groups, property owners, stakeholders and the relevant city, state and federal agencies.
 
Implementation
A strategy for implementing the long term vision for Waterfront Seattle identified the"Core Projects"which collectively make up an early phase of waterfront redevelopment. These projects can move forward more quickly because the sites are owned by the City of Seattle, have identified funding sources and are directly related to the removal of the Alaskan Way Viaduct and replacement of the Elliott Bay Seawall. They are likely to be completed in the next 5 to 8 years. In addition, partner projects were identified for the city to work with owners of properties directly adjacent to the project site to continue implementing the vision for the Waterfront Seattle in the years to come.A not-for-profit organization,"Friends of Waterfront Seattle", was created from grassroots support for the project with outreach, education, advocacy and fundraising. It hopes to foster stewardship for Waterfront Seattle.

 
项目信息:
景观设计团队:James Corner Field Operations 
其余项目团队:CH2MHill、Shiels Obletz Johnsen, Inc.、SHoP Architects、Mithun、Berger Partnership、Nelson/ Nygaard、Parsons Brinkerhoff、Parametrix、EnviroIssues
艺术设计团队:Creative Time、Tomato、Mark Dion、Erik Fredericksen 
项目客户:西雅图市:中心滨水区委员会;西雅图交通局;战略规划局;公园与休闲管理局
 
Project Resources:
Landscape Architect of Record: James Corner Field Operations
Additional Project Credits: CH2MHill, Shiels Obletz Johnsen, Inc., SHoP Architects, Mithun, Berger Partnership, Nelson/ Nygaard, Parsons Brinkerhoff, Parametrix, EnviroIssues
Art Team: Creative Time, Tomato, Mark Dion, Erik Fredericksen
Client: The City of Seattle: The Central Waterfront Committee, The Seattle Department of Transportation, Department of Strategic Planning, Department of Parks and Recreation
 

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