母亲河修复项目:迁安三里河绿道
A Mother River Recovered: Qian'an Sanlihe Greenway
2015-04-10 10:09:13    | keywords: 滨水  景观  生态  修复 
母亲河修复项目:迁安三里河绿道
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Via ASLA  90degree编译,本文未经许可,不得转载。
 
 
“项目规模令人印象深刻,改造成效惊人,细节构思巧妙。缜密的植栽设计显示出对园艺的深刻理解。绝佳的净水环保策略,成就了这一优秀作品。”——2013年ASLA专业奖评语
“The scale is impressive, the transformation is amazing, and the detail is wonderful. The sophistication of the planting shows a strong understanding of horticulture. This is a great environmental strategy to clean up the water. It is beautiful work.”—2013 Professional Awards Jury
 
 
项目概述
迁安三里河绿道是由曾经的垃圾堰塞河道及排污渠改造而成的。该项目向人们展示了一个为人所忽视和遗忘的景观如何通过恢复工作,蜕变成绿色基础设施及日常景观,而恢复的生态系统又能为人们提供各种服务。兼具通勤及休闲之用的人行道和自行车道相互结合,与艺术融为一体,通过反映当地传统特色,复兴当地的社会认同。该项目创造的生态及美学效益,催化了该地区的可持续城市发展。
 
项目描述
这条贯穿迁安市的绿道长全13.4公里,宽100至300米不等,占地约135公顷,其建设造福了近70万人。迁安市位于河北省东北部,燕山南麓,滦河岸边。虽然该市西邻滦河,但是其地势低于滦河河床,高耸的堤岸挡住滦河视线,使该市有水而不得见。该河常为人所诟病的是时常毫无预兆地爆发洪水,因此几十年来均被该市隔绝于河岸之外。此外,作为迁安市的生命之源,三里河承载着该市的悠久历史,寄托着当地居民的共同回忆。1973年以前,得益于滦河的地下水补给,三里河清澈见底。虽久经暴雨袭击,但三里河历史上从未发生过任何旱涝灾害,为附近的工农业生产提供了丰富的水资源,曾有史料记载:当地“蒲苇丛生、绿树成荫、鸟语花香”。但是,自二十世纪七十年代起,当地工业不断发展,城市人口日益增长,其间产生的污水和废弃物导致滦河污染严重。结果,当地水源耗损,三里河最终枯竭,河道上也堵满了固体废弃物。该市的生命之源承受着城市化的阵痛,使当地居民极度渴望滦河精神景观的复苏。2006年,景观设计师接受委托,开展母亲河恢复工作。该项目范围包括污水管理(污水管道的重新设计——该管道此前一直通过被动渗透系统将污水直接排放到滦河中)、生态恢复及绿道沿途的城市设计(虽然该设计方案仅着眼景观规划及绿道本身的设计)。
 
该项目设计策略全面,跨规模灵活开发:
1. 清理场地:污水管理系统的设计旨在将废水与城市暴雨径流分离。此外,居民生产的有机垃圾也被用作平整地形的材料,而工业废弃物则得到清除及适当处理。
2. 风光秀丽的水道:绿道的设计充分利用了当前滦河河床与迁安市之间的自然高度差。喷泉所用管道连接高耸的河床底部,使持续的可控水量得以在回流滦河下游前流经迁安市。该策略使三里河成为大滦河的一条“观景水道”,同时将危险的自然力量转化为令人身心愉悦的便利设施。
3. 富有活力的绿河策略:滦河现有水泥河道拆除后,打造了一个多水道滨水湿地系统(以保留当地现有树木),包括主水道边缘的串珠式湿地,主水道可调节洪水,收集并分散城市暴雨径流。当滦河水位下降至最低点时,串珠式池水仍可保持湿地原状,从而营造出一条绿色河流。此外,湿地还对滦河两岸的城市暴雨径流具有生态净化缓冲功能。这些蜿蜒曲折的天然水道深浅不一,为野生动物提供了多样化的栖息地。
4. 最低干预的树岛:该地现有树木得以保留,而滦河两岸则改造成多座树岛,与木板步道相连,为附近居民营造出一种与众不同的日常活动氛围。所有现存成熟树种的保留使该绿道一经建设迅速成形,同时还降低了项目造价。
5. 人行道及自行车道:绿道沿线设有多条人行道及自行车道,使滦河一带的社区畅通无阻。
6. 低养护成本:该项目采用了低养护的原生植被、葱翠的湿地物种以及适于地面自行繁殖的野生花卉。活力四射的绿河策略使水量随着季节自然波动。“杂乱无章”的大自然与木板步道和滨水平台的最低设计形成鲜明对比,使大型绿道项目变成巧夺天工的日常景观。
7. 艺术的融合:艺术与生态恢复景观融为一体。800米长的折纸结构是该项目的主要部分,纤维玻璃质地,颜色为中国红,由遮顶、座椅、木板步道及照明装置组成。该红色装置位于迁安市人口密集区与主要小学及幼儿园之间的上学路线中,早已存在的柳树则成了该装置的绿色华盖,而极具“凌乱”美的狼尾草及野菊花的种植也丰富了该景观的内涵,并为孩子与家长们提供了一处匠心独具且令人难忘的日常体验。
8. 景观引领都市化:绿道是城市发展的催化剂。绿道两旁的住宅开发密度有望提高。绿道一建成,便吸引了大量新住宅开发项目的投资,彻底改变了迁安市的都市面貌。
 
绿道特色可分为三个部分:上游、中游及下游部分。上游部分贯穿迁安市的欠发达地区,特色是新打造的一条引自滦河的溪流,两岸设有人行道及车行道;中游部分穿梭于该市的人口密集区,为人们,尤其是学生所广泛使用,其主要特色便是折纸建筑;河道中原有的混凝土得以拆除,并在东岸填满新河道挖掘产生的渣土。这样,树木便得以保留,而陡峭河岸上的树根也不会因混凝土的移除而裸露出来;下游部分位于人口稀少的地区,草木生长最为旺盛,先前就存在多个湿地,其最大的特色在于拥有众多溪流、树岛、贯穿小岛的湿地和木板步道网络以及绿道两岸的自行车道。该项目仅通过三年的设计和施工,便成功改造了污染严重的景观,使其恢复往日风采,成为景色宜人的都市生态廊道,印证了母亲河的古老传说,那就是:苇荷丛生,水源充沛,鱼鳖众多。

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绿道3D模型及其改造过程:该项目利用滦河与迁安市之间的不同高度,打造了以水为中心的公共空间,整合了雨水管理、生境恢复、休闲娱乐与艺术审美,促进了城市发展
3D model of the Greenway and its transforming process: making use of different altitudes between the Luan River bed and the city, the project creates a water-centered public space integrating stormwater management, habitat restoration, recreation and art, and catalysts urban development. 
Image by: Kongjian Yu
 
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索引图展示了本介绍所选图像位置。艺术与生态恢复景观融为一体:800米长的折纸廊道贯穿该项目中心地带,其设计灵感来源于当地著名的民间剪纸艺术
Key map shows locations of selected images in this presentation. Art is integrated into this ecologically recovered landscape: an 800-meter long Folding Paper corridor inspired by the well-known paper cutting folk art in the region, running through the middle section of the project. 
Image by: Kongjian Yu
 
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本图展示了2006年的场地状况。本项目将原来的垃圾堰塞河道及排污渠改造成了生态基础设施及日常景观
Image shows site condition in 2006. This project transformed the former garbage dump and sewage drainage into an ecological infrastructure and everyday landscape.
Image by: Kongjian Yu
 
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这是绿道上游部分的典型图片,主要特色为植被丛生的新建溪流,溪水引自滦河,两岸设有人行道及自行车道
A typical image of the upper section of the Greenway, featuring a newly created and lushly vegetated stream that diverts water from the Luan River, with pedestrian and cycling paths on both sides.
Image by: Kongjian Yu
 
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活力四射的绿道策略:滦河拆除现有混凝土渠道后,在主水道边缘建造了生态湿地,以调节洪水,治理城市暴雨径流,从而发挥“绿色海绵”的作用,并打造多样化野生动物栖息地
Resilient green river strategy: the existing concrete channel of the river was removed, and bio-swales at the edge of the main water course are constructed to regulate floods and remediate urban stormwater runoff, acting as"green sponge"and creating diverse wildlife habitats.
Image by: Kongjian Yu
 
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绿道中游部分穿梭于该市人口密集区,主要特色是800米长的折纸建筑。这一中国红艺术品由纤维玻璃制成,在旧河道原有柳树的绿色华盖下曲折排列
The middle section of the Greenway runs through the densely populated communities, featuring the 800-meters long Folding Paper. The Chinese-red art piece is made of fiberglass that zigzagging through the green canopy of the pre-existing willows along the former river channel.
Image by: Kongjian Yu
 
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折纸结构蜿蜒穿梭于场地现有树木周围,由遮顶、座椅、木板步道及照明装置组成
The Folding Paper integrates shelters, seats, boardwalk and lighting, winding around the existing trees on site.
Image by: Kongjian Yu
 
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晨练:两名男子正在吹奏当地的木管乐器——唢呐,其身后便是折纸装置。虽然绿道周围的原生植被“杂乱无章”,但是每天都会有人到此晨练
Morning exercises: two men are playing the Suona Horn, a local woodwind instrument, with the Folding Paper as the backdrop. Surrounded by the"messy"native vegetation, this is just one of many everyday scenes one can see along the Greenway.
Image by: Kongjian Yu
 
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作为连接北面人口聚集区与南面小学及幼儿园的纽带,折纸装置为青少年及其家长提供了一种愉悦的体验:图为一幼儿园老师与小朋友在与折纸装置交织的木板步道上漫步
As a linkage between the densely populated communities on north, and an elementary school and a kindergarten on south, the Folding Paper creates playful experience for youths and their parents: a kindergarten teacher and kids are wandering on the boardwalk intertwined with the Folding Paper.
Image by: Kongjian Yu
 
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折纸装置沿绿道“展开”,与黄色的野菊花形成鲜明对比,野菊花是当地的一种多年生植物,无需大量维护,可作中药采摘
The Folding Paper"unfolding"along the Greenway in contrast with the yellow blossoms of wild chrysanthemum, a native perennial that needs very little maintenance and can be harvested as Chinese medicine.
Image by: Kongjian Yu
 
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放学后的孩子们到折纸结构中游玩。该结构的设计灵感来源于当地著名的民间剪纸艺术
The Folding Paper used by kids after school. It is inspired by the well-known local folk art of paper cutting of this region.
Image by: Kongjian Yu
 
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折纸装置成为学生放学后的聚集场所,学生可坐在里面做作业
The Folding Paper is used by school kids as seats and tables to do homework, acting as a gathering place for kids during the after-school hours.
Image by: Kongjian Yu
 
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两名女孩正在涉水嬉戏。恢复的母亲河验证了其古老的传说:一处“苇荷丛生、水中鱼鳖众多”的所在
Two young girls wading across the stream, the mother river recovered and the legendary tale narrated by their grandmother now rings true: as a place"where reeds and lotuses flourish and water abundant with fish and soft-shelled turtles".
Image by: Kongjian Yu
 
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溪流环绕的“树岛”使现有树木得以保留。滨水平台的建造使当地居民得以与大自然亲密接触。绿道建成后,便推动了当地的新发展
Existing trees are kept on site through the creation of"tree islands"with stream courses flowing around. Water platform are built, which enables close contact with nature for local communities. Since its completion, the Greenway immediately became a catalyst for new development. 
Image by: Kongjian Yu

 
Project Statement
The Qian'an Sanlihe Greenway is transformed from the former garbage dump and sewage drainage. It exemplifies how a neglected landscape can be recovered as an green infrastructure and everyday landscape with restored ecosystem providing multiple services. The combined pedestrian and cycle paths for both commuting and recreational use are integrated with art, revitalizing social identity by reflecting local traditions. Through the generation of ecological and aesthetic benefits, the project catalyzes sustainable urban development in the region.
 
Project Narrative
The greenway stretches 13.4 km in length and varies 100-300m in width across the city of Qian'an. It covers 135 hectares and benefits a population of approximately 700,000. Qian'an City is located at the south foot of Yanshan Mountain, at the bank of Luan River, in the northeast of Hebei Province. Although the main city lies near the Luan River to the west, one cannot see the water since the topography of Qian'an is situated below the riverbed with its high embankment blocking the river view. The river is notorious for its unpredictable flooding, and has thus been kept outside of the city for decades through this high embankment. Meanwhile, as the life source of Qian'an, Sanlihe River has shouldered the long history of the city and carried a collective memory of the inhabitants. Before 1973, the Sanlihe River had crystal clear water from the groundwater recharge of Luan River. Although frequently hit by storms and heavy rain, Sanlihe River never experienced disasters of drought and flood in its history, which also provides rich water resources for industries and agriculture nearby, as legendary records witness: "reeds flourish, trees shade, and birds inhabit."However, since the 1970s, the river has been badly polluted by sewage and waste, which has resulted from the region's continuous industrial development and urban population growth. As a consequence, with the depletion of regional water sources, the Sanlihe River became subsequently dried up and its channel was blocked by solid waste. The life source of the city was suffering pains of urbanization, and the hearts and souls of local residents long for its spiritual landscape renaissance.In 2006, the landscape architect was commissioned to recover this mother river. The scope of the task included sewage management (the redesign of sewage pipes that had previously discharged directly into the river with a passive natural infiltration system), as well as ecological restoration and the urban design along the Greenway (although this submission only focuses on the landscape planning and design of the Greenway itself).
 
The design strategies are comprehensive and developed across scales:
1. Clean the site: A sewage management system was planned to separate waste water from the urban storm water runoff. As well, organic garbage from the household was used as material to shape landforms, and industrial waste was cleaned up and properly treated.
2. A scenic water byway: the design for the Greenway took full advantage of the existing natural altitude difference between the Luan River bed and the city. A fountain was made through a pipe going under the high embankment, so that a constantly controlled amount of water will make its way through the city before running back to the Luan River at lower reach. This strategy turns the Sanlihe into a"scenic byway"of the larger Luan River and transforms the dangerous natural force into a pleasant amenity.
3. Resilient green river strategy: the existing concrete channel of the river was removed, and a multiple water course riparian wetland system was created (in order to keep the existing tree on site), including the creation of emerald-like wetland bubble chains at the edge of the main water course which regulates floods and collects and dissipates urban storm water runoff. When the river's water level drops to its lowest point, pools of water remain in the emeralds as wetlands, creating a"Green River". Furthermore, these wetlands work as an ecological purification buffer for urban storm water runoff from both sides. These meandering natural waterways, at various surface levels, becomes diverse habitats for wildlife.
4. Minimum intervention and tree islands: The existing trees on the site were saved and the riverbanks were transformed into a number of tree islands connected by boardwalks, creating a unique setting for daily activities of the residents nearby. By preserving all the exiting matured trees, the Greenway comes into shape immediately after the construction, while minimize the construction cost.
5. Pedestrian and cycling paths: Along the Greenway are the pedestrian and cycling routes fully accessible to communities along the channel.
6. Low maintenance: The project used low-maintenance native vegetation, lush wetland species, and self-reproductive wild flowers for the undercover. The resilient green river strategy allows the water table to naturally fluctuate over seasons. The contrast between"messy"nature and the minimum design of the boardwalk and waterfront platforms turns the big greenway project into an artful everyday landscape.
7. Integration of art: Art is integrated with the ecologically recovered landscape. One of the major pieces is an 800-meter long Folding Paper made of fiber glass and in Chinese red, which integrates shelters, seats, boardwalk and lighting. The Folding Paper is inspired by the well-known local folk art of paper cutting. Sitting right on the school route between a densely populated community and city's major elementary schools and kindergartens, this red-colored installation runs through the green canopy of the pre-existing willows, enriches the landscape with planting of "messy"Chinese pennisetum and wild chrysanthemum, and becomes an artful and unforgettable daily experience for kids and their parents.
8. Landscape guides urbanism: The Greenway is used as catalyst for urban development. High density of residential development was envisioned at both sides of the Greenway. Immediately after the Greenway was built, an enormous amount of new housing development investment has been attracted and completely transformed the urban morphology of the city.
 
The Greenway can be characterized into three sections: the upper, the middle and the lower sections. The upper section runs through the city's underdeveloped area and is featured with a newly created stream that diverts water from the Luan River integrated with pedestrian and cycling paths at both sides; The middle section runs through the densely populated communities and is most heavily used by people especially school kids, and the Folding Paper becomes the dominant feature. The concrete in the former river channel was removed, and the old channel was filled with the dirt from the excavation of the new river at the east side. In this way, the trees were saved and their roots on the steep old bank will not be exposed because of the removal of concrete; The lower section is in a less populated area and was most densely forested area, with pre-existing wetlands, where it is more featured with multiple stream courses, tree islands, wetlands and boardwalk networks which run across islands and cycling paths at both sides of the Greenway.Only over three years' design and construction, this project has transformed this heavily polluted landscape back to its previous splendor as a scenic urban ecological corridor and the legendary tale narrated by the grandmothers rings back true: as a place"where reeds and lotus flourish and water abundant with fish and soft-shelled turtles". Moreover, the mother river has been artfully recovered by integrating art that give new cultural identity to the city.
 
Project Credits:
Design & Contruction Team
Lead Designer: Kongjian Yu, FASLA
Landscape Architect of Record: Turenscape
Landscape Architect: Shi Cun, Liu Yuanchao, Zhang Lin, Zhou Peng, Li Xu, He Xiyuan, Jia Jun, Wang Yunfeng
Structural Engineer: Feng Xianjun
Horticulturist: Xiao Min
Artist: Hu Hanyu
Civil Engineer: Li Xing, Ma Liying
Landscape Planner: Liu Yujie
Client Support Team
Qian'an Urban and Rural Planning Bureau: Zhou Yucheng, Zhang Huibing
Housing and Construction Bureau: Zhang Jinping, Wang Yanjun, Sun Jianzeng, Sun Haibo
Landscape Bureau: Wen Shiying
Construction Engineer: Qinhuangdao Yaohua Glass Company
 
 

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