米尔克里克大牧场/Ten Eyck Landscape Architects
Mill Creek Ranch by Ten Eyck Landscape Architects
2016-02-18 21:48:38    | keywords: 牧场  景观  改造  本土  材料 
米尔克里克大牧场/Ten Eyck Landscape Architects
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Courtesy of ASLA. 感谢ASLA授权报道,90degree版权所有,不得转载。
 
“项目整体颇具原生感。水体如同天然形成一般。” ——2015年ASLA专业奖评语
"Reads as very authentic. The water looks like it belongs here." - 2015 Awards Jury
 
项目概述
米尔克里克大牧场依偎于德克萨斯州丘陵地带中部的梅迪纳河谷中,得天独厚的天然泉水与山涧溪流交汇于这处半岛地块中,周边景致秀美宜人。全新的系列牧场建筑均采用天然布局设计,与露台花园、水景、篝火、漫步小径以及项目场地上的其余修复区域和谐地融于一体,为当地居民和游客们营造出惬意的山水美景。牧场庭园中的雨水及溪水瀑布式净化装置与天然泉流交相辉映,充分调动人们的多种感官,而另一装置则促进泉水的循环流通,以利于毗连溪流的供氧。本土草坪的设置为公众休闲和孩童嬉戏提供了充足的空间。古旧的牧场街道和原先的畜棚地块上,如今都长出了本土草种,有助于雨水流入溪流与泉流之前的净化。
 
项目描述
项目场地
历史悠久的米尔克里克大牧场,占地1800英亩(约728公顷),地处圣安东尼奥市西北面的德克萨斯州丘陵地带中部,位于米尔溪与米尔泉交汇处的峡谷中。米尔溪是典型的山地溪流,它维持着牧场主的生计,每当盛夏时节,一代代牧场人在此游泳,都会首先蜿蜒穿行于这片荫郁的牧场景观之中,陡峭的石灰岩台地、成片枝叶繁茂的悬崖槲树、德克萨斯红橡树、莱西橡树、硬叶榆和山桂林映入眼帘。然而,如同许多的丘陵景观一样,这处大牧场也曾由于过度放牧和过于频繁的车辆流通,而日渐退化,因此对周边的泉流、溪流以至墨西哥湾下游水域的水质都造成了相应的负面影响。
 
项目客户
项目客户希望对大牧场中原先退化的部分进行修复,与此同时,开发建造一系列全新的牧场建筑综合体,其中包括全新的复合型乡间别墅区、牧场管理屋和畜棚区。项目伊始,景观设计团队就参与到了毗连庭园空间的设计中,并为将来的大型牧场制定出相应的修复策略。建筑师、景观设计师和项目承包商与项目客户取得通力协作,开发建造出一处室内外一体化的度假胜地。
 
设计背景
全新的复合型乡间别墅区毗邻穿流于水松林间的泉流与溪流,精心打造的户外活动空间格外醒目,突显出现有场地结构中的各个优势性特征,同时,设计也满足了客户对于嬉戏草坪、排球场、冥想空间、船舶下水区、漫步小径以及水景和篝火等自然元素的需求。这些不同的功能空间通过本土植物和石灰岩、俄克拉荷马锥形砂岩、天然钢、板形混凝土等耐久性硬质景观材料划定着各自的界限,形成与建筑体的视觉联系。
 
依据景观设计团队规划的露台花园和创意性石板小径的布局,建筑师们将项目中的四个建筑综合体合理地置于不同的高度与角度中。土木工程师绘制的设计原图中显示出庭院中央集水槽的位置,这一装置有效管控着项目场地内的雨水径流;此外,景观设计师们还规划出一个滨水净化庭园和若干拦沙坝,以便雨水流入山泉和溪流之前得到有效净化,并规范雨水的排流路径。毗邻泉流的水景设施,适当拦截了少量的泉水,有效增强了人们的听觉体验,且有助于促进溪流上游倾泄停滞区的水体流动。项目场地上各种不同的地形条件选择不同的设计形式与材料,以为复合型乡间别墅区、牧场管理屋和畜棚区创建出动态化的统一视觉美感,并突显出有机果园和菜园的视觉观感。
 
乡间别墅区以西约6英亩(约2.43公顷)的原先古旧道路区和贫瘠的畜棚区都已种植上许多本土草种,并引来了成群的传粉昆虫。曾经修筑于敏感性滨水区的牧场道路得以重新改道,原先的滨水道路区域如今都进行了有效的绿化种植,营造出更具场地特色的入口体验,同时全新的道路系统将建筑与大牧场区连于一体。
 
该项目的成功在于与总承包商的通力协作。总承包商是项目团队中的重要组成部分,与当地工匠共同合作建造出许多富有特色的景观、建筑元素,并与一名技艺精湛的石匠合作一同精心规划所有石景的置放与布局。
 
环境敏感性及可持续性元素
•牧场荒废区植被再种植约达8英亩(约3.24公顷)
•项目中均选用耐旱的本土植物物种
•选用当地石灰岩
•对所有的现有树种进行有效保护
•采用滴流灌溉方式
 
对于客户方和其他设计师的设计价值
项目场地敏感性设计及修复策略是在客户方与承包商的共同协作中形成的,赋予德克萨斯州中部的濒危自然生态景观以全新的活力,同时也为项目客户创造了亲近自然的全新契机。本土材料选用、简单的线条设计以及建筑、庭园、自然景致间的完美过渡,该项目集上述特点于一体,其雅致的设计风格和成功的场地修复,受到多家出版媒体的赞赏,也成为美国西部无数遭受过度放牧破坏和废弃的大型场的改造典范,与此同时还挖掘出德克萨斯州崎岖自然景观的内在美。

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全新复合型乡间别墅区主体景观设计概念规划
Landscape architect's concept plan of main ranch house compound
Image by: Bill Timmerman
 
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泉流上架设着由厚达0.5英寸(约1.27厘米)的风化钢片围合出的系列石灰岩台阶,直通向乡间别墅主生活区
View of stepped ½'' thick weathered steel and limestone terraces that cross spring water rill up to the main living area of house
Image by: Bill Timmerman
 
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改造前的米尔克里克大牧场边缘地带破败景象
A before shot of degraded site and soon to be demolished structures along edge of Mill Creek
Image by: Ten Eyck Landscape Architects
 
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景观修复后的米尔克里克大牧场边缘地带,站立于别墅区挑高式就餐区内,可放眼全新种植于先前道路上的满目绿植
An after shot from similar position from new ranch house dining area and deck overlooking the revegetated former road and creek edge area
Image by: Bill Timmerman
 
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原先溪流边废弃的滨水道路区域如今都进行了有效的绿化种植,从乡间别墅区内排下的生活用水可经过这些绿植的过滤后流入溪流中
Looking back to new ranch house from the revegetated pollinator meadow which replaced the degraded former road and structure area next to the creek. The meadow cleanses run off from watershed above prior to entering the creek.
Image by: Bill Timmerman
 
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风化钢片围合出的石灰岩台阶折曲形扶手鱼贯于板状混凝土阶式庭园中
Steel and stone steps with zig-zag handrail up through board formed concrete cascading garden
Image by: Bill Timmerman
 
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左图:从停车场顶部阶梯俯瞰入口庭园、雨水收集园、石桥和门廊。根据当地的日晒情况和微气候条件,景观设计师选用了本土大牙槭和其它韧性强的本土耐旱植物及岸生植物进行种植
Left: View down to entry courtyard from parking at top of stairs to rain water harvesting garden, stone bridges and porches. Landscape architect used native Bigtooth Maples and other tough native xeric and riparian plants depending on exposure and microclimate. Image by: Bill Timmerman
 
右图:溪流处混凝土水槽中的潺潺水流。泉水最终流入溪中
Right: View at creek level looking back up the rill. Spring water's final descent into creek.
Image by: Bill Timmerman
 
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横穿泉流的游泳门廊视角中的牧场住宅建筑主体及卧房夜景。风化钢石灰岩露台将住宅与泉流连于一体
Evening view to main house and bedroom wing from the swim porch across the spring. Stone and steel terraces connect the house elevation with the spring level.
Image by: Bill Timmerman

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泉水注入到全新的板形混凝土槽中,跌落露台流入溪中,而后流向时而混浊的水体中,远处是泉流与旧坝体
Spring water is pumped into the new board formed concrete trough to cascade down terraces into rill and then into sometimes stagnant creek. Spring and old dam beyond.
Image by: Bill Timmerman
 
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原先介于泉流与溪流间的道路地段,如今形成了宜人的半岛景观。泉水淌过混凝土水槽,潺潺流入风化钢负沿围合的方形塘中,之后再流入另一混凝土水槽中
View of peninsula between spring and creek where former road came through. Spring water travels through the concrete rill into square tank with steel negative edge before it spills down into another rill to creek.
Image by: Bill Timmerman
 
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游泳水区入口处,全新的石质休憩区在礁石汀步的应衬中,显得静谧而惬意
New stone seats and jumping ledgestone added to existing swim porch.
Image by: Bill Timmerman
 
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本土野牛草阶式草坪围合出的篝火区
View of stone fire feature and banco to terraced native buffalo grass lawn.
Image by: Bill Timmerman
 
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左图:冥想露台及通往泉流的本土石灰岩阶梯
Left: Meditation terrace and native limestone steps down to spring.
Image by: Bill Timmerman
 
右图:耐旱野牛草草坪和本土草种草坪之间的石灰石漫步小径
Right: Limestone path and drought tolerant buffalo grass lawn and indigenous adjacent plantings.
Image by: Bill Timmerman
 
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果树林和菜园篾筐露台围合出全新的牧场畜棚。篾筐内满填着本土石灰岩(小铄石铺于上层利于坐歇),花岗岩步道与本土草种围合于周边,钢管植栽槽中种植着特色草本植物
Orchard and vegetable garden gabion terraces help ground the clients’ new barn. Gabions are filled with native limestone (smaller limestone gravel on top for sitting) and surrounded by a granite path and native seeding. Steel pipe planters for special herbs.
Image by: Bill Timmerman
 
Project Statement
Nestled in the Medina River valley of the Central Texas Hill Country, this ranch derives its beauty from its peninsular setting at the convergence of a natural spring and hill country creek. The open-air layout of the new ranch buildings—combined with terraced gardens, water and fire features, trails, and restoration of the site—allow the residents and their guests to be fully, yet comfortably, immersed in the beauty of the Texas Hill Country. A cascading storm water and creek purification feature in the courtyard activates multiple senses and pays homage to the spring, while another feature circulates a rill of spring water to help oxygenate the adjacent creek. Native grass lawns provide spaces for entertaining and children’s athletic activities. Old ranch roads and footprints of former barns now give rise to native grasses and forbs that cleanse rainwater prior to entering the creek and spring.
 
Project Narrative
The Site
This historic 1800-acre ranch site is located within a canyon where the headwaters of Mill Creek and Mill Spring converge in the Central Texas Hill Country northwest of San Antonio. A quintessential Hill Country creek, Mill Creek has sustained the livelihoods of ranchers and cooled swimmers in the heat of summer for generations, meandering first through this ranch landscape characterized steep limestone terrain and dense groves of Escarpment Live Oak, Texas Red Oak, Lacey Oak, Cedar Elm and Mountain Laurel. However, as with many Hill Country landscapes, the ranch was degraded through time by overgrazing and rampant vehicular circulation, with negative impacts to the habitat and water quality of the spring, creek, and waters further downstream at the Gulf of Mexico.
 
The Client
Our clients wished to restore degraded portions of their ranch in concert with developing a new ranch complex, which included a new ranch house compound, ranch manager’s compound and barn area. The landscape architect was brought in soon after the project’s inception to design adjacent garden spaces and develop restoration strategies for the larger ranch. The architect, landscape architect, and contractor worked in collaboration with the owners to develop a seamless indoor-outdoor vacation hideaway.
 
Design Context
The new ranch house compound, situated near a spectacular bald cypress-lined spring and a creek, features outdoor living spaces carefully crafted to highlight existing features and designed to accommodate the client’s desire for play lawns, volleyball areas, a meditation area, a boat launch, hiking trails, and engaging water and fire elements. The various spaces are defined by native vegetation and durable hardscape materials—such as limestone, Oklahoma sugarloaf sandstone, natural steel, and board-formed concrete—selected to maintain coherency with the architecture.
 
The architects sited the four building complexes at different elevations and angles, which were resolved by the landscape architect through terraced gardens and creatively routed stone plank paths. Original drawings by the civil engineer showed a catch basin in the middle of the courtyard to manage stormwater runoff; alternatively, the landscape architect developed a cleansing riparian courtyard garden and check dams that cleanse and accentuate the path of rainwater prior to it entering the spring and creek. Water features near the spring intercept small amounts of spring water to enhance the sensory experience of sound in addition to helping aerate the stagnant-prone waters of the creek, here upstream from an existing dam. Consistent forms and material selections respond to variations in site conditions and program to create a dynamic, yet unified aesthetic for the ranch house and ranch manager’s compounds and barn, which features an organic orchard and vegetable garden.
 
Nearly six acres of old roads and barren barn footprints on the west side of the house were erased by seeding native grasses and forbs in their place with special emphasis on pollinator-attracting natives. The ranch road, once situated within a sensitive riparian area, was re-routed and its former footprint re-vegetated to create a more site-responsive entry experience, while new trails lead from the house and connect to the larger ranch area.
 
The project’s success is the product of special collaboration with the general contractor. The general contractor was a valued member of the team and worked closely with local artisans to make several specialty elements and a talented stone mason whom helped place all stones with care and precision.
 
Environmental Sensitivity and Sustainability
•re-vegetated approximately 8 acres of barren or abused property
•used all drought tolerant native species
•used local limestone
•worked to protect all existing trees
•used drip irrigation
 
Design Value to the Client and to Other Designers
Site sensitive design and restoration strategies developed in collaboration with the owner and contractor have given new life to a critical Central Texas landscape while providing the client with new opportunities to connect with nature. Distinguished by the use of native materials, simple lines, and graceful transitions from house and garden to the wild, this project has been recognized in several publications for both the elegance of its design and the success of its restoration. It has become a model for the countless overgrazed and abused ranches in the American West, and simultaneously highlights the hidden beauty of the rugged Texas landscape.
 
项目信息:
景观设计:克里斯蒂娜•E•坦恩•艾克(美国景观设计师协会理事、项目首席设计师)、丽莎•列侬(美国景观设计师协会协理)、约翰•普尔、亚伦•奥德兰德
建筑设计:Lake | Flato
承包商:Duecker Construction
灯光设计:Brown Design Consultants
石砌工艺:Dean Mitchell Masonry
景观承包商:Milberger
项目顾问:吉尔•诺克斯
水系承包商:大卫•马勒
 
Project Credits:
Landscape Designers: Christine E. Ten Eyck, FASLA, Lead Designer; Lisa Lennon, Associate ASLA; John Puhr; Aaron Odland
Architect: Lake | Flato
Contractor: Duecker Construction
Lighting Design: Brown Design Consultants
Masonry: Dean Mitchell Masonry
Landscape Contractor: Milberger
Consultant: Jill Nokes
Contractor for Seep: David Mahler
 
 

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