2014法国肖蒙古堡花园节(一)
International Garden Festival (I)
2014-08-07 15:03:37    | keywords: 法国  古堡  花园  国际 
2014法国肖蒙古堡花园节(一)
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在已举办的法国肖蒙古堡国际花园节中,创作出了近580多个风格各异的花园,代表着未来花园发展的方向。花园节既汇集了大量的创意,也是培养人才的摇篮,它通过展示新花种、新材料、新创意以及创新方法,给园艺艺术重新注入了活力,并吸引了公众和专业人士的关注。

In all seasons of International Garden Festival, almost 580 gardens have been designed, which are prototypes of the gardens of the future. At the same time a source of ideas and a nursery for talent, the Festival gives an extra boost to the art of gardens and gains the interest of both the public and those in the trade by displaying new flower arrangements, new materials, new ideas and new approaches.



MA CASSETTE
宝藏之园

 
在法国剧作家莫里哀的著名作品《悭吝人》中,吝啬鬼主人公阿尔巴贡拥有一处充满着诗意与冥想漫步意境的庭园,该园正是以此为原型设计建造的。这种意境往往是女设计师们在庭园设计中所喜好且必然注入的风格。
这也正是传统法式庭园独有的曼妙意境:满园种植的黄杨、水景喷泉以及经过精心修剪的灌木植被,一条糙木材质的漫步小径贯穿着不加修饰却甚是迷人的原生态景观空间。“宝藏之园”对这种传统景观风格进行了还原,只是受到空间限制,以三株造型迥异的仙人掌替代了传统的灌木植被。
这些植被的周边都围饰着卡拉拉大理石质地的白色鹅卵石,这样的经典硬景唤起了人们对宏伟古典园林的悠长回味。
漫步小径的尽头隐藏着阿尔巴贡的黄金“密匣”,想要发现宝藏,必须进入“密匣”:这个“密匣”实质上是一个大型圆顶温室构筑体,由浓密的柳树围合而成,室内的一切都不易瞥见。
有人发现,阿尔巴贡的这些“黄金”,置放于一个装满着金色圆球的深凹盆状体中,金光闪烁,耀眼无比,难以接近——然而,抵挡不住的诱惑会驱使着人们缓缓潜入……

The ladies who designed the garden offer a poetic, meditative stroll through the garden of Harpagon, the miserly protagonist of “L’Avare”, a play by Molière.
You are invited to stroll slowly along the rough wooden walkway that crosses the arid, mineral garden that brings to mind the “French-style garden”, traditionally rich in boxwood, water fountains, and topiary, here replaced by three varieties of cactus.
All around are white pebbles made of Carrara marble, which evoke the massive scrolls of great classical gardens.
At the end of the walkway, in order to have a chance of discovering hidden gold, one must enter Harpagon’s hide-away, the “box”, a large dome of greenery with dense walls and foliage made of willow that barely allow the inside to be seen.
There, one finds Harpagon’s gold, which lies in a deep basin overflowing with golden balls that are brilliant, precious, and inaccessible – but which may, just may, tempt you to dive in…
 
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PARADIGME
罪与美的汇聚

罪恶往往相对美好而存在,就如同地狱往往相对天堂而存在。
15世纪意大利政治家洛伦佐?德?美第奇曾委托当时著名画家桑德罗?波提切利绘制画作《地狱图》,而该园正是以景观展示的方式对这一杰出作品进行了开放式的重新解读。当时,《地狱图》实质上是由100张小图拼接而成的惊人之作,令人惋惜的是,现存于世的仅92张。
于我们而言,15世纪遥不可及。
然而对于设计师,该园则象征着人类的生命之径,在其入口处簇拥着色彩纯淡的鲜花,它们蕴含着生命伊始的纯真与美好。入园之后,游客们将借助一条窄小的木质步道跨越希腊神话中冥河的象征性区域,进而抵达并悠游于以若干曲线组成的代表七宗罪的小岛地界。经历了所有这些充满着奇幻色彩的“罪恶”之后,游客们便别无选择地右转至该园的尽头,传说中的地狱立即呈现眼前,深黑色金属板材制成的“地狱王国的滚滚浓烟”令所有游客止步凝视。而在地狱的中央,却树立着一尊神圣雕像,引人深思……

Sins can only exist in opposition to virtue, just as Hell exists in opposition to Paradise.
The garden is the fruit of a free re-interpretation of “The Chart of Hell”, commissioned in the 15th century by Lorenzo de’ Medici from Sandro Botticelli. At the time, the Chart was made up of 100 drawings, of which only 92 have survived.
The 15th century is far away.
For its designers, the garden symbolises the path of human life, surrounded by light-coloured flowers at the entrance that symbolise innocence and virtue. Visitors then take the wooden walkway that crosses a “watercourse” symbolising the “River Styx” of Greek Mythology, before wandering freely between lines that spread out to form curvilinear islets that variously symbolise the Seven Deadly Sins. After having experienced all those sins with curiosity and delight, visitors are obliged to go right to the end of the garden to gaze upon Hell, which, here, is made up of metal plates from which emerges the “smoke of the Kingdom of Hades”, made of dark-coloured plants. At the heart of the space is a votive statue, observing…

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QUAND L’AVARE RêVE
守财奴的幻想
 
耗费精力积聚财富,就等同于将生命中的快乐延迟到未来享受。对于庭园“守财奴的幻想”的设计者而言,尽管他的目的是为了储积未来的长期的快乐,然而他的设计却满足了自己及周边友人当下的快乐。该园借助于一条富有戏剧色彩漫步小径来体现快乐积累的二元性。
步入小径,首先展现在人们面前的是一株蓟,一种多刺植物,一旦粘附上这些刺,便难以剔除干净。而蓟的这一特性恰恰折射出一个举止粗俗、令人厌恶且对财富极度渴求的守财奴形象。顺着这条小径往里走,便会发现设计师用心地以各式景观植物的形态循序渐进地展露着守财奴的一些最为显著的特征,例如,他对于金钱的沉迷。正如同园中这些枯树枝干,卷曲着活在自己圈定的世界里,守财奴的性格已经完全变形和扭曲。生长于贫困潦倒的家庭环境中,吝啬到一小滴水的使用都需要斤斤计较的地步,这个贪婪的守财奴随时揣着他那塞满东西的手提箱,始终保持警惕,准备逃离。
为了引起游客更多的好奇,小径的尽头左拐处设有一块布帘,游客们掀开布帘,守财奴极度贪婪的一面便展露无余:他直勾勾地凝视着自己所藏匿的痴爱的黄金,眼神里充满着痴幻与迷离。
紧接着,游客们将路经一处水塘,水塘的右侧,一大片浮萍映入眼帘,视线转向左侧,一个充满奢华的水上世界足以唤起人们对伊甸园及园中取之不尽的青春之泉的记忆。周围散发着迷人混合花香(玫瑰、茉莉、蜜蜂花等)的一张温床,将游客的视线引入一片金色花海,迅速陶醉于其中。
视线回归守财奴,他的吝啬与计较得到了怎样的回报?悬于温床上方的一块斑驳木板提醒着他:百般算计,却悟不出人生真谛……

To hoard money is to postpone the pleasure that could be enjoyed today to tomorrow. The gardener, for his part, although preparing for the (long-term) future, seeks to enjoy the present of the place that he has designed for his own happiness, as well as for his friends' happiness. The garden "Quand l’avare rêve" presents this duality of the accumulation of pleasure by means of a dramatised path. 
It opens with the first manifestation of a rough, unpleasant miser. A clinging, desperate miser. The thistle, a thorny being that you cannot free yourself from without leaving behind a part of you. The path then evokes some of the miser's most well known features, such as his insensitivity. Just like these tree torsos, coiled into themselves, he is completely deformed and twisted. From the saprophyte family, huddled around the slightest drop of water, this grasping miser is always on guard, prepared to flee at any minute, his suitcase packed. 
Once at the bottom of the plot, the path, curving to the left, leads visitors to pass through a curtain unveiling the other side of the miser; his dream. Not when he sleeps, but when he begins to devour his stash of gold - his one and only, giddy love - with his eyes. 
Then, visitors walk over the water of a pond. To the right, the infinite horizon of a carpet of green water (duckweed and similar plants). To the left, the aquatic abundance of a luxury-filled space evoking the Garden of Eden and its inexhaustible fountain of youth. An indulgent bed, surrounded by delicate aromas (roses, jasmine, lemon balm, etc.) invites visitors to gaze upon a pile of golden flowers and take delight in them. 
However, will the miser ever be rewarded for his sacrifices? Hanging over the bed, a plaque reminds him that "he who counts misses the point"...

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PéCHéS VIRTUELS
虚拟世界的罪恶

 
21世纪往往徘徊于真实与虚拟之间。如今,原罪都潜伏于一个不同于往日的表征底下。对于景观庭园的设计者们而言,终极罪恶的源头正是当代的“虚拟”世界。
通过对“自然景观与虚拟影像”的空间矛盾展示,以及对“对立面极力遏制”的视觉表达,该园营造出炼狱与天堂和谐共存的美好幻象。
路经满园绿植,抵达庭园的尽头,呈现于眼前的景象折射出专属于我们这个时代的丑恶。园子的右侧是一片绿植的海洋,置身其中,仿佛沉浸于自由伊甸园中。而在左侧,临悬着一对色彩斑斓、形态逼真的巨型翅膀,它们是天使堕落并沉溺于这片自然美景中而无法自拔的铁证。这对属于天使的翅膀形象地诠释了当代虚拟世界中的种种罪恶是如何构筑一个全新的,极具诱惑的梦幻表征的。
 
The 21st century often hesitates between real and virtual. Nowadays, the deadly sins have a reality that is different from the one that they had in the past. For the designers of the garden, it is the world of contemporary “virtuality” that constitutes the ultimate sin.
By staging a spatial conflict between “nature and image” and an expression of “excess versus restraint”, the garden offers a joyful illustration of Purgatory and Paradise reconciled.
Move forward along the floor to the bottom of the garden to contemplate and to meditate upon the excesses of our century. On the right, you will be plunged into an Eden made of free, rippling plants. On the left, you will discover two large coloured photographic wings, testimony to a fallen angel that landed in a beautiful natural environment. The wings illustrate our fictional sins, forming a picture wherein is expressed a new, magical, day-dreamed nature.

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LE DOMAINE DE NARCISSE
纳西斯的浮华庭园
 
在宁静的漫步中,突如其来的浮华景象时常令人惊奇不已。装饰奢华、平静如镜的水池隐匿于一片茂密而婀娜的灌木丛中,霸气的镀金饰边营造出非凡的魔幻气场,尊贵而又神秘,引人驻足良久,不舍离去。
远望造型古雅的法式城堡,近赏它延伸于池中的倒影,你会情不自禁地放慢脚步,徘徊在金饰池边,效仿自恋的水仙,欣赏起池中若隐若现的自己。
穿过水池,便是一片黄杨林,毋庸置疑,林中迷人的芳香令人如痴如醉,路过的人们都会不由地停坐在左侧小铁凳上休憩片刻,冥思着、反省着:此前的自恋其实也是一种罪恶。
真实可否穿透柔和的云层重新再现?
真实可否穿越幻境,冲破表象,从而实现自我还原?
倒映在水中,隐匿于纤纤水生植物之下的那个虚幻庭园,又是否可以隐隐瞥见?
 
Vanity takes us by surprise during a peaceful stroll. Hidden in supple, thick shrubbery, a luxuriant mirror draws us in with its gilded gaze, which gives it a magical, precious, mysterious aura.
After having spent a long while admiring the chateau and its magnificent reflection in the lake that stretches before you, you can imitate Narcissus, who fell in love with his own reflection, and move slowly forwards towards the gilt frame to gaze, enthralled, upon your own reflection.
Doubtless intoxicated by the heady odour of the boxwood, you take the time to sit on the little iron bench set to the left, to reflect and meditate upon the sin of pride.
Has it been possible to pierce the gentle reflection of the clouds?
Has it been possible to cross to the other side of the mirror, to go beyond appearances?
Has it been possible to see the fragile garden hidden underwater, under delicate water plants?
 
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LES SEPT PêCHERS CAPITAUX
七宗罪之园
 
该园是对七宗罪理念创始人托马斯?阿奎那神学世界的一种当代召唤。阿奎那在他的《神学大全》中运用自己独特的幽默和智慧描述了人类的这些原罪,而园中种植的七棵桃树正是这七宗罪的象征。
游访七宗罪之园实质上是一次自我心灵净化的过程。围绕园子中央静谧的圆池走着,就仿佛行走于幽暗却平坦的人生道路上,池面犹如一面镜子,映射着自己的灵魂深处,使人们得以充分自省。
沿池边缓缓前行,人们可以清晰瞥见代表着七宗罪的这些桃树倒映在水中,它们种类相同却造型各异,分别代表着:傲慢、妒忌、暴怒、懒惰、贪婪、贪食及色欲这七宗罪。就这样以平静、缓和的心境沿池边漫步整个园子,便会发现自己充满罪恶的灵魂倒映于水中。
 
The garden is a contemporary evocation of the myth of Thomas Aquinas, who conceived the idea of the deadly sins, and who used humour and intelligence to play on the word “péché” (“sin”), perhaps a mortal one, and “pêcher” (“peach tree”), the fruit tree.
To enter the garden is to attempt the experiment of introspection. One advances along the dark, smooth road of life in the form of a disc around a calm, very beautiful central pond, mirror of the soul; it invites us to look right into the depths of our own being.
Turn by turn, we discover the perfect reflections of seven trees, each different but of the same species, and which represent the seven deadly sins: pride, greed, envy, anger, sloth, lust, and gluttony. In the time taken to complete the walk, calmly, we take – for once – the time to reflect on the excesses of humankind.
 
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GOURMANDERIE
贪食者之园
 
在女性园林设计者们的思维中,贪食也是一种罪恶,而生活在地球上的其他许多生物也都会犯下同样的罪恶。食物本身的美味并无罪,然而人类贪恋这些美味就是一种罪了,当然,不仅人类如此,这种罪恶同样体现于动物、植物,乃至更大范围的地球众生之中。
贪食者之园赋予植物饲料极高的价值体现,在植物学中,称其为“优质饲料”,为的是更为突出地体现植物对有机土壤的贪食。
在入园参观之前,不妨先对园子的整体进行片刻环视,你会发现,满园都是装满“优质饲料”的大柳条蓝子,它们仿佛是丰饶富足的象征,在这些篮子之间,有若干蜿蜒盘旋的小径,沿着这些小径缓步前行,你又会发现,蓝子底部隐藏着一些细小的微生物,它们在篮子的阴暗处,肆虐地滋长着。如果你有足够的胆量,可以脱掉鞋子,让脚底与这些微生物亲密接触一番,这些将成为未来植物贪食之源的未来土壤饲料。
 
For the ladies who designed the garden, gluttony is a sin committed by many other species living on the planet. The taste for food is not a sin that is unique to humans; it is also manifested in animals, plants, and - more widely – all living beings.
The garden gives pride of place to plants that, in botany, are called “heavy feeders”, a term that refers to their voracious appetite for organic matter.
Before entering the garden, take a moment to look at it as a whole. Thereafter, wander along the little pathways that wind around large wicker baskets planted with “heavy feeders”, which overflow like horns of plenty. Also take the time to observe, hidden at the base of the baskets, small, discreet plants that grow in the baskets’ shadow. If you dare, take off your shoes and walk along the mulching, a future soil for future plants.

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LE JARDIN MIS EN BOÎTE
盒之园
 
庭园设计者们通过盒之园的景观呈现,委婉地谴责人类社会的挥霍无度、贪婪、贪食以及对食物的肆意浪费,造成地球上其他生物种群的贫瘠与灾难。
入园参观之前,不妨先从远处对园子的整体进行一番欣赏,你会发现,它形似一座经受过人类肆意践踏的没落神殿的废墟。在这里,每一个柱体铁盒曾经都是具有市场交易价值的食品包装盒,而现在则是庭园中的植物种植槽,充分吸收着大自然的味道,它们的价值因此得到重新定义。
入园驻足坐歇时,可仔细观察这些形态各异的植物,将它们按颜色和种类进行划分。植物占据着整个庭园空间,就仿佛大型超市通往偌大空旷的停车场过道上散落满地的人们肆意抛弃的食品包装盒。
在这些曾经象征着商品的食品包装盒中间冥思片刻,你会悟出:原来一个世界的存在价值远大于财富的配给。
 
The designers of the garden condemns our society of over-consumption, greed, gluttony, wasting food, whilst other societies endure misery and penury.
Before entering the garden, look upon it for a moment from afar, like the ruins of a temple that once was dedicated to the consumer society. Here, each can of food, formerly a marketing item, has been transformed into a flowerpot to receive Nature, which is re-asserting its rights.
Take the time to sit and look at the various plants, grouped by colour and by variety. The plants take up the whole space, as in the aisles of supermarkets abandoned in the middle of infinite, infertile parking areas.
Sitting in the middle of cans of food, symbols of consumption, you meditate on what a world could be that would be more just in sharing out wealth.
 
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(待续To be continued)

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