2014美国国家规划优秀奖(上)
APA Planning Excellence Awards (I)
2014-08-16 22:53:50    | keywords: 优秀奖  美国  国家  规划 
2014美国国家规划优秀奖(上)
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规划本身就是一个不断发现的过程,设定不同的目标,采用各种工具、理念,集结各方人士……本期专题全景报道美国规划协会2014年获奖项目,传递最新的业界资讯。

Planning is a process of discovery with different goals, tools, ideas that unite community residents, professionals, practitionals and government officials. The topic in this issue is reporting American Planning Association’s 2014 awarded projects to update you the latest information in this industry. 



丹尼拉·柏翰综合规划奖Daniel Burnham Award for a Comprehensive Plan

辛辛那提城市规划:未来综合规划Plan Cincinnati: A Comprehensive Plan for the Future 

地点:俄亥俄州,辛辛那提丨Location: Cincinnati, Ohio
 
辛辛那提城市规划是30多年以来辛辛那提市的首个综合性城市规划项目。项目于2009年(即辛辛提那城市规划署成立后1年)启动,历时3年。规划方案拒绝效仿其他城市的规划模式,将辛辛那提特有的地方风情融入其中。规划重点在于振兴辛辛那提的各个城市购物中心及其相关联的交通要道,同时改善市民的身体健康状况及生活质量。摆脱传统综合规划的陈旧模式,辛辛那提规划以“竞争、联系、居住、持续与合作”五大创新规划理念为核心展开一系列城市规划设计。这无疑是一个极具概念性的超前构思,而绝非中规中矩地按部就班。该项目强调城市区域的综合使用率,并明确指出需强化或新建相应的密集型步行商业发展区域。
该规划方案的过程本身就是一个“不断发现的过程”,而过程本身就是规划的最佳指导方向。该市市长直接委派由社区组织、企业、非营利组织及相关机构的代表人员组成的指导委员会坐阵监督该项目。社区峰会、公共言论开放机构,以及特殊青少年外延组织也同时协助确保辛辛那提规划可代表辛辛那提民众意愿,并促成不同年龄、不同背景和地域的利益方参与到该项目的讨论中。
 
Plan Cincinnati is the first plan for the city of Cincinnati in more than 30 years. The three year process began in 2009; one year after the city's planning department was re-established. Instead of trying to make Cincinnati like other cities, Plan Cincinnati focuses on what makes Cincinnati unique — its urbanity. The plan focuses on revitalizing Cincinnati's neighborhood centers and corridors while improving citizen's physical health and quality of life. In a shift from traditional comprehensive plans, Plan Cincinnati is organized around five initiatives — compete, connect, live, sustain, and collaborate. The result is a plan that is more conceptual and is not a strict parcel-by-parcel approach. The plan emphasizes mixed-uses, and defines areas where compact walkable development should be reinforced or established.
Development of the plan was achieved through a "process of discovery," letting the process itself guide the plan's direction. Oversight was provided by a mayor-appointed steering committee that included representatives from community organizations, businesses, nonprofits, and institutions. Neighborhood summits, public open houses, and special youth outreach helped ensure that Plan Cincinnati was a plan that represented the citizens of Cincinnati and successfully involved stakeholders of various ages, backgrounds, and geographies.

 
遗产2030综合规划Legacy 2030 Comprehensive Plan

北卡罗莱纳州,温斯顿—塞勒姆/福赛斯郡丨Location: Winston — Salem / Forsyth County, North Carolina
 
遗产2030综合规划确立一系列发展性策略、政策和具体实施步骤,以协助福赛斯郡温斯顿—塞勒姆改变现状,使其更具可持续性,拥有更为完善的城市化设计以及更为合理的财政状况。福赛斯郡可预测的人口增长率,加之不断发展的态势,可能将导致该郡未来20年的可发展用地危机。遗产2030综合规划正是以解决上述问题为基础的城市规划项目,并在此基础上,进一步解决该郡的民众身体健康问题,重点就如何激励私人投资,并注入战略性公众投资促成高密度综合型城市功能区块的高回报率。
该项目采取多管齐下的方式让民众参与规划过程,其目的在于诚邀民众投入相应精力为项目献计献策。相应的推广形式包括开通互动网站、系列影片式宣传、公众集会以及音乐视频。随着推广工作的有效进行,规划部门接触到了史无前例的海量普通民众,倾听他们的见解,而社区也明显感觉到城市规划与公共卫生、当地饮食,民众权益及生活质量等民生问题之间更为紧密的联系。
 
Legacy 2030 Comprehensive Plan identifies a list of strategies, policies, and actions to help Winston-Salem/Forsyth County become more sustainable, better designed, and more fiscally responsible. Forsyth County's predicted population growth, combined with its sprawling development pattern could result in the county running out of developable land within the next 20 years. Legacy 2030 Comprehensive Plan addresses these concerns and connects health and equity to the physical form of the county, focuses on ways to catalyze private investment, and makes the case that higher density and mixed-use urban areas yield a higher return on strategic public investments.
The plan's multi-pronged approach to engage citizens in the planning process was designed to invite resident input and offer a variety of ways in which to do so. Outreach efforts included an interactive website, a film series, public meetings, and a music video. As a result of the outreach efforts, the planning department came into contact with more citizens than ever before and the community sees a greater connection between planning and issues like public health, local foods, equity, and quality of life.

 
住房和城市发展部部长之机遇与自主激励奖The HUD Secretary's Opportunity and Empowerment Award
 
山景村Mountain View Village
 
地点:阿拉斯加州,安克拉治丨Location: Anchorage, Alaska
 
山景村是安克拉治的最早的人口聚集地之一,人口居阿拉斯加之首,然而财政状况却最为糟糕,亟待振兴地区经济。因此,库克湾房屋委员会(CIHA)选定山景村作为其整改对象,以改善破败陈旧的居住环境为此次整改的主要目的。CIHA采取分散性区块开发策略,避免住房改善的区域集中性、局限性与单一性。CIHA与山景村地方委员会(MVCC)两个组织通力合作来整合双方重建意向,并在规划过程中鼓励民众积极参加、献计献策。他们的目标包括:减少无主地数量;增加房屋拥有者数量;对陈旧、破败或空置建筑进行拆除处理。 CIHA已投资8 400万美元作为山景村土地购买、重建或房屋的实时销售及租赁发展、私房屋主低利率融资等方面的资金投入。
迄今为止,该项目的启动已拆除130处破败危房建筑,新建277处保障性住房,并为急需住房者新建了51处单户住宅,其中50处已售罄。CIHA至今已对山景村10%的单元式住宅完成了重建。早期结果显示,过去8年的努力已经初显成效——家庭收入呈上升趋势;当地家长对于孩子的学习更为关注,学生的成绩也不断攀升;而越来越多的人都选择长期在山景村安居乐业。
 
Mountain View Village, one of Anchorage's first neighborhoods with the highest Alaska native population, had one of the lowest incomes and highest need for revitalization. The Cook Inlet Housing Authority (CIHA) selected Mountain View Village for its revitalization initiative, targeting blighted and deteriorated housing. CIHA undertook a scattered site development approach so housing improvements were not concentrated on a single block or area of the neighborhood. CIHA collaborated with the Mountain View Council (MVCC) to align the two organization's redevelopment preferences and offer citizens an active role in the planning process. Their goals included: decreased absentee landlordism, increased homeownership, and demolition of blighted, deteriorated, or vacant structures. CIHA has invested $84 million in Mountain View in land acquisition, redevelopment or development of rentals and homes for immediate sale, and low interest financing for homeowners.
Efforts so far have seen the demolition of 130 blighted structures, building 277 affordable homes, 51 new single family homes built for immediate home owners (of which, 50 have been sold). To date, CIHA has redeveloped 10 percent of all residential units in Mountain View Village. Early results show the effort of the last eight years is paying off — household incomes are on the rise; local schools are seeing increased parent participation and better student scores; and more people are choosing to live in Mountain View Village and are staying in their residences longer.

 
美国国家优秀规划奖——最佳实践奖National Planning Excellence Award for a Best Practice
 
城市林业法规修订项目Urban Forestry Code Revisions Project
 
地点:俄勒冈州,泰格尔市丨Location: Tigard, Oregon
 
经多年努力成就的泰格尔城市林业法规修订项目是对开发性与非开发性林区进行整改的综合性修订项目。修订后的新规要求全新林业开发项目和再开发项目,在项目地块之上必须确保一定比例的绿化覆盖率。传统的林业法规往往侧重于以各片区内树木种植量作为绿化衡量尺度,却忽略了树木的成活率。
而全新法规以灵活机制与激励机制为基础,以便在不过度阻碍城市发展的前提下,确保2047年达到全市40%的树木绿化覆盖率,并保留与保护本土树种在居民社区的有效种植。土地开发商们为确保树木绿化的覆盖率采取了四种措施:养护、种植、移植或酌情处理。树林保护激励机制的出台有效保护了现有林地,同时也符合城市绿化发展的目标需求。全新林业法规的形成是各个利益对立方走向通力合作的积极过程。项目方案内容还包括通过举办公共开放活动鼓励广大市民共同参与城市绿化建设。
 
Tigard's Urban Forestry Code Revisions Project was a multi-year effort resulting in a comprehensive rewrite of regulations relating to trees in both development and non-development situations. The resulting code is a novel approach that requires new development and redevelopment projects to provide a percentage of canopy coverage on its lots. Typical forestry codes often focus on the number of trees or caliper inches per lot area, but do not take into consideration the growth and maturation of trees.
The new code is flexible and incentive-based to help the city achieve its goal of 40 percent citywide tree canopy by 2047 and preserve the community's remaining grove of native trees, without unduly impeding development. Developers have four options that can be combined to meet the effective tree canopy requirements: preservation, planting, fee-in-lieu, or discretionary review. The Tree Grove Preservation Incentives make it possible to preserve existing tree groves while meeting development objectives. The code was developed through a collaborative process that brought together typically feuding parties. The plan also included extensive public involvement through open houses and committees.

 
美国国家优秀规划奖——基层倡议奖National Planning Excellence Award for a Grassroots Initiative
 
枯竭河道公共空间网络远景规划Ridges to River Open Space Network Vision Plan
 
地点:华盛顿,中哥伦比亚盆地丨Location: Mid-Columbia Basin, Washington
 
过速且不协调的城市发展致使中哥伦比亚盆地区域的公共开放空间遭到严重破坏。该地区民众经过6年努力,自发地以实际行动保护公共空间、人行步道及珍稀生态栖息地。市民们不仅意识到需要一个规范化的区域性公共空间管理规划,还通过志愿工作与相应津贴的筹集等行为对此项规划提供资金支持。该项目筹划指导委员会由来自7大主要司法管辖区、10个非盈利性组织,以及城市大都市区规划组织的代表们组成。就本质而言,枯竭河道公共空间网络远景规划是一个区域专属规划方案,其作用也仅限于促进区域内公共空间及人行步道的充分连通与发展,进而带动整个区域经济向着健康、合理的方向发展,以提高整个区域居民的生活质量。
该规划促成两郡四城使用同种语言、地图和相同科技技法来实现整个区域的共同发展。规划方案同时还鼓励民众就保护和提升公共空间的利用率提出相关建议。至今为止,26个关于公共空间及步道的建议中,有10个已经在不同程度的实施过程中;而24个普遍建议中的9个或已实施完成,或正在实施过程中。大量的公众参与产生了良好的反响,各项综合规划方案都在修订之中,山地建设标准也正在酝酿撰写,而各个正在进行中的项目工程也为这些文字的修订与撰写提供了重要的实地数据。
 
Rapid and uncoordinated development was destroying the Mid-Columbia Basin region's open spaces. Embarking on a six-year effort, citizens of the region took action to protect the open spaces, trails and valuable habitats. The citizens not only recognized the need for a regional plan, but also worked to fund the effort through volunteer work and grants. The steering committee included representatives from seven major jurisdictions, 10 nonprofits, and the metropolitan planning organization. The result, Ridges to Rivers Open Space Network Vision Plan, is a plan that is the only region-wide document that promotes open space and trail connectivity as a regional economic driver with health benefits and improved quality of life for residents.
The plan makes it possible for two counties and four cities to speak the same language, share the same maps, and use the same technology to approach planning for the region. It includes recommendations for preserving and enhancing open space in the region. To date, 10 of the 26 open space and trail recommendations are in varying levels of implementation; and nine of the 24 general recommendations have been or are in the process of being implemented. As a result of the citizen work, comprehensive plans are being amended, hillside standards are being written and on-the-ground efforts are providing critical trial linkages.

 
美国国家优秀规划奖——执行奖National Planning Excellence Award for Implementation
 
底特律沿河区域治理规划Detroit RiverFront Conservancy 
 
地点:密歇根州,底特律丨Location: Detroit, Michigan
 
底特律沿河区域治理规划是一个非盈利性规划项目,启动于2003年,以公私合作形式共同促进城市经济的发展,进而对沿河区域进行有效开发与治理,自该项目启动后,绵延5.5英里的沿河公共区域得到了有效拓宽,沿岸的危旧建筑及杂草蔓生的空地也得到了良好的修缮,沿河区域整体面貌焕然一新,年均吸引游客近300万人。
约3.5英里的东部滨河区建设项目已告竣工,而长达2英里的西部滨河区建设正在启动。该规划项目为游客提供一周7天集健康、教育、娱乐于一体的滨河系列活动,其中最为盛大的当属一年一度的夏季滨河狂欢节,每年可吸引游客达15 000人。该项目的公众投资及私人投资共计已达10亿美元,而因该项目而产生的年税收约450万美元。市民甚至要求在原来5.5英里的滨河漫步道规划基础上继续延长。
 
The nonprofit Detroit RiverFront Conservancy was created in 2003 through a public-private partnership to encourage economic development within the city and to enable public access to the riverfront. Through its work, the Conservancy is transforming five and half miles of the Detroit riverfront from an area with limited public access, marked with crumbling buildings and overgrown lots into a revitalized riverfront that draws nearly three million visitors a year.
Nearly three and a half miles of the east riverfront project are complete and construction is starting on the two-mile west riverfront. The Conservancy offers seven-day-a-week programming to promote health, education, and recreation along the riverfront, including the annual River Days festival that draws 15,000 people each summer. The Conservancy has achieved $1 billion in total public and private sector investment and generates an estimated $4.5 million in annual tax revenue. The public has even requested that the RiverWalk be extended beyond its original five and half mile plan.

 
美国国家优秀规划奖——沟通倡议奖National Planning Excellence Award for a Communications Initiative
 
ACCESS杂志,加州大学交通中心ACCESS Magazine, University of California Transportation Center
 
地点:加利福尼亚州,洛杉矶丨Location: Los Angeles, California
 
ACCESS 杂志一贯致力于对加州大学交通中心的研究成果进行详尽报道,并以易读版式向广大读者展示,以便相关政策制定者及市政规划者们捕捉有价值的信息。ACCESS杂志由加州大学伯克利分校规划学教授梅尔·韦伯于1993年创刊,其目的是为了消除交通学术研究与相关政策之间存在的隔阂。
凡在专业期刊上发表过学术研究性论文的作者们都可在ACCESS杂志中刊登该论文的节略版。杂志编辑与这些作者取得良好合作,将深奥的学术和技术术语转化为易于大众理解的通俗学术随笔。杂志一年仅出版两期,来自世界各地的订阅量达8500余份,其网站浏览人数每月达1000余人。ACCESS杂志中的部分文章还被中文期刊《中国城市交通》翻译刊载。经过20余年的发展,ACCESS一直都是并将继续成为交通学术研究与相关政策之间坚实的沟通桥梁。
 
ACCESS Magazine reports on research at the University of California Transportation Center and presents it in a readable format so it useful for policy makers and planning practitioners. ACCESS was started in 1993 by University of California Berkeley planning professor Mel Webber to bridge the gap between transportation research and policy.
Authors of academic research published in a professional journal may write an abridged version for publication in ACCESS. The magazine's editors work with authors to translate academic, technical jargon into understandable, reader-friendly prose. The biannual publication has more than 8,500 subscribers from around the world and attracts more than 1,000 website visitors each month. Several ACCESS articles also have been translated and published in the Chinese journal, Urban Transport of China. After more than 20 years, ACCESS continues to help eliminate the gap between transportation research and policy makers.

 
美国国家优秀规划奖——交通规划奖National Planning Excellence Award for Transportation Planning
 
夏威夷交通局州级步行系统总体规划Hawaii Department of Transportation's Statewide Pedestrian Master Plan
 
地点:夏威夷Location: Hawaii
 
夏威夷州级步行系统总体规划是美国首个覆盖全州的行人专用系统规划,优先考虑行人安全、流动性和通达度。该规划将重点放在四个关键交通要素上,即提高安全性、提升流动性和通达度、增强连通性、鼓励优先建设步行基础设施。为了降低夏威夷州高发的行人事故死亡率,该规划通过工程、教育、实践和评估等多种方法来提高行人安全性。夏威夷行人工具箱是该规划的重要组成部分,其中包括有关步行设施的规划、设计、操作和维护的指南和最佳实践。
该规划设计过程透明、全面,得到了公众的广泛参与。夏威夷还成立了公民咨询委员会,协调各利益方在治安、卫生、交通、车辆及非机动车倡议等方面的利益。该规划还选定了31 个优先的项目地点,采取绩效考核措施,评估规划进展情况,进行责任制管理。夏威夷交通局的总体任务是为公众提供安全高效的多式联运交通系统,而夏威夷州级步行系统总体规划正是其必不可少的一项举措。
 
Hawaii's Statewide Pedestrian Master Plan prioritizes pedestrian safety, mobility, and accessibility, and is the first in the nation to have a statewide, pedestrian-only focus. The plan focuses on four critical transportation elements: improving safety; enhancing mobility and accessibility; improving connectivity; and encouraging priority pedestrian infrastructure. To combat the state's high number of pedestrian fatalities, the plan identifies ways to improve pedestrian safety through engineering, education, enforcement, and evaluation. The Hawaii Pedestrian Toolbox is a key component of the plan and includes guidelines and best practices for the planning, design, operation, and maintenance of pedestrian facilities.
The plan was created through a transparent and inclusive process that included extensive public participation. A Citizen Advisory Committee was created to provide a balanced representation of stakeholder interests including police, health, transit, vehicle, and non-motor advocates. The plan also identified 31 prioritized project locations and has included performance measures to gauge the plan's progress and provide accountability. The Hawaii Statewide Pedestrian Master Plan is one component of Hawaii DOT's overall mission of providing safe and efficient multi-modal transportation system.

 
美国国家优秀规划奖——环境规划奖National Planning Excellence Award for Environmental Planning
 
布劳沃德县气候变化原理Broward County Climate Change Element
 
地点:佛罗里达州,布劳沃德县Location: Broward County, Florida
 
布劳沃德县气候变化原理是一项县级战略性方案,旨在提高能源使用效率、降低温室气体排放、保护居民、企业和基础设施免受气候变化影响。该方案于2013年2月通过批准,成为一个由82项环境政策组成的综合项目,重点强调依靠当地力量应对气候变化这一全球性问题。该单元在《布劳沃德气候变化行动计划》等现有规划项目基础上,寻求多方合作,共同实施计划,提高当地社会对气候变化的适应能力。布劳沃德地方政府率先根据该佛罗里达州法律所规定的“气候变化适应行动区”要求,对其整体规划进行修订,成为该州创举。
该方案明确了易受气候变化影响的区域,为建筑环境、自然系统及绿色基础设施制定适应策略,在地方、地区及联邦上建立政府间协调机制以应对气候变化,并支持创建地区气候变化行动计划。此外,该方案还考虑到了如何让当地社会更好地适应和减缓气候变化带来的经济、环境和社会影响。
 
The Broward County Climate Change Element (Element) is a county-wide strategy to protect residents, businesses, and infrastructure from climate change impacts and promote energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reductions. The Element was adopted in February 2013 and is a coordinated initiative consisting of 82 environmental policies that focus on local actions for addressing a subject with global implications. The Element looks to partners and collaborators to participate in the plan's implementation to improve community resilience and builds upon existing planning initiatives such as the Broward Climate Change Action Plan. Broward is the first local government in Florida to amend its comprehensive plan to provide for the Adaptation Action Areas designation as required by Florida state law.
The Element identifies climate-vulnerable areas; develops adaptation strategies for the built environment, natural systems, and green infrastructure; establishes intergovernmental coordination mechanisms to address climate change on a local, regional, and federal level; and supports creation of a regional climate change action plan. The Element took into consideration how the community will best adapt to and mitigate for the economic, environmental, and social effects of climate change. 

(待续To be continued)
 
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